The results of studying the problem of active sediment formation when mixing residual fuels, caused by manifestation of incompatibility, are presented. A laboratory method has been developed for determining the compatibility and stability of fuels allowing identification of a quantitative characteristic of sediment formation activity. Laboratory studies were performed, and incompatible fuel components were identified. Tests were made to determine the quality indicators of samples and group individual composition of fuels. Results on the content of total and inorganic carbon in the obtained sediments were determined using Shimadzu TOC-V SSM 5000A. Chemical composition was determined and calculated on LECO CHN-628 analyser. Group composition of hydrocarbon fuels contained in the sediment was studied by gas chromato-mass spectrometry on GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Shimadzu. To obtain additional information on the structural group composition of fuel sediment, IR spectrometry was performed on IR-Fourier spectrometer IRAffinity-1. X-ray diffraction analysis of sediment samples was made using X-ray diffractometer XRD-7000 Shimadzu; interplanar distances d 002 and d 100 as well as L с and L а crystallite sizes served as the evaluation criteria. Microstructural analysis of total sediment was performed by scanning electron microscopy. The results of the research confirmed that the content of normal alkanes in the fuel mixture mainly affects sediment formation. Recommendations were drawn on preserving the quality of fuels and reducing sediment formation during storage and transportation.
Maintaining the gas temperature and the formation of gas hydrates is one of the main problems in the operation of gas pipelines. Development and implementation of new effective methods for heating the gas during gas reduction will reduce the cost of gas transportation, solve the problem of resource and energy saving in the fuel industry. Study is aimed at increasing the energy efficiency of the natural gas reduction process by using a resonant gas heater to maintain the set temperature at the outlet of the gas distribution station (GDS) and prevent possible hydrate formation and icing of the station equipment. Paper considers the implementation of fireless heating of natural gas and fuel gas savings of heaters due to the introduction of a thermoacoustic reducer, operating on the basis of the Hartmann – Sprenger resonance effect, into the scheme of the reduction unit. By analyzing the existing methods of energy separation and numerical modeling, the effectiveness of the resonant-type energy separation device is substantiated. Modification of the reduction unit by introducing energy separating devices into it will allow general or partial heating of natural gas by its own pressure energy. Developed technology will allow partial (in the future, complete) replacement of heat energy generation at a gas distribution station by burning natural gas.
Welded joints of structure steels have lower corrosion resistance in comparison to base metal. To increase corrosion resistance of welded joints and heat-affected zone they use longtime and energy-consuming methods of thermal and mechanic processing. The article covers the possibility of using the superplasticity deformation (SD) effect for processing of welded joints. The effect of SD is that metals and alloys with a small grain size (of the order of 10 μm) under conditions of isothermal deformation at a certain temperature acquire the ability for unusually large plastic deformations while reducing the deformation resistance. Grain-boundary sliding during superplasticity provides a high degree of structural homogeneity. If the metal does not have the small grain size, then during isothermal deformation at appropriate temperature the SD effect will not be fully manifested but will cause relaxation of residual micro and macro strains, recrystallization, which can be used during processing of welded joints to ensure their full strength. There have been carried out the investigation of processing methods impact - SD, thermal cycling and influence of post-welding treatment on corrosion rate and microstructure of steels 20 and 30KhGSA. It is shown that after deformation in superplasticity mode there is low corrosion rate and more favorable microstructure in the studied samples of steel. Post-welding processing of welded joints in SD mode provides low tool loads and low energy costs.