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Online first

Online first (OF) is the advance electronic publication of accepted articles that will be posted in upcoming issues. OF articles cannot be changed (including title, authors, etc.) or withdrawn (without regard to violation of publication ethics). Such an online publication differs from a traditional one in that it does not have fixed page numbers and is not tied to a specific journal issue. However, each such publication has a digital DOI identifier or EDN number for correct citation and is indexed by databases in the usual manner. That is, the article can be fully used in the lists of references and indicated in the reporting documents.

After the formation of the printed version of the volume, the missing information is added to the articles, but the URL address of the article and DOI or EDN number are not changed.

Advantages of Online First:

  • Reduces publication time
  • Provides quick access to the latest research results

Online First articles are posted in Russian and English as they are approved by the editor-in-chief and as the editorial process is completed.

When citing an Online First article, you must include the author's name, article title, journal title, year of publication, and DOI or EDN number. Example of the citation format:

Pashkevich Mariya A., Bykova Marina V.  Methodology for Thermal Desorption Treatment of Local Soil Pollution by Oil Products at the Facilities of the Mineral Resource Industry. Journal of Mining Institute. 2022. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.6

Gorlanov E.S., Leontev L.I. Directions in the technological development of aluminium pots // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. EDN PYSEVM

Пашкевич М.А., Быкова М.В. Методология термодесорбционной очистки локальных загрязнений почв от нефтепродуктов на объектах минерально-сырьевого комплекса. Записки Горного института. 2022. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.6

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Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-02-09
  • Date accepted
    2023-09-20
  • Date published
    2023-12-21

Analysis of experience in the use of preformed particle polymer gels in the development of high-water-cut production facilities in low-temperature oil reservoirs

Article preview

Foreign practice of oil production in high-water-cut conditions suggests using the technology of injection of preformed particle gel (PPG) suspension into injection wells. After swelling, the polymer particles become elastic and are able to penetrate through highly permeable watered intervals into the remote reservoir zone, forming a polymer “plug”. Thus far, the domestic experience of application of this technology boiled down to testing foreign compounds. We have looked into the possibilities of PPG technology application in geological and technological conditions of high-water-cut fields of Perm Krai. The paper proposes PPG reagents effective in low-temperature reservoirs (20-35 °С) and at relatively high salinity of formation water (more than 200 g/l). The world experience of PPG technology application was analyzed to identify the principal scheme of reagent injection, to establish variants of sequence of injection of PPG particles of different sizes, as well as the possibility of regulating the morphological characteristics of polymer gel particles during synthesis depending on the porosity and permeability of the reservoir. A prerequisite for the technology is the ability to remove PPG particles after treatment from the bottom-hole zone of the formation; for this purpose, tests were carried out on a breaker compound based on sodium persulfate with synergizing additives. PPG technology is effective in reservoirs with high permeability heterogeneity. Two types of high-water-cut production facilities potentially promising for PPG realization have been identified for oil fields of Perm Krai. The first type includes carbonate Tournaisian-Famennian reservoirs with pronounced macrofracturing, in which the PPGs are used for colmatation of flushed large fractures. The second type is terrigenous Visean deposits with increased oil viscosity from 5 to 100 mPa∙s and high permeability of reservoirs (> 0.5 μm 2 ). For both types of reservoirs, areas have been selected that are promising for the implementation of PPG technology.

How to cite: Galkin S.V., Rozhkova Y.A. Analysis of experience in the use of preformed particle polymer gels in the development of high-water-cut production facilities in low-temperature oil reservoirs // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p. EDN CNCFIW
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-05-19
  • Date accepted
    2023-03-04
  • Date published
    2023-08-29

Impact of carbon dioxide on the main geotechnical quality criteria and preparation cost of cemented paste backfill

Article preview

There is a global upsurge in the use of cemented paste backfill (CPB) for various mining functions. However, the cost of the Portland cement binder is prohibitive, thus warranting strategies to reduce cement usage without overly diminishing the CPB quality. Since carbon dioxide is used for patented sand moulding processes, this study is premised on that physicochemical ability of CO2 to enhance the curing of consolidated inorganic materials. It evaluated the impact of carbon dioxide on the uniaxial compressive strength UCS and preparation cost of CPB standard samples (ASTM C109). The preparation cost was delimited to the purchase cost of the Portland cement. The backfill material was silica sand tailings with 4.5 wt.% Portland cement binder and a water-cement ratio of 7.6. Distilled water of pH 5.4 was used for the control samples while variable amounts of carbon dioxide were dissolved in distilled water to generate carbonated mixing water with pH values of 3.8; 4 and 4.2. The lower the carbonated water pH, the higher is the CO2 concentration. UCS tests were conducted on the samples after curing for 3, 7, 28, and 90 days. There was an observable increase in the UCSs and reduction in curing time with increasing carbon dioxide. Samples prepared with carbonated water of pH 3.8 had almost double the strength of those prepared with pure distilled water of pH 5.4, implying that more dissolved CO2 corresponds to higher CPB strength. This is supported by the trendline equations for the graphical simulation of strength on curing time. Thus, CPB with much less binder can be expected to attain the requisite UCS if carbon dioxide is incorporated. The average reduction in Portland cement consumption was 0.61 %, which translates to a cost saving of the same percentage points. If calculated over the operational life of a mine, this is a massive saving of millions of dollars.

How to cite: Bukasa P.M., Mashingaidze M.M., Simasiku S.L. Impact of carbon dioxide on the main geotechnical quality criteria and preparation cost of cemented paste backfill // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p. EDN ZBZTKN
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-05-17
  • Date accepted
    2023-03-04
  • Date published
    2023-09-01

Improvement of concentrate quality in flotation of low-rank coal

Article preview

Percentage of high-rank coal with low content of ash, moisture, and sulfur in total coal production output is low. Most of the produced coal has a low quality (lignite, bituminous coal: long-flame and fiery). Under increasing requirements for ecological cleanness of coal, the efficient use of coal products is only possible after improvement of their processing properties. The authors discuss the enhancement of flotation efficiency of low-rank coal using the mechanism of physisorption of a collecting agent in particle – bubble attachment. It is explained why the yield of concentrate with low ash content increases as a result of combination of collectors having different physical properties. It is shown that the surface activity of a heteropolar agent relative to the gas – liquid interface and the adsorption density of the agent govern its collecting properties. Based on the recovery – surface activity relationship, the correlation is found between the collecting activity of a chemical compound and the structure of its molecules. The combination of the collectors with different surface activity enables adjusting collectability and selectivity of the blend. The physisorption mechanism of collectors can be a framework for developing recommendations on modification of concentrate yield and ash content, and on selection of optimized ratios of surface activities of miscible collectors relative to the gas – liquid interface.

How to cite: Kondratev S.A., Khamzina T.A. Improvement of concentrate quality in flotation of low-rank coal // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p. EDN RJTNNI
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-05-20
  • Date accepted
    2023-06-22
  • Date published
    2023-10-30

Increasing the quality of zeolite-bearing rocks from Eastern Transbaikalia by applying directed energy

Article preview

Рассмотрены вопросы применения направленного воздействия ускоренными электронами на цеолитсодержащие породы Восточного Забайкалья с целью повышения эффективности отделения цеолитов от вмещающих примесей методом электромагнитной сепарации. Получены результаты по определению эффективности вскрытия цеолитовых минералов с применением воздействия потоком ускоренных электронов, установлены технологические зависимости при обогащении цеолитсодержащих пород. Разработана технологическая схема переработки цеолитсодержащих пород, основанная на применении обработки ускоренными электронами на стадии рудоподготовки, обеспечивающая комплексность использования минерального сырья и позволяющая получать высококачественную цеолитовую продукцию.

How to cite: Razmakhnin K.K., Khatkova A.N. Increasing the quality of zeolite-bearing rocks from Eastern Transbaikalia by applying directed energy // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p. EDN VNPZCT
Economic Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-06-02
  • Date accepted
    2022-07-21
  • Date published
    2022-10-05

Substantiation of the optimal performance parameters for a quarry during the stage-wise development of steeply dipping ore deposits

Article preview

The use of stage-wise schemes in the development of deep quarries is one of the ways to increase the economic efficiency of mining a deposit and determining the optimal stage parameters remains an urgent task. Such parameters are stage depth, bench height, block length, etc. However, there is a wide range of values for these parameters. Therefore, to select the optimal values and evaluate the effectiveness of design solutions, it is advisable to use the net present value, which is an international notion. As a result of the analysis of data on deposits, a large number of variable indicators can be identified that presumably affect the efficiency of mining. The article proposes to divide all parameters of the quarry mining into two types: mine engineering and economic. The importance of each of them is determined by the measure of influence on the net present value. Thus, to assess the measure of influence of mining indicators, the average values of each of them are taken, and as a result of the alternating change of one parameter under study, the measure of its influence on the discounted income received is estimated. The results of the analysis of relevant factors, their evaluation and comparative analysis are important indicators that significantly affect the design decisions made and the effectiveness of the investment project.

How to cite: Fomin S.I., Ovsyannikov M.P. Substantiation of the optimal performance parameters for a quarry during the stage-wise development of steeply dipping ore deposits // Journal of Mining Institute. 2022. p. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.73
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-06-25
  • Date accepted
    2023-06-20
  • Date published
    2023-11-29

Determination of the accuracy of leveling route based on GNSS/leveling and Earth gravitational model data SGG-UGM-2 at some typical regions in Vietnam

Article preview

This paper presents the accuracy of leveling routes determined by using GNSS/leveling at three grades and Earth gravitational model data SGG-UGM-2 in four regions of Vietnam by calculating the difference between the measured height anomalies and the model of pairs of points. The calculation is made based on the total points of three grades for four regions (99 in the Northwest, 34 in the Red River Delta, 130 in the Central Highlands, and 96 in the Mekong River Delta) with the leveling routes, connected between pair of points in each region are 189, 92, 294, and 203. The calculated results of the percentage of accuracy of the leveling routes of the four regions have shown that most of the leveling routes are satisfactory (grades I-IV, and technical leveling). The determination of the accuracy of the leveling route is completely applicable to other areas when the points have simultaneous ellipsoid and leveling heights and it also helps managers and surveyors to predict the accuracy of the height points when the above-mentioned leveling routes are connected and to take reasonable measures when implementing the project.

How to cite: Tham B.T.H., Thanh P.T. Determination of the accuracy of leveling route based on GNSS/leveling and Earth gravitational model data SGG-UGM-2 at some typical regions in Vietnam // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p. EDN UGMFEW
Energy industry
  • Date submitted
    2022-07-10
  • Date accepted
    2023-06-20
  • Date published
    2023-09-06

Mathematical modeling of the electric field of an in-line diagnostic probe of a cathode-polarized pipeline

Article preview

A mathematical model of the in-line control of the insulation resistance state for cathodically polarized main pipelines according to electrometry data is considered. The relevance of the work is caused by the opportunity to create in-line internal isolation defects indicators of the main pipelines for transported liquids that are good conductors and expand the functionality of monitoring and controlling cathodic protection systems of the main pipelines. Features of the mathematical model are: consideration of the electric conductivity of transported liquid influence on electric field distribution; consideration of the influence of external and internal insulating coating resistance; use of the electric field of an in-line diagnostic probe for quality control of internal insulation. Practical significance consists in the development of modeling methods for control subsystems of main pipeline protection against corrosion and the development of special mathematical and algorithmic support systems for monitoring and controlling the operating modes of the cathodic protection station of main pipelines.

How to cite: Krizsky V.N., Kosarev O.V., Alexandrov P.N., Luntovskaya Y.A. Mathematical modeling of the electric field of an in-line diagnostic probe of a cathode-polarized pipeline // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p. EDN XRDQFW
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-08-10
  • Date accepted
    2023-02-28
  • Date published
    2023-04-28

Selection of the required number of circulating subs in a special assembly and investigation of their performance during drilling of radial branching channels by sectional positive displacement motors

Article preview

The task of sludge removal to the surface during construction of directional and horizontal wells and strongly curved radial channels is relevant. For stable operation of technical system “Perfobore”, it is proposed to use a circulating sub that ensures efficient cleaning of channel wellbore from the drilled rock. Two schemes of technical system “Perfobore” are considered, consisting of two seven-meter coiled tubing, a positive displacement motor, a bit and one circulating sub in the first scheme and two subs in the second scheme. For each of the schemes CFD modeling was implemented to determine values of pressure and speed. It was found out that the use of two circulating subs in the assembly is more efficient. In order to confirm the numerical experiment, bench tests were carried out. It was determined that the designed circulating sub can eject up to 25 % of pumped drilling fluid. The bench tests of full-size technical system “Perfobore” for drilling 14-meter channels with two circulating subs showed that the axial load on positive displacement motor produced by hydraulic loader was 3000 N and pressure drop depending on flow rate was 1.5-2.0 MPa. This allows the motor to operate at maximum power.

How to cite: Lyagov I.А., Lyagov A.V., Isangulov D.R., Lyagova А.А. Selection of the required number of circulating subs in a special assembly and investigation of their performance during drilling of radial branching channels by sectional positive displacement motors // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p.
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-09-05
  • Date accepted
    2023-09-20
  • Date published
    2023-12-06

Modeling the efficiency of seasonal cooling devices when changing the statistical distribution of weather conditions

Article preview

The climatic factor of warming, which is evidenced by a significant number of scientists and research teams in Russia and the world, has a significant impact on the cryogenic state of permafrost soil, the preservation of which is one of the most common principles of construction in the North. The influence of projected climatic changes in planning up to 2050 on the efficiency of seasonal cooling devices, the principle of operation of which is based on seasonal soil freezing, is considered. The conducted modeling has shown that in a situation of stable climate, the preservation of the cryogenic state of permafrost soil is realized without the use of additional measures. With warming with a trend of 0.1 °C per year, seasonal cooling devices do not ensure the preservation of the current level of the cryogenic state of the soil and additional measures are required to increase their efficiency in the summer. In the case of more extreme warming with a rate of 0.25 °C per year, the modeling results show that seasonal cooling devices do not significantly affect the rate of soil thawing and the solution to the problem should be its complete replacement with systems with year-round action.

How to cite: Ermilov O.M., Dzhalyabov A.A., Vasilev G.G., Leonovich I.A. Modeling the efficiency of seasonal cooling devices when changing the statistical distribution of weather conditions // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p. EDN UZQOVK
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-09-26
  • Date accepted
    2023-09-20
  • Date published
    2023-12-13

Technology of absorption elimination with cross-linking plugging material based on cement and cross-linked polymer

Article preview

The peculiarity of the geological structure of carbonate reservoirs is their complex permeability and porosity characteristics, reflecting the simultaneous presence of cavities variety (fractures, caverns, pores). Loss of circulation during penetration of fractured rock intervals significantly increases well construction time due to lack of efficient plugging isolation compositions. The main disadvantages of traditional compositions are high sensitivity to dilution in the process of their injection into the absorption zone, as well as insufficient structural strength to prevent the isolation composition from spreading during the induction period. For efficient isolation of catastrophic absorption zones in conditions of high opening of absorption channels a new cross-linking plugging isolation composition has been developed, which allows to exclude disadvantages of traditional isolation compositions. Application of the composition will allow to reduce the injection volume of the isolation composition and the time of isolation works due to its resistance to dilution and movement of formation water in the absorption interval.

How to cite: Predein A.А., Garshina О.V., Melekhin A.А. Technology of absorption elimination with cross-linking plugging material based on cement and cross-linked polymer // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p. EDN BPUQNV
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-09-30
  • Date accepted
    2023-04-03
  • Date published
    2023-07-18

Optimization of the location of a multilateral well in a thin oil rim, complicated by the presence of an extensive gas cap

Article preview

Удельная доля запасов трудноизвлекаемого углеводородного сырья неуклонно растет. Поиск технологий, позволяющих повысить коэффициент извлечения углеводородов, является одной из самых актуальных задач, стоящих перед нефтегазовой отраслью. Одним из методов увеличения охвата запасов нефти и повышения нефтеотдачи пласта является применение технологии бурения многозабойных скважин с траекторией fishbone. На сегодняшний день в Российской Федерации скважина, обладающая наибольшей разветвленностью, пробурена на территории Республики Саха (Якутия), на Среднеботуобинском нефтегазоконденсатном месторождении (СБНГКМ). Основной объект разработки - ботуобинский горизонт (пласт Бт). Около 75% геологических запасов пласта сосредоточено в тонкой нефтяной оторочке со средней толщиной нефтенасыщенного слоя в 10 м с обширной газовой шапкой. Данное обстоятельство является одним из основных осложняющих факторов при разработке Среднеботуобинского НГКМ. Разработка контактных запасов СБНГКМ реализуется с помощью горизонтальных скважин, позволяющих с минимальной депрессией достигнуть рентабельных дебитов и высокой нефтеотдачи пласта. Одним из основных направлений развития стало использование многозабойных горизонтальных скважин в газонефтяных зонах. Для подобного рода сложных скважин одним из наиболее важных этапов проектирования является определение оптимального расположения скважины fishbone в нефтенасыщенном пласте. В данной работе показаны результаты секторного моделирования в условиях Среднеботуобинского месторождения по определению оптимального расположения многозабойных скважин на симуляторе Tempest (Roxar, Emerson). Цель работы - определение оптимального расположения скважины между газонефтяным контактом (ГНК) и водонефтяным контактом (ВНК), при котором возможно получить максимальную накопленную добычи нефти с учетом возможных ограничений.

How to cite: Тomskiy К.О., Ivanova M.S. Optimization of the location of a multilateral well in a thin oil rim, complicated by the presence of an extensive gas cap // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p.
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-09-30
  • Date accepted
    2023-02-13
  • Date published
    2023-04-12

Improving the efficiency of oil vapor recovery units in the commodity transport operations at oil terminals

Article preview

In this paper the problem of losses from evaporation of light fractions of hydrocarbons during loading operations of tanker fleets vessels is considered. It was found that there is no unified approach to modeling the system “tanker – gas phase pipeline – vapor recovery units” in open sources. The absence of a generally recognized model makes it impossible to scientifically justify the application of instruments to reducing losses and the development of corresponding measures. In work it is showed that the dynamics of growth of pressure in the inner tanker capacity is described by a differential equation, considering for non-stationary essence of the process. This equation is converted to a non-dimensional form and investigated in relation to the similarity criteria of this system. This research has allowed to establish unambiguously the general character of pressure changes in the inner tanker capacity, and to predict the peak values of its growth at the initial stage of the loading operation. The obtained equations were tested on real tanker loading data and showed satisfactory convergence with the experimental data. At different stages of the loading opera-tion the component composition of vapor changes, which is shown by chromatographic analysis of the gas mixture. With the availability of a model of hydrocarbon vapor displacement from the inner of tanker, it is possible to propose measures to minimize the negative impact on the environment and return valuable vapors of the product to the technological chain of transportation.

How to cite: Pshenin V.V., Zakirova G.S. Improving the efficiency of oil vapor recovery units in the commodity transport operations at oil terminals // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2023.29
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-10-30
  • Date accepted
    2023-09-20
  • Date published
    2023-10-03

Combined method of phytoremediation and electrical treatment for cleaning contaminated areas of the oil complex

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The scale of land pollution with oil waste necessitates the use of economical and effective methods of recultivation. Phytoremediation is one of the simplest methods, but it has a number of limitations, so additional preparation of the territory is often required before it is carried out. Preliminary electrical preparation and subsequent seeding of special phytoremediants are of interest. Passing a constant electric current through the soil volume under a low voltage removes toxicants from deep soil layers even with flooding. In addition, it reduces pollutant content in the upper layer, where the plants root system is located, which creates more favorable conditions for phytoremediants. Adequately selected types of plants will ensure additional soil cleaning, improve its structure and air exchange. The results of two research directions are presented. Experiments on the study of plant resistance to oil-contaminated soil substrate allowed establishing contamination thresholds at which it is advisable to sow a particular species, and to choose optimal phytoremediants. The study of the oil-containing soil cleaning in a monocathodocentric electrochemical installation with the fixation of main characteristics (oil products concentration, soil temperature, volt-ampere characteristics) allows us to develop technical measures to prepare territories for phytoremediation taking into account the relief features.

How to cite: Shulaev N.S., Kadyrov R.R., Pryanichnikova V.V. Combined method of phytoremediation and electrical treatment for cleaning contaminated areas of the oil complex // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p. EDN WJRQDO
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-10-31
  • Date accepted
    2023-04-21
  • Date published
    2023-07-04

Study of the properties and action of polyelectrolytes in the treatment of the dressing plant’s discharges

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The organization of intrafactory water circulation at mining and processing enterprises, when production wastes and discharges are not sent to an external tailings dump, is an urgent environmental and economic task. Returning even a part of water into the technological process after preliminary treatment will significantly reduce the volume of polluted water discharged into tailings, which will reduce energy costs for waste transportation and the negative environmental impact. One of the wastes sent to the tailings during the ore dressing wastes from the Kovdor deposit to the tailings dump is the discharge of thickeners for the preparation of apatite flotation feed. In order to choose the effective discharge cleaning regime, the authors have evaluated the action of polyacrylamide flocculants. It has been discovered that the apatite and calcite particles interact more effectively with the anionic flocculant. This fact determines its advantage for the treatment of suspended particles. The influence of the residual concentration of a flocculant on the apatite flotation, where a part of the returned treated water goes, has been assessed. Compared to flotation with recycled water, there is a decrease of P 2 O 5 extraction into apatite concentrate of equal quality. In order to obtain the required enrichment indicators on the treated water, it is necessary to adjust the collector (tall oil fatty acids) and depressor (liquid glass) costs.

How to cite: Mitrofanova G.V., Chernousenko E.V., Artemiev A.V., Pospelova Y.P., Smirnova N.A., Barmin I.S. Study of the properties and action of polyelectrolytes in the treatment of the dressing plant’s discharges // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p.
Energy industry
  • Date submitted
    2023-01-16
  • Date accepted
    2023-06-20
  • Date published
    2024-02-05

Study on the thin layer drying and diffusion mechanism of low rank coal in Inner Mongolia and Yunnan

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Coal is one of the world's most important energy substances. China is rich in coal resources, accounting for more than 90 % of all ascertained fossil energy reserves. The consumption share of coal energy reaches 56.5 % in 2021. Due to the high moisture content of low-rank coal, it is easy to cause equipment blockage in the dry sorting process. This paper considers low-rank coal coming from Inner Mongolia (NM samples) and Yunnan (YN samples). The weight loss performance of the samples was analyzed using thermogravimetric experiments to determine the appropriate temperature for drying experiments. Thin-layer drying experiments were carried out at different temperature conditions. The drying characteristics of low-rank coal were that the higher the drying temperature, the shorter the drying completion time; the smaller the particle size, the shorter the drying completion time. The effective moisture diffusion coefficient was fitted using the Arrhenius equation. The effective water diffusion coefficient of NM samples was 5.07·10–11 - 9.58·10–11 m2/s. The effective water diffusion coefficients of the three different particle sizes of YN samples were 1.89·10–11 - 4.92·10–11 (–1 mm), 1.38·10–10 - 4.13·10–10 (1-3 mm), 5.26·10–10 - 1.49·10–9 (3-6 mm). The activation energy of Inner Mongolia lignite was 10.97 kJ/mol (–1 mm). The activation energies of Yunnan lignite with different particle sizes were 17.97 kJ/mol (–1 mm), 33.52 kJ/mol (1-3 mm), and 38.64 kJ/mol (3-6 mm). The drying process was simulated using empirical and semi-empirical formulas. The optimal model for Inner Mongolia samples was the Two-term diffusion model, and Yunnan samples were the Hii equation was used.

How to cite: Wang C., Wang D., Chen Z., Duan C., Zhou C. Study on the thin layer drying and diffusion mechanism of low rank coal in Inner Mongolia and Yunnan // Journal of Mining Institute. 2024. p. EDN XMIQWH
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-02-07
  • Date accepted
    2023-06-20
  • Date published
    2023-09-06

Origin of carbonate-silicate rocks of the Porya Guba (the Lapland-Kolvitsa Granulite Belt) revealed by stable isotope analysis (δ18O, δ13C)

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Carbonate-silicate rocks of unclear origin have been observed in granulites of the Porya Guba of the Lapland-Kolvitsa Belt within the Fennoscandinavian Shield. The present work aims to reconstruct possible protoliths and conditions of metamorphic transformation of these rocks based on oxygen and carbon isotopic ratios combined with phase equilibria modeling. Isotope analysis and lithochemical reconstructions suggest that carbonate-silicate rocks of the Porya Guba represent metamorphosed sediments (possibly marls) with the isotopic composition corresponding to the Precambrian diagenetically transformed carbonates (δ 18 O ≈ 17.9 ‰, SMOW and δ 13 C ≈ –3.4 ‰, PDB). The chemical composition varies depending on the balance among the carbonate, clay, and clastic components. Significant changes of the isotopic composition during metamorphism are caused by decomposition reactions of primary carbonates (dolomite, siderite, and ankerite) producing CO 2 followed by degassing. These reactions are accompanied by δ 18 O and δ 13 C decrease of calcite in isotopic equilibrium with CO 2 down to 15 ‰ (SMOW) and –6 ‰ (PDB), respectively. The isotopic composition is buffered by local reactions within individual rock varieties, thus excluding any pronounced influence of magmatic and/or metasomatic processes.

How to cite: Krylov D.P., Klimova E.V. Origin of carbonate-silicate rocks of the Porya Guba (the Lapland-Kolvitsa Granulite Belt) revealed by stable isotope analysis (δ18O, δ13C) // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p. EDN GISHQG
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-02-10
  • Date accepted
    2023-09-20
  • Date published
    2024-01-10

Depth distribution of radiation defects in irradiated diamonds by confocal Raman spectroscopy

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Five colored diamonds were investigated. According to the results of the study by FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR and Photolumines-cence spectroscopy, they are natural type Ia diamonds. The depth distribution of the color intensity was carried out by meas-uring the intensity of the PL peak at 741 nm (GR1 center) upon excitation by a laser with a wavelength of 633 nm of Raman Confocal microscope. To minimise the perturbation due to geometrical effects, defect distribution profiles were normalised with respect to diamond Raman peak intensity (691 nm) point by point. For two diamonds, the intensity of the GR1 peak (741 nm) sharply decreased to a depth of 10 µm, and then became equal to the background level, which is typical for irradia-tion with alpha particles from natural sources like uranium. In other diamonds, the profiles vary slightly with depth, and the color intensity is close to uniform, which is for irradiation with accelerated electrons or neutrons. The source of radiation has not been determined. However, long duration radioactivity measurements of the diamonds suggested that neutrons were not used for colour centers production in the diamonds studied.

How to cite: Ardalkar R.M., Salunkhe Y.D., Gaonkar M.P., Mane S.N., Ghaisas O.A., Desai S.N., Reddy A.V.R. Depth distribution of radiation defects in irradiated diamonds by confocal Raman spectroscopy // Journal of Mining Institute. 2024. p. EDN XGGRVF
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-02-27
  • Date accepted
    2023-10-25
  • Date published
    2024-02-08

Microstructural features of chromitites and ultramafic rocks of the Almaz-Zhemchuzhina deposit (Kempirsai massif, Kazakhstan) according to electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) studies

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Microstructural features of the main rock-forming minerals of host ultramafic rocks (olivine, orthopyroxene) and chrome spinel from ores of the Almaz-Zhemchuzhina deposit were studied using the electron backscatter diffraction method. For ultramafic rocks, statistical diagrams of the crystallographic orientation of olivine and orthopyroxene were obtained, indicating the formation of a mineral association in conditions of high-temperature subsolidus plastic flow in the upper mantle. The main mechanisms were translation gliding and syntectonic recrystallization. Olivine deformation occurred predominantly along the (010)[100] and (001)[100] systems. The textural and structural features of chromitites reflect plastic flow processes, most pronounced in lenticular-banded ores. Microstructure maps in inverse pole figure encoding show differences in the grain size composition of the ores: areas consisting of disseminated chromitites are characterized by a finer-grained structure compared to lens-shaped segregations of a massive structure. Analysis of microstructure maps shows that during the transition from disseminated to massive ores, there is a widespread development of recrystallization, adaptation of neighbouring grains to each other, resulting in homogenization of crystallographic orientation in aggregates. The data obtained develop ideas about the rheomorphic nature of chromitite segregations in ophiolite dunites. It is assumed that the coarsening of the structure of massive chromitites is critically associated with an increase in the concentration of ore grains during solid-phase segregation within a plastic flow, when individual chrome spinel grains, initially separated by silicate material, begin to come into direct contact with each other.

How to cite: Saveliev D.E., Sergeev S.N., Makatov D.K. Microstructural features of chromitites and ultramafic rocks of the Almaz-Zhemchuzhina deposit (Kempirsai massif, Kazakhstan) according to electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) studies // Journal of Mining Institute. 2024. p. EDN FJNEDQ
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-03-14
  • Date accepted
    2023-10-25
  • Date published
    2024-02-22

Predictive assessment of ore dilution in mining thin steeply dipping deposits by a system of sublevel drifts

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The purpose of research is the study of stress-strain state of marginal rock mass around the stope and predictive assessment of ore dilution with regard for changes in ore body thickness in mining thin ore deposits on the example of the Zholymbet mine. Study of the specific features of the stress-strain state development was accomplished applying the methodology based on numerical research methods taking into account the geological strength index (GSI) which allows considering the structural features of rocks, fracturing, lithology, water content and other strength indicators, due to which there is a correct transition from the rock sample strength to the rock mass strength. The results of numerical analysis of the stress-strain state of the marginal part of the rock mass using the finite element method after the Hoek – Brown strength criterion made it possible to assess the geomechanical state in the marginal mass provided there are changes in ore body thickness and to predict the volume of ore dilution. It was ascertained that when mining thin ore deposits, the predicted value of ore dilution is influenced by the ore body thickness and the GSI. The dependence of changes in ore dilution values on the GSI was recorded taking into account changes in ore body thickness from 1 to 3 m. Analysis of the research results showed that the predicted dimensions of rock failure zone around the stopes are quite large, due to which the indicators of the estimated ore dilution are not attained. There is a need to reduce the seismic impact of the blasting force on the marginal rock mass and update the blasting chart.

How to cite: Imashev A.Z., Suimbaeva A.M., Musin A.A. Predictive assessment of ore dilution in mining thin steeply dipping deposits by a system of sublevel drifts // Journal of Mining Institute. 2024. p. EDN GPKEBJ
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-04-04
  • Date accepted
    2023-09-20
  • Date published
    2023-12-19

Association of quartz, Cr-pyrope and Cr-diopside in mantle xenolith in V.Grib kimberlite pipe (northern East European Platform): genetic models

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The first results of mineralogical and geochemical studies of a unique xenolith of lithospheric mantle are presented illustrating the earlier non-described mineral association of quartz, Cr-pyrope and Cr-diopside. Structural and textural features of the sample suggest a joint formation of these minerals. The calculated P-T-parameters of the formation of Cr-diopside indicate the capture of xenolith from the depth interval ~ 95-105 km (31-35 kbar) corresponding to the stability field of coesite. This suggests that quartz in the studied xenolith can represent paramorphs after coesite. It was shown that quartz in this rock is not a product of postmagmatic processes. The transformation stage of the source lherzolite into garnet- and clinopyroxene-enriched rock/garnet pyroxenite as a result of exposure to a high-temperature silicate melt was reconstructed. Subsequent stages of the influence of metasomatic agents were identified by the presence of a negative Eu-anomaly in some garnet grains, which could result from the impact of subduction-related fluid and the enrichment of rock-forming minerals with light rare earth elements, Sr, Th, U, Nb and Ta as a consequence of fluid saturated with these incompatible elements. Several models for the formation of SiO2 phase (quartz/coesite) in association with high-chromium mantle minerals are considered including carbonatization of mantle peridotites/eclogites and melting of carbonate-containing eclogites at the stage of subduction and the impact of SiO2-enriched melt/fluid of subduction genesis with peridotites of the lithospheric mantle.

How to cite: Agasheva E.V., Mikhailenko D.S., Korsakov A.V. Association of quartz, Cr-pyrope and Cr-diopside in mantle xenolith in V.Grib kimberlite pipe (northern East European Platform): genetic models // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p. EDN HLLHDR
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-04-04
  • Date accepted
    2023-06-20
  • Date published
    2023-10-09

Trace elements in the silicate minerals of the Borodino Meteorite (Н5)

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Major (EPMA) and trace (SIMS) element geochemistry in olivine, low-Са pyroxene and mesostasis from porphyritic and barred chondrules, as well as the pyroxene-olivine aggregate and matrix of equilibrated ordinary Borodino chondrite (Н5) is discussed. No differences in major element concentrations in the silicate minerals of the chondrules and matrix of the meteorite were found. The minerals of porphyritic olivine-pyroxene and barred chondrules display elevated trace element concentrations, indicating the rapid cooling of chondrule melt in a nebula, and are consistent with experimental data. The trace element composition of low-Са pyroxene is dependent on the position of a pyroxene grain inside a chondrule (centre, rim, matrix) and the composition of mesostasis is controlled by the type of the object (porphyritic and barred chondrules, pyroxene-olivine aggregate). The depletion in trace elements of low-Са pyroxene from the rims of chondrules in comparison with those from the centre and matrix of the meteorite was revealed. The chondrule rim is affected by interaction with surrounding gas in a nebula, possibly resulting in the exchange of moderately volatile trace elements in low-Са pyroxene and depletion in these elements relative to pyroxene from the centre of the chondrule or matrix of the meteorite. The mesostasis of barred and porphyritic olivine-pyroxene chondrules contains more trace elements than that of porphyritic olivine chondrule and pyroxene-olivine aggregate, suggesting the rapid cooling of these objects or their high liability to thermal metamorphism, which results in the recrystallization of chondrule glass into plagioclase. However, no traces of the elevated effect of thermal metamorphism on the above objects have been revealed. The results obtained indicate no traces of the equilibration of the trace element composition of silicate minerals in equilibrated chondrites.

How to cite: Sukhanova K.G. Trace elements in the silicate minerals of the Borodino Meteorite (Н5) // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p. EDN WHSYGT
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-04-10
  • Date accepted
    2024-12-27
  • Date published
    2024-02-22

Optimization of specific energy consumption for rock crushing by explosion at deposits with complex geological structure

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The selection of efficient drilling and blasting technology to achieve the required particle size distribution of blasted rock mass and reduce ore dilution is directly related to the accurate definition of rock mass properties. The zoning of the rock massif by its hardness, drillability and blastability does not consider the variability of the geological structure of the block for blasting, resulting in an overestimated specific consumption of explosives. The decision of this task is particularly urgent for enterprises developing deposits with a high degree of variability of geological structure, for example, at alluvial deposits. Explosives overconsumption causes non-optimal granulometric composition of the blasted rock mass for the given conditions and mining technology. It is required to define physical and mechanical properties of rocks at deposits with complex geological structure at each block prepared for blasting. The correlation between the physical and mechanical properties of these rocks and drilling parameters should be used for calculation. The relation determined by the developed method was verified in industrial conditions, and the granulometric composition of the blasted rock mass was measured by an indirect method based on excavator productivity. The results demonstrated an increase in excavation productivity, thus indicating the accuracy of given approach to the task of identifying the rocks of the blasted block.

How to cite: Vinogradov Y.I., Khokhlov S.V., Zigangirov R.R., Miftakhov A.A., Suvorov Y.I. Optimization of specific energy consumption for rock crushing by explosion at deposits with complex geological structure // Journal of Mining Institute. 2024. p. EDN RUUFNM
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-04-11
  • Date accepted
    2023-10-25
  • Date published
    2023-12-15

Acid mine water treatment using neutralizer with adsorbent material

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One of the biggest issues in the mining sector is due to acid mine drainage, especially in those abandoned mining operations and active ones that fail to adequately control the quality of their water discharge. The removal degree of copper, iron, lead, and zinc dissolved metals in acid mine drainage was investigated by applying different proportions of mixtures based on neutralizing reagent hydrated lime at 67 % calcium oxide (CaO), with adsorbent material – natural sodium bentonite, compared to the application of neutralizing reagent without mixing, commonly used in the neutralization of acid mining drainage. The obtained results show that the removal degree of dissolved metals in acid mine drainage when treated with a mixture of neutralizing reagent and adsorbent material in a certain proportion, reaches discharge quality, complying with the environmental standard (Maximum Permissible Limit), at a lower pH than when neutralizing material is applied without mixing, registering a net decrease in the consumption unit of neutralizing agent express on 1 kg/m3 of acid mine drainage. Furthermore, the sludge produced in the treatment with a mixture of the neutralizing reagent with adsorbent material has better characteristics than common sludge without bentonite, since it is more suitable for use as cover material, reducing the surface infiltration degree of water into the applied deposit.

How to cite: Tumialán P.E., Martinez N.T., Hinostroza C.B., Arana Ruedas D.P.R. Acid mine water treatment using neutralizer with adsorbent material // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p. EDN HWRBRB
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-04-13
  • Date accepted
    2023-10-25
  • Date published
    2024-01-23

Assessment of the ecological state of aquatic ecosystems by studying lake bottom sediments

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The article presents the results of coupled palynological and geochemical studies of five various genesis lakes, located along the route of the expedition “In the footsteps of Alexander von Humboldt in Siberia, Altai and Eastern Kazakhstan”, dedicated to the double anniversary: the 190th anniversary of the expedition across Russia of the famous scientist and his 250th birthday. A geochemical analysis of water and bottom sediments of Ik Lake (Siberia), Lakes Kolyvanskoe and Beloe (Altai), Lake Bezymyannoe (Kazakhstan) and Nagornyi Pond (Altai) was carried out. Based on their results an assessment of studied lakes ecological state was given through single and integral criteria. A high level of pollution was noted for Nagornyi Pond and Lake Bezymyannoe, which is caused by a significant technogenic load from nearby mines. This is consistent with the data of palynological research. The aquatic ecosystems of Lakes Kolyvanskoe and Beloe are characterized by a satisfactory ecological situation, but they experience an increased recreational load. The results of spore-pollen analysis and analysis of non-pollen palynomorphs showed the low ability of these lakes to self-healing. The most favorable ecological state and high self-cleaning capacity were noted for Lake Ik, which is consistent with the data of palynological studies. It is being confirmed with the results of palynological studies. It was therefore concluded about the ability to make a quick assessment of the aquatic ecosystems’ ecological state by studying lakes using coupled palynological and geochemical analysis.

How to cite: Chukaeva M.A., Sapelko T.V. Assessment of the ecological state of aquatic ecosystems by studying lake bottom sediments // Journal of Mining Institute. 2024. p. EDN IXRSRC
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-06-21
  • Date accepted
    2023-10-25
  • Date published
    2023-12-29

Specific action of collector from phosphoric acid alkyl esters class in flotation of apatite-nepheline ores

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Increasing amount of apatite-nepheline ores with complex mineral composition involved in processing, growing content of the associated minerals in ore which are similar in their floatability to apatite lead to the necessity of using highly selective collectors. Non-frothing flotation method gave a comparative assessment of floatability of pure minerals and demonstrated a high selectivity of the action of phosphoric acid esters in relation to apatite. The effect of four reagent modes differing in the number of selective synthetic collectors was studied using the example of flotation of an apatite-nepheline ore sample containing 17.27 % apatite and 40.18 % nepheline. Mineralogical analysis of crushed ore showed that it contained two apatite varieties – coarse-grained free and finer poikilitic as inclusions in rock-forming minerals. Free apatite opens and occurs as open grains even in coarse-grained (+0.16 mm) grades. Poikilitic apatite occurs as intergrowths with different minerals, mainly with nepheline and its alteration products (natrolite, spreustein, sodalite, etc.), and pyroxene. Optical microscopy demonstrated that a growing share of reagent from the phosphoric acid oxyethylated esters class in the composition of the collector mixture allows improving the quality of the produced apatite concentrates by reducing the number of apatite intergrowths with nepheline and pyroxenes in the concentrates. In the concentrate obtained in the most selective reagent mode, the intergrowths are characterized by a 50/50 and higher ratio in favour of apatite. Concentrates of lower quality comprised intergrowths with lower apatite content, to 20/80 or less.

How to cite: Mitrofanova G.V., Chernousenko E.V., Kompanchenko A.A., Kalugin A.I. Specific action of collector from phosphoric acid alkyl esters class in flotation of apatite-nepheline ores // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p. EDN CSNOBO
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-07-07
  • Date accepted
    2023-09-27
  • Date published
    2023-11-29

Isotherm and kinetic adsorption of rice husk particles as a model adsorbent for solving issues in the sustainable gold mining environment from mercury leaching

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One of the techniques used in extracting gold in small-scale gold mining is mercury amalgamation. However, the use of mercury presents significant health and environmental hazards, as well as suboptimal efficiency in gold extraction. This study explores the possibility of the use of rice husk as a prototype adsorbent for mercury removal from its leaching in mining environments. To support the analysis, the rice husk adsorbent was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrophotometers and Brunauer − Emmett − Teller analysis. To investigate the removal of Hg from aqueous solutions, batch adsorption experiments were conducted, and the efficiency was optimized under various parameters such as contact time, rice husk dosage, and initial concentration of mercury. Kinetic and isotherm investigations were also carried out to gain a better understanding of the adsorption properties. The kinetic adsorption was analyzed using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order. Furthermore, the isotherm adsorption was analyzed using ten adsorption isotherm models (i.e., Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin – Radushkevich, Flory – Huggins, Fowler – Guggenheim, Hill – de Boer, Jovanovic, Harkin – Jura, and Halsey). The amount of mercury absorption increased with increasing contact time, adsorbent mass, and initial concentration of mercury. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model is the best model that can be applied to describe the adsorption process. Analysis of the adsorption results obtained shows that the adsorption pattern is explained through the formation of a monolayer without any lateral interaction between the adsorbate and adsorbent. In addition, the formation of multilayers due to inhomogeneous pore distribution also occurs which causes a pore filling mechanism. We found that the isotherm phenomena are near the Jovanovic models with the maximum adsorption capacity) of rice husk found to be 107.299 mg/g. As a result, rice husk could be a promising option for wastewater treatment due to its fast and efficient removal capacity, as well as its affordability and eco-friendliness. The predicted thermodynamic studies using the Flory – Huggins isotherm model show that the adsorption process is endothermic, spontaneous, and physisorption. The impact shows that the utilization of rice husk can be used and fit for the current issues in the sustainable development goals (SDGs).

How to cite: Nandiyanto A.B.D., Nugraha W.C., Yustia I., Ragadhita R., Fiandini M., Meirinawati H., Wulan D.R. Isotherm and kinetic adsorption of rice husk particles as a model adsorbent for solving issues in the sustainable gold mining environment from mercury leaching // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p. EDN BZVWDO
Energy industry
  • Date submitted
    2023-07-20
  • Date accepted
    2023-10-25
  • Date published
    2023-12-11

Directions in the technological development of aluminium pots

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Directions for the technical and technological development of aluminium industry, existing and promising projects to reduce the energy consumption and the environmental impact are analyzed. The active participation of the state in the organization of financial instruments for the ecological reconstruction of obsolete production facilities is discussed. In spite of the fact that the technology of aluminium pots is developed towards the increase of a single capacity, but with limited potential of reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission, the possibilities for the increase of specific output are practically non-existent. Therefore, such projects like pots, equipped with inert anodes and drained cathodes arise and are under development, the successful completion of which is unlikely after multi-year researches and pilot tests. To continue the works related to inert anodes the decisive answer about the industrial safety of local sources of the massive oxygen emissions to atmosphere is required from competent entities. The drained cathode project, after discussing the existing problems, seems unfeasible. As opposed to the existing technology the development of the pots with vertical electrodes offers great opportunities to the designs of inert anodes and drained cathodes. Positive results of using shaped electrodes, homogenizing their surface and developing the methods for the synthesis of composite cathodes directly during the electrolytic process were obtained in laboratory conditions. It is expected that the combination of these trends and the successive dimensional scaling shall allow using the vertical electrodes at the next level for the fold increase of specific pot capacity and for the decrease of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

How to cite: Gorlanov Е.S., Leontev L.I. Directions in the technological development of aluminium pots // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p. EDN PYSEVM
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-09-29
  • Date accepted
    2023-10-25
  • Date published
    2023-12-12

Laboratory studies of transformation of porosity and permeability and chemical composition of terrigenous reservoir rocks at exposure to hydrogen (using the example of the Bobrikovskii formations in the oil field in the northeast Volga-Ural oil and gas province)

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The article describes the methodology for laboratory studies of reservoir rock exposure to hydrogen. The stages of sample research and the instruments used in the experiments are considered. A comparative analysis of the results of studies on porosity and permeability of core samples was performed. It was shown that after exposure to hydrogen, the porosity decreased by 4.6 %, and the permeability by 7.9 %. The analysis of correlation dependencies demonstrated a typical change in the relationship of these characteristics: after the samples exposure to hydrogen the scatter of the values increased and the correlation coefficient decreased, which indicates a change in the structure of the void space. Based on the research results, it was concluded that the decrease in porosity and permeability of the core samples occurred due to their minor compaction under the action of effective stresses. The chemical analysis of the rock showed no major difference in the composition of the basic oxides before and after exposure to hydrogen, which points to the chemical resistance of the studied formation to hydrogen. The experimental results showed that the horizon under consideration can be a storage of the hydrogen-methane mixture.

How to cite: Popov S.N., Chernyshov S.E., Abukova L.A. Laboratory studies of transformation of porosity and permeability and chemical composition of terrigenous reservoir rocks at exposure to hydrogen (using the example of the Bobrikovskii formations in the oil field in the northeast Volga-Ural oil and gas province) // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. p. EDN MFPSXV