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Vol 257

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Vol 256
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-04-29
  • Date accepted
    2022-07-21
  • Date published
    2022-11-10

Deep structure, tectonics and geodynamics of the Sea of Okhotsk region and structures of its folded frame

Article preview

The use of the zonal-block model of the earth's crust for the construction of regional tectonic schemes and sections of the earth's crust based on a complex of geological and geophysical data makes it possible to consider the resulting maps and sections as tectonic models. The main elements of such models are blocks with an ancient continental base and interblock zones formed by complexes of island arcs, an accretionary prism, or oceanic crust. The developed geotectonic model of the Sea of Okhotsk region reflects the features of the deep structure, tectonics, and geodynamics. The Cimmerian Novosibirsk-Chukotka, Verkhoyansk-Kolyma, Kolyma-Omolon, and Amur folded regions and the Alpides of the Koryak-Kamchatka and Sakhalin-Sikhote-Alin folded regions are developed along the northern, western, and southern boundaries of the Sea of Okhotsk megablock with a continental crust type. From the east, the megablock is limited by oceanic basins and island arcs.

How to cite: Egorov A.S., Bolshakova N.V., Kalinin D.F., Ageev A.S. Deep structure, tectonics and geodynamics of the Sea of Okhotsk region and structures of its folded frame // Journal of Mining Institute. 2022. Vol. 257. p. 703-719. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.63
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-02-22
  • Date accepted
    2022-09-15
  • Date published
    2022-11-10

The problem of the genesis of the Mesoarchean aluminosilicate rocks from the Karelian craton and their possible use as a quartz-feldspar raw material

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The article presents original data obtained in the study of the chemical and mineral compositions of the Late Archean aluminosilicate rocks (formerly called silicites) from the Koikari and Elmus structures of the Vedlozero-Segozero greenstone belt of the Karelian craton (Central Karelia). A comprehensive study of these formations revealed their complex genesis as a result of the late imposition of hydrothermal and metamorphic alteration on sedimentary and volcanic-sedimentary rocks of feldspar-quartz composition. Due to the superimposed metasomatic (temperature?) impact on feldspar-quartz siltstones, Fe was removed from microinclusions in quartz and feldspar and its oxides were concentrated along the grain boundaries. Minerals such as monazite, parisite, allanite are also located either along the grain boundaries of quartz and feldspars, or together with calcite they fill microfractures, which makes it possible to get rid of them when preparing quartz-feldspar concentrates using various beneficiation technologies. According to most indicators limited by GOSTs, individual samples in their natural form meet the requirements for quartz-feldspar raw materials for use as part of batch in the production of diverse types of glass. Additional beneficiation of the feedstock (grinding, screening into narrow classes and further magnetic separation) leads to a decrease in Fe 2 O 3 content to normalized values. The resulting quartz-feldspar concentrates with various particle sizes can be used in the production of building material and fine ceramics (sanitary and ceramic products, facing and finishing tiles, artistic, household porcelain and faience). The homogeneity of the mineral and chemical composition, the possibility of compact extraction and beneficiation (including in mobile small-sized installations) increase the prospects and competitiveness of this non-traditional feldspar raw material from Central Karelia.

How to cite: Kondrashova N.I., Bubnova T.P., Medvedev P.V. The problem of the genesis of the Mesoarchean aluminosilicate rocks from the Karelian craton and their possible use as a quartz-feldspar raw material // Journal of Mining Institute. 2022. Vol. 257. p. 720-731. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.65
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-12-21
  • Date accepted
    2022-06-20
  • Date published
    2022-11-10

Scientific justification of the perforation methods for Famennian deposits in the southeast of the Perm Region based on geomechanical modelling

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The article presents the results of analysing geological structure of the Famennian deposits (Devonian) in the Perm Region. Numerical modelling of the distribution of inhomogeneous stress field near the well was performed for the two considered types of perforation. With regard for the geometry of the forming perforation channels, numerical finite element models of near-wellbore zones were created considering slotted and cumulative perforation. It is ascertained that in the course of slotted perforation, conditions are created for a significant restoration of effective stresses and, as a result, restoration of reservoir rock permeability. Stress recovery area lies near the well within a radius equal to the length of the slots, and depends on the drawdown, with its increase, the area decreases. From the assessment of failure areas, it was found that in case of slotted perforation, the reservoir in near-wellbore zone remains stable, and failure zones can appear only at drawdowns of 10 MPa and more. The opposite situation was recorded for cumulative perforation; failure zones near the holes appear even at a drawdown of 2 MPa. In general, the analysis of results of numerical simulation of the stress state for two simulated types of perforation suggests that slotted perforation is more efficient than cumulative perforation. At the same time, the final conclusion could be drawn after determining the patterns of changes in permeability of the considered rocks under the influence of changing effective stresses and performing calculations of well flow rates after making the considered types of perforation channels.

How to cite: Chernyshov S.E., Popov S.N., Varushkin S.V., Melekhin A.A., Krivoshchekov S.N., Ren S. Scientific justification of the perforation methods for Famennian deposits in the southeast of the Perm Region based on geomechanical modelling // Journal of Mining Institute. 2022. Vol. 257. p. 732-743. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.51
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-05-18
  • Date accepted
    2022-07-21
  • Date published
    2022-11-10

Improving the method for assessment of bending stresses in the wall of an underground pipeline

Article preview

Brief information about modern methods for determining the bending stresses of the extended sections of underground main pipelines without access to the pipeline generatrix is given. The necessity of modernizing methods based on determining the configuration of the pipeline axis from the soil surface with subsequent calculation of bending stresses based on the obtained data is substantiated. A mathematical model that allows to calculate the optimal parameters for surveying the axis of the pipeline from the soil surface for a pipeline of arbitrary configuration and depth, when planning a study, is proposed. Bench tests of the BITA-1 pipeline finder were carried out to determine the error in measuring the depth of the pipeline axis. It is proved that the deviations of the pipeline finder data relative to the true values in narrow depth intervals follow a normal distribution and do not change their sign. The confidence intervals of the error in determining the depth of the pipeline axis for the BITA-1 device are presented.

How to cite: Aginey R.V., Firstov A.A. Improving the method for assessment of bending stresses in the wall of an underground pipeline // Journal of Mining Institute. 2022. Vol. 257. p. 744-754. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.64
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-05-27
  • Date accepted
    2022-09-06
  • Date published
    2022-11-10

Application of resonance functions in estimating the parameters of interwell zones

Article preview

It is shown that the use of force resonance leads to the effect of “shaking” the formation, followed by breaking up the film oil and involving it in the further filtration process. For the first time in oilfield geophysics, the concept of passive noise-metering method is justified for monitoring oil and gas deposit development by measuring the quality factor of the contours in the point areas of formation development channels in interwell zones. It is established that determining the depth of modulation for the reactive substitution parameter of the linear FDC chain is crucial not only for determining the parametric excitation in FDC attenuation systems, but also without attenuation in the metrological support for the analysis of petrophysical properties of rock samples from the wells. It is shown that based on the method of complex amplitudes (for formation pressure current, differential flow rates, impedance), different families of resonance curves can be plotted: displacement amplitudes (for differential flow rates on the piezocapacity of the studied formation section), velocities (amplitudes of formation pressure current) and accelerations (amplitudes of differential flow rates on the linear piezoinductivity of the FDC section). The use of predicted permeability and porosity properties of the reservoir with its continuous regulation leads to increased accuracy of isolation in each subsequent sub-cycle of new segment formation in the FDC trajectories, which contributes to a more complete development of productive hydrocarbon deposits and increases the reliability of prediction for development indicators.

How to cite: Batalov S.А., Andreev V.Е., Mukhametshin V.V., Lobankov V.М., Kuleshova L.S. Application of resonance functions in estimating the parameters of interwell zones // Journal of Mining Institute. 2022. Vol. 257. p. 755-763. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.85
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-12-19
  • Date accepted
    2022-07-21
  • Date published
    2022-11-10

Increasing the content of coarse fractions in the mined coal mass by a combine using paired cuts

Article preview

The main volume of coal is mined underground using shearers. In modern shearers, auger actuators are mainly used, which are distinguished by the simplicity of design, manufacturability and reliability. However, in the process of separating coal from mass by cutting, the yield of fine grades is 40-50 % of the total production volume. Therefore, the search and development of technical solutions that provide an increase in the yield of large fractions in the process of coal mining with auger shearers is an urgent task. Traditionally, this problem is solved by increasing the thickness of the slices, which is achieved by installing cutters with a larger radial reach and increasing the shearer feed rate. An unconventional way to increase the cross section of slices by forming energy-efficient paired and group slices with mutual superposition of stress fields in the mass from the action of neighboring cutters is considered. The results of modeling the process of cutting coal confirm that an increase in the efficiency of destruction of the rock mass by the cutters of the auger executive bodies of the shearer can be achieved by a complex technical solution, including the formation of paired cuts and combined stress zones in the rock mass. As a result, the output of large fragments when cutting with paired cutters increases by 1.3-1.8 times compared with cutting with a single cutter.

How to cite: Gabov V.V., Xuan N.V., Zadkov D.A., Tho T.D. Increasing the content of coarse fractions in the mined coal mass by a combine using paired cuts // Journal of Mining Institute. 2022. Vol. 257. p. 764-770. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.66
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-03-17
  • Date accepted
    2022-10-04
  • Date published
    2022-11-10

Improving the reliability of 3D modelling of a landslide slope based on engineering geophysics data

Article preview

Landslides are among the most dangerous geological processes, posing a threat to all engineering structures. In order to assess the stability of slopes, complex engineering surveys are used, the results of which are necessary to perform computations of the stability of soil masses and assess the risks of landslide development. The results of integ-rated geological and geophysical studies of a typical landslide slope in the North-Western Caucasus spurs, composed of clayey soils, are presented. The purpose of the work is to increase the reliability of assessing the stability of a landslide mass by constructing a 3D model of the slope, including its main structural elements, identified using modern methods of engineering geophysics. Accounting for geophysical data in the formation of the computed 3D model of the slope made it possible to identify important structural elements of the landslide, which significantly affected the correct computation of its stability.

How to cite: Glazunov V.V., Burlutsky S.B., Shuvalova R.A., Zhdanov S.V. Improving the reliability of 3D modelling of a landslide slope based on engineering geophysics data // Journal of Mining Institute. 2022. Vol. 257. p. 771-782. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.86
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-01-31
  • Date accepted
    2022-09-06
  • Date published
    2022-11-10

Filtration studies on cores and sand packed tubes from the Urengoy field for determining the efficiency of simultaneous water and gas injection on formation when extracting condensate from low-pressure reservoirs and oil from oil rims

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Oil rims as well as gas condensate reservoirs of Russia's largest Urengoy field are developed by depletion drive without formation pressure maintenance, which has led to serious complications in production of oil, gas and condensate. In addition, field development by depletion drive results in low values of oil and condensate recovery. These problems are also relevant for other oil and gas condensate fields. One of the possible solutions is simultaneous water and gas injection. Rational values of gas content in the mixture for affecting gas condensate fields and oil rims of oil and gas condensate fields should be selected using the data of filtration studies on core models. The article presents the results of filtration experiments on displacement of condensate and oil by water, gas and water-gas mixtures when simulating the conditions of the Urengoy field. Simultaneous water and gas injection showed good results in the experiments on displacement of condensate, residual gas and oil. It has been ascertained that water-gas mixtures with low gas content (10-20 %) have a better oil-displacement ability (9.5-13.5 % higher) than water. An experiment using a composite linear reservoir model from cemented core material, as regards the main characteristics of oil displacement, gave the same results as filtration experiments with sand packed tubes and demonstrated a high efficiency of simultaneous water and gas injection as a method of increasing oil recovery at oil and gas condensate fields.

How to cite: Drozdov N.A. Filtration studies on cores and sand packed tubes from the Urengoy field for determining the efficiency of simultaneous water and gas injection on formation when extracting condensate from low-pressure reservoirs and oil from oil rims // Journal of Mining Institute. 2022. Vol. 257. p. 783-794. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.71
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-04-05
  • Date accepted
    2022-07-21
  • Date published
    2022-11-10

Development of resource-saving technology for excavation of flat-lying coal seams with tight roof rocks (on the example of the Quang Ninh coal basin mines)

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It is shown that the creation of the variants of resource-saving systems for the development of long-column mining is one of the main directions for improving the technological schemes for mining operations in the mines of the Kuang Nin coal basin. They provide a reduction in coal losses in the inter-column pillars and the cost of maintaining preliminary workings fixed with anchorage. The implementation of these directions is difficult (and in some cases practically impossible) when tight rocks are lying over the coal seam, prone to significant hovering in the developed space. In the Quang Ninh basin, 9-10 % of the workings are anchored, the operational losses of coal reach 30 % or more; up to 50 % of the workings are re-anchored annually. It is concluded that the real conditions for reducing coal losses and the effective use of anchor support as the main support of reusable preliminary workings are created when implementing the idea put forward at the St. Petersburg Mining University: leaving the coal pillar of increased width between the reused mine working and the developed space and its subsequent development on the same line with the stoping face simultaneously with the reclamation of the reused mine working.

How to cite: Zubov V.P., Phuc L.Q. Development of resource-saving technology for excavation of flat-lying coal seams with tight roof rocks (on the example of the Quang Ninh coal basin mines) // Journal of Mining Institute. 2022. Vol. 257. p. 795-806. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.72
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-11-17
  • Date accepted
    2022-04-06
  • Date published
    2022-11-10

Method for predicting the stress state of the lining of underground structures of quasi-rectangular and arched forms

Article preview

A method for predicting the stress-strain state of the lining of underground structures, the shape of the cross-section of which is different from the circular outline, is considered. The main task of the study is to develop a methodology for assessing the influence of the parameters of the cross-section shape of underground structures on the stress state of the lining. To solve this problem, a method for calculating the stress state of the lining for arched tunnels with a reverse arch and quasi-rectangular forms is substantiated and developed. The methodology was tested, which showed that the accuracy of the prediction of the stress state of the lining is sufficient to perform practical calculations. An algorithm for multivariate analysis of the influence of the cross-sectional shape of underground structures of arched and quasi-rectangular shapes on the stress state of the lining is proposed. Parametric calculations were performed using the developed algorithm and regularities of the formation of the stress state of the lining of underground structures for various engineering and geological conditions, as well as the initial stress state field, were obtained. A quantitative assessment of the influence of geometric parameters of tunnels on their stress-strain state was performed.

How to cite: Karasev M.A., Nguyen T.T. Method for predicting the stress state of the lining of underground structures of quasi-rectangular and arched forms // Journal of Mining Institute. 2022. Vol. 257. p. 807-821. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.17
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-07-05
  • Date accepted
    2022-07-21
  • Date published
    2022-11-10

Fragmentation analysis using digital image processing and empirical model (KuzRam): a comparative study

Article preview

The rock fragmentation reflects the degree of control of blasting. Despite the accuracy of screening analysis to determine the size distribution of blasted rocks, this technique remains complex and long because of the large volume of blasted rocks. The digital image processing method can overcome these constraints of accuracy and speed. Our method uses the empirical model of KuzRam and numerical method (Digital image processing) through two image processing software’s (WipFrag and Split-Desktop) to analyze the particle size distribution of rocks fragmented by explosives in Jebel Medjounes limestone quarry. The digital image processing is based on the photography of the pile of blasted rock analyzed using image processing techniques. The objective of this work is to evaluate and compare the results obtained for each blast from the two methods and to discuss the similarities and differences among them. Three different blasts with the same design were analyzed through the two methods. The result of the KuzRam model gave idealistic results due to the heterogeneity of the structure of the rocks; although, this model can be used for an initial evaluation of blast design. For better efficiency of the explosion, we proposed a new fragmentation indicator factor in order to compare the fragment produced to the estimated ideal size obtained from the KuzRam model by incorporating the blast design parameters and the rock factor. Both image processing gives close results with more accuracy for the Split-Desktop software. Our method can improve the efficiency and reduce crushing costs of the studied career.

How to cite: Saadoun A., Fredj M., Boukarm R., Hadji R. Fragmentation analysis using digital image processing and empirical model (KuzRam): a comparative study // Journal of Mining Institute. 2022. Vol. 257. p. 822-832. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.84
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-10-15
  • Date accepted
    2022-09-06
  • Date published
    2022-11-10

Experimental research on the thermal method of drilling by melting the well in ice mass with simultaneous controlled expansion of its diameter

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During the seasonal work of the 64th Russian Antarctic Expedition in 2018-2019 at the “Vostok” drilling facility named after B.B.Kudryashov (“Vostok” station, Antarctic) specialists of Saint Petersburg Mining University conducted experimental investigations on the process of drilling by melting with simultaneous expansion of wells in the ice mass. A test bench and a full-scale model of a thermohydraulic reamer-drilling tool were developed, manufactured and tested for the research. The first bench tests of the full-scale model proved its efficiency and suitability for experimental drilling with simultaneous expansion of wells in ice mass; its operational capabilities were determined and the drawbacks that will be taken into account in future were found out. The article substantiates the choice of constructive elements for thermohydraulic reamer-drilling tool. It is determined that the technology of full diameter drilling with simultaneous expansion of the well in ice mass can be implemented by combining contact drilling by melting and convective expansion with creation of forced near-bottomhole annular circulation of the heated heat carrier. Dependencies of expansion rate on main technological parameters were determined: active heat power of heating elements in penetrator and circulation system, mechanical drilling rate, pump flow rate. According to the results of investigations, the experimental model of thermohydraulic reamer-drilling tool will be designed and manufactured for testing in conditions of well 5G.

How to cite: Serbin D.V., Dmitriev A.N. Experimental research on the thermal method of drilling by melting the well in ice mass with simultaneous controlled expansion of its diameter // Journal of Mining Institute. 2022. Vol. 257. p. 833-842. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.82
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-02-12
  • Date accepted
    2022-07-26
  • Date published
    2022-11-10

Manifestation of incompatibility of marine residual fuels: a method for determining compatibility, studying composition of fuels and sediment

Article preview

The results of studying the problem of active sediment formation when mixing residual fuels, caused by manifestation of incompatibility, are presented. A laboratory method has been developed for determining the compatibility and stability of fuels allowing identification of a quantitative characteristic of sediment formation activity. Laboratory studies were performed, and incompatible fuel components were identified. Tests were made to determine the quality indicators of samples and group individual composition of fuels. Results on the content of total and inorganic carbon in the obtained sediments were determined using Shimadzu TOC-V SSM 5000A. Chemical composition was determined and calculated on LECO CHN-628 analyser. Group composition of hydrocarbon fuels contained in the sediment was studied by gas chromato-mass spectrometry on GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Shimadzu. To obtain additional information on the structural group composition of fuel sediment, IR spectrometry was performed on IR-Fourier spectrometer IRAffinity-1. X-ray diffraction analysis of sediment samples was made using X-ray diffractometer XRD-7000 Shimadzu; interplanar distances d 002 and d 100 as well as L с and L а crystallite sizes served as the evaluation criteria. Microstructural analysis of total sediment was performed by scanning electron microscopy. The results of the research confirmed that the content of normal alkanes in the fuel mixture mainly affects sediment formation. Recommendations were drawn on preserving the quality of fuels and reducing sediment formation during storage and transportation.

How to cite: Sultanbekov R.R., Schipachev A.M. Manifestation of incompatibility of marine residual fuels: a method for determining compatibility, studying composition of fuels and sediment // Journal of Mining Institute. 2022. Vol. 257. p. 843-852. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.56
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-03-14
  • Date accepted
    2022-06-20
  • Date published
    2022-11-10

Model of a walking sampler for research of the bottom surface in the subglacial lake Vostok

Article preview

Technologies and technical means for investigation of subglacial lakes in Antarctic is a new developing scientific and technical direction, which today has no clearly established methodology. Based on the developed technology of drilling a new access well to lake Vostok and its penetration as well as analysis of existing methods and devices for bottom sediment sampling, a basic model of a sampler with a walking-type mover, capable of moving along different trajectories and operating in a wide technological range, is proposed. The proposed device model is equipped with different actuators for sampling the bottom surface with different physical and mechanical properties. Based on the presented basic model of the walking sampler, a mathematical model of the device was developed, which was based on the theoretical mechanics methods. As a result of conducted research the dependencies were obtained, which allow making a scientifically justified choice of optimal values for geometric and force parameters of the walking sampler. A conceptual design of the walking sampler has been developed, taking into account the mutual location and coupling of its main components, the overall dimensions of the delivery tool, as well as the esthetic component of the device.

How to cite: Shishkin E.V., Bolshunov A.V., Timofeev I.P., Avdeev A.М., Rakitin I.V. Model of a walking sampler for research of the bottom surface in the subglacial lake Vostok // Journal of Mining Institute. 2022. Vol. 257. p. 853-864. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.53
Economic Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-06-01
  • Date accepted
    2022-09-06
  • Date published
    2022-11-10

Impact of EU carbon border adjustment mechanism on the economic efficiency of Russian oil refining

Article preview

The carbon border adjustment mechanism (CBAM) leads not only to the expected environmental changes, but also to the transformation of market environment. The study estimates the losses of the oil refining sector from the introduction of CBAM for the export of oil products from Russia to the countries of the European Union. An approach to assess the impact of CBAM on the cost of oil products has been formed and the mechanisms of its impact on the economy of Russian oil refineries have been identified. The study was carried out on the basis of actual data on the volume of greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the current rules of the European emissions trading system. Decomposition of assessments of the CBAM impact was carried out into direct and indirect effects, as well as the effect of adaptation. It is shown that with the introduction of the CBAM mechanism, the prices of oil products in the domestic market will be determined not only by the logistical factor, but also by the requirements for environmental friendliness of oil refining. The introduction of CBAM will have a significant impact on the economics of oil refining, including refineries that do not export to the EU. The total impact of CBAM on the economy of Russian oil refineries will be about 250 mln dollars.

How to cite: Ulanov V.L., Skorobogatko O.N. Impact of EU carbon border adjustment mechanism on the economic efficiency of Russian oil refining // Journal of Mining Institute. 2022. Vol. 257. p. 865-876. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.83