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  • Average publication time, days
    221
  • Average review time, days
    19
  • Rejection rate (%)
    65
  • Total Articles
    9199

Top 10 articles by citing 2 years

Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2019-05-27
  • Date published
    2019-12-25

Improving the efficiency of using resource base of liquid hydrocarbons in Jurassic deposits of Western Siberia

Under conditions of the same type of oil deposits with hard-to-recover reserves in Jurassic terrigenous reservoirs of the West Siberian oil and gas province, a study was made about the influence of the geological structure features of objects and water flooding technologies on the response degree of production wells to water injection. Response degree of the wells was determined by analyzing the time series of production rates and injection volumes of injection wells with the calculation of inter-correlation function (ICF) values. It was believed that with ICF values in a given injection period of more than 0.5, production well responds to the injection. Factors that have a prevailing effect on water flooding success have been identified. Among them: effective oil-saturated thickness of the formation in production wells; relative amplitude of the self polarization of the formation in both production and injection wells; grittiness coefficient of the formation in injection wells; monthly volume of water injection and distance between wells. Methodological approach is proposed based on the application of the proposed empirical parameter of water flooding success, which involves the use of indirect data in conditions of limited information about the processes occurring in the formation at justification and selection of production wells for transferring them to injection during focal flooding; drilling of additional production and injection wells – compaction of the well grid; shutdown of injection and production wells; use of a transit wells stock; use of cyclic, non-stationary flooding in order to change the direction of filtration flows; determining the design of dual-purpose L-shaped wells (determining length of the horizontal part); limitation of flow rate in highly flooded wells with a high degree of interaction; determination of decompression zones (without injection of indicators), stagnant zones for drilling sidetracks, improving the location of production and injection wells, transferring wells from other horizons; choosing the purpose of the wells during implementation of the selective water flooding system in order to increase the efficiency of using the resource base of liquid hydrocarbons.

Read more
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2018-07-10
  • Date published
    2019-04-25

Features of elementary burst formation during cutting coals and isotropic materials with reference cutting tool of mining machines

The paper considers the cutting of brittle coals and rocks by a single cutter of a mining machine, in contrast to the generally accepted integral approach, different from the standpoint of the formation of successive elementary bursts that make up the cut. The process of the formation of an elementary bust in time is viewed as successive phases. Due to the complexity and multi-factor nature of the process, preference is given to experimental bench studies using reference cutters, isotropic materials, and real rock blocks. The bursting parameters values greatly influence the time of static forces action, the peculiarities of the formation of stress fields in the undercutter zone of the rock mass and the conditions for the emergence and development of main cracks in the near-cut zones during the cutting process. The accepted phase-energy method of analyzing the process, which most closely matches the structure of the studied process, revealed a more significant, than previously expected, effect on the cutting process, variability of cutting speed and potential energy reserve in the cutter drive. The paper discusses the possibility of purposeful formation of the parameters of elementary bursts. It describes new ways to improve the efficiency of cutting coal and rocks, in particular, reducing the maximum loads and specific energy consumption. It also considers the possibility of reducing the grinding of the rock mass and dust formation.

Read more
Geoecology and occupational health and safety
  • Date submitted
    2020-01-10
  • Date published
    2020-02-25

Biogeochemical assessment of soils and plants in industrial, residential and recreational areas of Saint Petersburg

Soils and plants of Saint Petersburg are under the constant technogenic stress caused by human activity in industrial, residential, and recreational landscapes of the city. To assess the transformed landscapes of various functional zones, we studied utility, housing, and park districts with a total area of over 7,000 hectares in the southern part of the city during the summer seasons of 2016-2018. Throughout the fieldwork period, 796 individual pairs of soil and plant samples were collected. A complex of consequent laboratory studies performed in an accredited laboratory allowed the characterization of key biogeochemical patterns of urban regolith specimens and herbage samples of various grasses. Chemical analyses provided information on the concentrations of polluting metals in soils and plants of different land use zones. Data interpretation and calculation of element accumulation factors revealed areas with the most unfavorable environmental conditions. We believe that a high pollution level in southern city districts has led to a significant degree of physical, chemical, and biological degradation of the soil and vegetation cover. As of today, approximately 10 % of the Technosols in the study area have completely lost the ability to biological self-revitalization, which results in ecosystem malfunction and the urgent need for land remediation.    

Read more
Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-13
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-24
  • Date published
    2020-10-13

Barriers to implementation of hydrogen initiatives in the context of global energy sustainable development

Modern trends in the global energy market linked to the Sustainable Development Goals often lead to the adoption of political decisions with little basis in fact. Stepping up the development of renewable energy sources is an economically questionable but necessary step in terms of its social and ecological effects. However, subsequent development of hydrogen infrastructure is, at the very least, a dangerous initiative. In connection with mentioned above, an attempt to examine hydrogen by conducting an integral assessment of its characteristics has been made in this article. As a result of the research conducted, the following conclusions concerning the potential of the widespread implementation of hydrogen in the power generation sector have been made: as a chemical element, it harms steel structures, which significantly impedes the selection of suitable materials; its physical and volume characteristics decrease the general efficiency of the energy system compared to similar hydrocarbon solutions; the hydrogen economy does not have the necessary foundation in terms of both physical infrastructure and market regulation mechanisms; the emergence of widely available hydrogen poses a danger for society due to its high combustibility. Following the results of the study, it was concluded that the existing pilot hydrogen projects are positive yet not scalable solutions for the power generation sector due to the lack of available technologies to construct large-scale and geographically distributed infrastructure and adequate international system of industry regulation. Thus, under current conditions, the risks of implementing such projects considerably exceed their potential ecological benefits.

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Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2019-01-14
  • Date published
    2019-06-25

Strategic approach to assessing economic sustainability objects of mineral resources sector of Russia

The article gives a new definition of economic systems (ES) stability with its distinct strategic content. The main approaches to assessment of sustainability, based on the use of strategic cards, including Balanced Scorecard (BSC), are considered. Synchronous management of effectiveness, risks and chances of the ES exhausts the agenda of managing economic sustainability of ES when it operates in the face of a wide range of challenges. BSC in mineral resources sector (MRS) can be built during the aggregation of BSC by industry and individual enterprises. The use of 4 ´ 6 matrix formalism is proposed as the main tool for modeling economic sustainability of the ES.

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Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2018-12-04
  • Date published
    2019-06-25

The Concept of Development of Monitoring Systems and Management of Intelligent Technical Complexes

Conceptual approaches to improving the system of monitoring and managing the functional capabilities of intelligent technical complexes of buildings and transport and technological machines of mining enterprises are defined. Criteria are proposed for the efficiency of functioning of automatic systems for controlling the movement of transport-technological machines, taking into account the probabilistic nature of system-forming factors. The scheme of scientific and methodological research on the improvement of automation systems and traffic control in the automotive transport is presented. The perspective directions of the formation of control functions for the movement of vehicles based on the use of intelligent automated systems are substantiated. The stages of the life cycle of technical systems for monitoring the movement of vehicles, taking into account the features of their operation. A technique has been developed for the optimal use of technical means of control in the field of providing control and supervisory functions in the operation of vehicles, and the dependence of determining the financial costs of maintaining their efficiency has been determined.

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Geology
  • Date submitted
    2019-02-01
  • Date published
    2019-04-25

REFINED ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC MICROZONATION WITH A PRIORI DATA OPTIMISATION

The work is devoted to the issues of seismic microzonation representativeness, which is amongst the mandatory assessments that precedes civil and industrial construction. In addition to the practical approach and in accordance with the normative documentation, the authors propose parametric interpretation of the remote basis by means of tracing geodynamic zones and elements of the geoblock structure, where the leading marker of seismogenic risk zones is the anomaly of spatial variability of the geofield, coinciding with the discordant intersection of localised land structures. Verification of this marker is achieved by displaying a cartographic distribution image within the range of the seismic point increment, detailed on the basis of approximation dependencies.

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Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2019-10-01
  • Date published
    2019-12-25

Stakeholders management of carbon sequestration project in the state – business – society system

Prevention of catastrophic effects of climate change is one of the most pressing challenges of this century. A prominent place in the low-carbon development system today is carbon capture and storage technology (CCS). This technology can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions, leading to global warming. Effectiveness of technology has been proven through successful implementation of a number of CCS projects. CCS projects are implemented in the context of national and often international interests, consolidating efforts of many parties. Sequestration projects involve government bodies, public, industrial and scientific sectors, as well as a number of other business structures. Each participant presents his own expectations for results of the project, which can compete among themselves, creating threats to its successful implementation. World experience in implementing CCS projects indicates that opposition from a certain group of stakeholders can lead to closure of a project, therefore, interaction with environment is one of the key elements in managing such projects. This study focuses on specifics of stakeholder management in implementation of CO 2 sequestration projects. Based on the analysis of world experience, role of the state, business and society in such projects is determined, their main expectations and interests are summarized. The main groups of stakeholders of CCS and CCUS (carbon capture, utilization and storage) projects were identified, differences in their interests and incentives to participate were analyzed. It is proved that system of interaction with stakeholders should be created at the early stages of the project, while management of stakeholders is a continuous process throughout the life cycle. An author’s tool is proposed for assessing degree of stakeholder interest, the use of which allowed us to determine interaction vectors with various groups of stakeholders.

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Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2018-07-24
  • Date published
    2019-02-25

ASSESSMENT OF REFRACTORY GOLD-BEARING ORES BASED OF INTERPRETATION OF THERMAL ANALYSIS DATA

The article presents the results of a study on the possibility to assess refractory gold-bearing ores using thermal analysis data. It studies the flotation concentrates obtained during the enrichment of double refractory sulfide gold-bearing ores. This type of ore is complicated by the fine impregnation of gold in sulphide minerals and the presence of sorption-active scattered carbonaceous matter, which is in close association with sulphides. The results of thermogravimetric and mass spectrometric studies of refractory gold-bearing ores are presented. The obtained fragments for kerogen CH (m/z = 15), C 2 H (m/z = 29) and C 3 H (m/z = 43) indicate the presence of various types of carbonaceous matter in the studied samples. It is justified that the degree of sorption activity of carbonaceous matter depends on the presence of kerogen and bitumen in the ore. High sorption activity of scattered carbonaceous material significantly affects the processing technology of ores and concentrates, both flotation and pyro- and hydrometallurgical methods. Thermogravimetric and mass spectroscopic analyzes can be used to determine the degree of preg-robbing of refractory gold-bearing ores. The obtained results predetermine the direction of creating new methods and technologies in the field of decarburization of refractory gold-bearing ores in the integrated development of solid minerals in the mining regions of Russia.

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Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2018-07-18
  • Date published
    2019-02-25

JUSTIFICATION OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS CHOICE FOR WELL DRILLING BY ROTARY STEERABLE SYSTEMS

Paper presents the analysis of the investigation results of vibrational accelerations and beating amplitudes of the downhole drilling motor, which help to define the ranges of optimum energy characteristics of the gerotor mechanism, ensuring its stable operation. Dependencies describing the operation of the «drilling bit – rotary steerable system with power screw section – drilling string» system and the values of the self-oscillation boundaries and the onset of system resonance when it is used jointly, were defined as a result of computational and full-scale experimental research. A mathematical model is proposed, which allows determining the optimal range of technological parameters for well drilling, reducing the extreme vibration accelerations of the bottomhole assembly by controlling the torque-power and frequency characteristics of the drilling string, taking into account the energy characteristics of the power screw section of the rotary steerable system. Recommendations on the choice of drilling mode parameters were given.

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Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2019-05-27
  • Date published
    2019-12-25

Improving the efficiency of using resource base of liquid hydrocarbons in Jurassic deposits of Western Siberia

Under conditions of the same type of oil deposits with hard-to-recover reserves in Jurassic terrigenous reservoirs of the West Siberian oil and gas province, a study was made about the influence of the geological structure features of objects and water flooding technologies on the response degree of production wells to water injection. Response degree of the wells was determined by analyzing the time series of production rates and injection volumes of injection wells with the calculation of inter-correlation function (ICF) values. It was believed that with ICF values in a given injection period of more than 0.5, production well responds to the injection. Factors that have a prevailing effect on water flooding success have been identified. Among them: effective oil-saturated thickness of the formation in production wells; relative amplitude of the self polarization of the formation in both production and injection wells; grittiness coefficient of the formation in injection wells; monthly volume of water injection and distance between wells. Methodological approach is proposed based on the application of the proposed empirical parameter of water flooding success, which involves the use of indirect data in conditions of limited information about the processes occurring in the formation at justification and selection of production wells for transferring them to injection during focal flooding; drilling of additional production and injection wells – compaction of the well grid; shutdown of injection and production wells; use of a transit wells stock; use of cyclic, non-stationary flooding in order to change the direction of filtration flows; determining the design of dual-purpose L-shaped wells (determining length of the horizontal part); limitation of flow rate in highly flooded wells with a high degree of interaction; determination of decompression zones (without injection of indicators), stagnant zones for drilling sidetracks, improving the location of production and injection wells, transferring wells from other horizons; choosing the purpose of the wells during implementation of the selective water flooding system in order to increase the efficiency of using the resource base of liquid hydrocarbons.

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Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2018-06-27
  • Date published
    2018-06-25

Control and regulation of the hydrochloric acid treatment of the bottomhole zone based on field-geological data

The analysis results of the hydrochloric acid treatment of the bottomhole zone efficiency along the deposits of high-viscosity oil in the carbonate reservoirs of the Tournaisian stage are presented in the paper. Based on the use of the non-parametric Kulbak criterion, the most informative geological and technological parameters, which affect most the success of hydrochloric acid treatments, assessed by the criteria of increased oil production and reduced water cut, are revealed. The generalization of the hydrochloric acid treatments experience in the conditions of the high-viscosity oil reservoirs of the Tournaisian Stage allows for efficient forecasting, selection of wells, control and regulation of the treatment process to reduce the number of inefficient operations and improve the technical and economic parameters of fuel and energy enterprises at the investigated sites and the ones with similar field-geological characteristics.

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Mining education: traditions and perspectives in the XXI century
  • Date submitted
    2017-06-28
  • Date published
    2017-06-25

Mining education in the XXI century: global challenges and prospects

An analysis of development prospects for the world mining industry is presented, requirements to mining technologies are formulated, as well as key trends of technologic development in the mineral resources complex. The paper demonstrates the role of mining industry and professional education as essential components of sustainable territorial development. Global challenges have been formulated, which must be taken into account when forming general approaches to the development of mining education. Distinctions of mining education in Russia, Germany, USA and other leading mining countries have been analyzed. Professional standards for mining engineers have been reviewed for different countries, along with their relation to educational standards. It has been shown, what role professional communities play in the development of professional education and stimulation of continuous professional development of mining engineers. Authors point out the need for international integration in the issues of training and continuous professional development of mining specialists, as well as international accreditation of educational programs for mining engineers and their certification. Information is presented on international organizations, performing the function of international accreditation of engineering educational programs, history of their establishment and role within the context of economic globalization. The paper contains examples of successful international cooperation and modern integration processes among universities, aimed at unification of requirements and improvement of existing systems of training and continuous professional development of mining engineers.

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Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2017-08-29
  • Date published
    2017-08-27

Dynamic stabilization of machining process based on local metastability in controlled robotic systems of CNC machines

The paper describes an effective method, which permits to control the machining of hard-to-handle materials under local pre-strain and facilitates generation of structural metastability on the outer layer of the process material. Authors propose a new approach to creating local metastability in the machined material using thermal, plastic and cryogenic treatment. Changes in material properties, occurring under local deformation, are presented in a widely used graphic form of a stress-strain curve. In experimental tests, performed under local plastic strain, the authors observed normal vibration displacement of the tool in relation to the surface of the workpiece, made of medium-carbon steel (0.45 % C). Theoretical and experimental results confirmed the possibility to control the cutting process and to deliver dynamic stability for high-precision machining. The study allows to improve existing technologies for a wide range of materials and cutting modes, to implement segmentation and breaking of the chip in the shear zone, and to apply controlled robotic systems on CNC machines.

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Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2018-02-08
  • Date published
    2018-08-26

INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF MINERAL RAW MATERIALS OF THE ARCTIC ZONE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

The comprehensive development of the mineral and raw materials potential of the Arctic regions of Russia is a complex strategic task requiring the use of modern methods for planning spatial development of territories. One of such methods is the organization of cluster formations as an effective tool for implementing innovation policy. Consolidating the efforts of many participants, diversified territorial clusters become the main points of growth, the multiplier effect within which has a positive impact both on the economy of the region and the country in general. The high level of risk and the significant costs of Arctic raw material projects make it impossible to implement them simply by accumulating production and financial resources, which makes it necessary to model flexible territorial production systems on the principles of integration. The article analyzes the prerequisites for the formation of cluster formations based on the resource potential of the support zones of the Russian Arctic, and the main expected effects from the creation of innovative raw Arctic clusters are revealed. During the study, the expediency of using integration mechanisms in the development of hydrocarbon reserves in technically difficult conditions of the Far North was justified. The strategic analysis of the three Arctic oil and gas projects currently implemented on the principles of clustering – Novy Port, Messoyakha, Yamal LNG, made it possible to conclude that there are sufficient external effects of projects such as creating conditions for the innovative development of related industries, the formation of a high-tech infrastructure framework in the region, the accumulation of experience in the implementation of Arctic projects, the diversification of hydrocarbon exports.

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Mining
  • Date submitted
    2017-06-28
  • Date published
    2017-06-25

Status and directions of improvement of development systems of coal seams on perspective Kuzbass coal mines

The article presents the results of the analysis of the Russian coal mines experience in using the variant of the long-pillar development system with the abandonment of coal pillars in the mined out areas of longwall faces. In the Kuzbass mines, this option accounts for 90-95 % of the total volume of coal mined by the underground method. It is pointed out that it is necessary to take into account the negative influence of the pillars left in the worked out space on the geomechanical conditions of conducting mining operations in the overworked (underworked) seams. A significant negative effect of the pillars is shown in combination with selective extraction of the adjacent layers on reduction of the balance reserves. The measures allowing to increase the efficiency of the use of long pillar mining systems for the development of adjacent series of seams are considered.

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Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2018-02-27
  • Date published
    2018-02-25

Uninterruptible power supply system for mining industry enterprises

Immediate problem of compensating falls and deviations of voltage in the power supply systems of mining enterprises in order to ensure the proper level of power supply reliability for the most important technological consumers is substantiated in the article. The main causes of the voltage falls and deviations occurrence in the power supply systems of mining enterprises have been identified. The degree of different nature voltage falls and deviations influence on the dynamic and static stability of power supply systems is established. The necessity of ensuring an uninterrupted and guaranteed power supply mode for continuous technological processes of mining production is shown. The analysis of the existing regulatory documentation in the field of guaranteed and uninterrupted power supply is carried out. Based on the results of experimental studies and mathematical modeling, a relationship has been revealed between formally independent sources of electricity supply from the viewpoint of existing regulatory documentation. The expression allowing determination of cohesion coefficient of two power supply sources is given. The necessity of taking into account the degree of sources interconnection in the synthesis of uninterruptible power supply systems for mining enterprises is justified. The analysis of existing technical means and solutions for reserving power supply for mining enterprises, including modern uninterruptible online power supply systems, own needs power plants, as well as dynamic voltage distortion compensators, is done. The classification of the consumers categories related to possibility of their complete or partial shutdown in emergency modes in case of voltage falls and interruptions is given. System of uninterruptible power supply for mining enterprises based on the combined use of alternative and renewable energy sources, uninterruptible power supply sources and a multi-step automatic reserve transition system, which allows ensuring uninterrupted mode of energy supply for the most responsible consumers of mining enterprises, was developed. 

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Mining
  • Date submitted
    2017-08-29
  • Date published
    2017-08-27

Mathematical modeling of seismic explosion waves impact on rock mass with a working

In the article, within the framework of the dynamic theory of elasticity, a mathematical model of the impact of seismic blast waves on rock mass is presented, including a working. The increase in the volume of mining operations in complex mining and geological conditions, taking into account the influence of the explosion energy, is closely connected with the analysis of the main parameters of the stress-strain state of the rock massif including a working. The latter leads to the need to determine the safe parameters of drilling and blasting operations that ensure the operational state of mining. The main danger in detonation of an explosive charge near an active working is a seismic explosive wave which characteristics are determined by the properties of soil and parameters of drilling and blasting operations. The determination of stress fields and displacement velocities in rock mass requires the use of a modern mathematical apparatus for its solution. For numerical solution of the given boundary value problem by the method of finite differences, an original calculation-difference scheme is constructed. The application of the splitting method for solving a two-dimensional boundary value problem is reduced to the solution of spatially one-dimensional differential equations. For the obtained numerical algorithm, an effective computational software has been developed. Numerical solutions of the model problem are given for the case when the shape of the working has a form of an ellipse.

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Mining
  • Date submitted
    2018-07-10
  • Date published
    2019-04-25

Features of elementary burst formation during cutting coals and isotropic materials with reference cutting tool of mining machines

The paper considers the cutting of brittle coals and rocks by a single cutter of a mining machine, in contrast to the generally accepted integral approach, different from the standpoint of the formation of successive elementary bursts that make up the cut. The process of the formation of an elementary bust in time is viewed as successive phases. Due to the complexity and multi-factor nature of the process, preference is given to experimental bench studies using reference cutters, isotropic materials, and real rock blocks. The bursting parameters values greatly influence the time of static forces action, the peculiarities of the formation of stress fields in the undercutter zone of the rock mass and the conditions for the emergence and development of main cracks in the near-cut zones during the cutting process. The accepted phase-energy method of analyzing the process, which most closely matches the structure of the studied process, revealed a more significant, than previously expected, effect on the cutting process, variability of cutting speed and potential energy reserve in the cutter drive. The paper discusses the possibility of purposeful formation of the parameters of elementary bursts. It describes new ways to improve the efficiency of cutting coal and rocks, in particular, reducing the maximum loads and specific energy consumption. It also considers the possibility of reducing the grinding of the rock mass and dust formation.

Read more
Mining education: traditions and perspectives in the XXI century
  • Date submitted
    2017-08-29
  • Date published
    2017-08-27

Application of electronic learning tools for training of specialists in the field of information technologies for enterprises of mineral resources sector

The article shows the advantages of using modern electronic learning tools in the training of specialists for the mineral and raw materials complex and considers the basic principles of organizing training using these tools. The experience of using electronic learning tools using foreign teaching materials and involving foreign professors is described. A special attention is given to the electronic learning environment of the Cisco Networking Academy – Cisco NetAcad. The experience of teaching at the Networking Academy of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University is described. Details are given to modern virtual environments for laboratory work, such as Cisco Packet Tracer, GNS3 and Emulated Virtual Environment. The experience of using electronic learning technologies at the University of Economics of Bratislava is considered. It actively cooperates with a number of universities of other countries, such as the University of International Business (Almaty), the Eurasian National University named after LN Gumilyov (Astana) and the Institute of Social and Humanitarian Knowledge (Kazan).

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Geoecology and occupational health and safety
  • Date submitted
    2020-01-10
  • Date published
    2020-02-25

Biogeochemical assessment of soils and plants in industrial, residential and recreational areas of Saint Petersburg

Soils and plants of Saint Petersburg are under the constant technogenic stress caused by human activity in industrial, residential, and recreational landscapes of the city. To assess the transformed landscapes of various functional zones, we studied utility, housing, and park districts with a total area of over 7,000 hectares in the southern part of the city during the summer seasons of 2016-2018. Throughout the fieldwork period, 796 individual pairs of soil and plant samples were collected. A complex of consequent laboratory studies performed in an accredited laboratory allowed the characterization of key biogeochemical patterns of urban regolith specimens and herbage samples of various grasses. Chemical analyses provided information on the concentrations of polluting metals in soils and plants of different land use zones. Data interpretation and calculation of element accumulation factors revealed areas with the most unfavorable environmental conditions. We believe that a high pollution level in southern city districts has led to a significant degree of physical, chemical, and biological degradation of the soil and vegetation cover. As of today, approximately 10 % of the Technosols in the study area have completely lost the ability to biological self-revitalization, which results in ecosystem malfunction and the urgent need for land remediation.    

Read more
Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-13
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-24
  • Date published
    2020-10-13

Barriers to implementation of hydrogen initiatives in the context of global energy sustainable development

Modern trends in the global energy market linked to the Sustainable Development Goals often lead to the adoption of political decisions with little basis in fact. Stepping up the development of renewable energy sources is an economically questionable but necessary step in terms of its social and ecological effects. However, subsequent development of hydrogen infrastructure is, at the very least, a dangerous initiative. In connection with mentioned above, an attempt to examine hydrogen by conducting an integral assessment of its characteristics has been made in this article. As a result of the research conducted, the following conclusions concerning the potential of the widespread implementation of hydrogen in the power generation sector have been made: as a chemical element, it harms steel structures, which significantly impedes the selection of suitable materials; its physical and volume characteristics decrease the general efficiency of the energy system compared to similar hydrocarbon solutions; the hydrogen economy does not have the necessary foundation in terms of both physical infrastructure and market regulation mechanisms; the emergence of widely available hydrogen poses a danger for society due to its high combustibility. Following the results of the study, it was concluded that the existing pilot hydrogen projects are positive yet not scalable solutions for the power generation sector due to the lack of available technologies to construct large-scale and geographically distributed infrastructure and adequate international system of industry regulation. Thus, under current conditions, the risks of implementing such projects considerably exceed their potential ecological benefits.

Read more
Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2019-09-29
  • Date accepted
    2020-02-24
  • Date published
    2020-04-26

Vs sustainable development: scenarios for the future

Issues of sustainable development began to concern mankind starting from the 20th century, when mass industrialization and the depletion of natural resource potential contributed to the formulation of environmental issues at one of the leading places in scientific discourse. However, what if the goals of sustainable development would not be achieved to 2030? What other way we can identify for humanity to survive? So, the study is about the problems of studying the understanding of the term “sustainable development”, considering the evolution of the formation of the concept of sustainable development and analyzing the modern goals of sustainable development for attainability. From an analysis of domestic and foreign experience, possible scenarios of the development of mankind are identified (such as 1. Creating an environmental framework, 2. Implementation of sustainable nature management practices in the conditions of natural and man-made objects, 3. Implementation of “geoengineering projects”, 4. Construction of autonomous ecosystems, 5. Space exploration in search of a new planet for life, provided that the goals of sustainable development would not be achieved. It has been established that today probability of achieving all the sustainable development goals by 2030 is too small, and the indicated scenarios require, firstly, the development of science and technology, and secondly, a competent assessment of the value of nature and solving the issue of specifying property rights for natural goods.

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Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2020-06-15
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-15
  • Date published
    2020-06-30

Multi-terminal dc grid overall control with modular multilevel converters

This paper presents a control philosophy for multiterminal DC grids, which are embedded in the main AC grid. DC transmission lines maintain higher power flow at longer distances compared with AC lines. The voltage losses are also much lower. DC power transmission is good option for Russian north. Arctic seashore regions of Russia don't have well developed electrical infrastructure therefore power line lengths are significant there. Considering above it is possible to use DC grids for supply mining enterprises in Arctic regions (offshore drilling platforms for example). Three different control layers are presented in an hierarchical way: local, primary and secondary. This whole control strategy is verified in a scaled three-nodes DC grid. In one of these nodes, a modular multilevel converter (MMC) is implemented (five sub-modules per arm). A novel model-based optimization method to control AC and circulating currents is discussed. In the remaining nodes, three-level voltage source converters (VSC) are installed. For their local controllers, a new variant for classical PI controllers are used, which allow to adapt the values of the PI parameters with respect to the measured variables. Concerning the primary control, droop control technique has been chosen. Regarding secondary level, a new power flow technique is suggested. Unbalance conditions are also verified in order to show the robustness of the whole control strategy.

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Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2020-04-24
  • Date accepted
    2020-05-20
  • Date published
    2020-10-13

Prospects and social effects of carbon dioxide sequestration and utilization projects

The issues of global warming and occurrence of the greenhouse effect are widely discussed on a global scale. Various methods of reducing greenhouse gas emissions are actively being investigated and tested, including technologies for sequestration of carbon dioxide, the implementation of which is carried out in the form of CC(U)S (carbon capture, utilization and storage) projects related to capture, disposal and, in some cases, use of CO 2 . In Russia, CC(U)S technologies are not yet used, but there is a significant potential for their development and distribution. CC(U)S technologies acquire a special role in the context of the development of the energy and industrial sectors of Russia, which are key sources of emissions, and the geological objects belonging to them are potential carbon storages. The purpose of this study is to conceptually analyze the CC(U)S technological cycle and typify such projects, assess the prospects for their implementation in Russia, and identify social effects from the implementation of CC(U)S projects. The main results of the study are presented in the form of a typology of CC(U)S projects, a strategic analysis of the prospects for introduction of such technologies in Russia, as well as development of approaches to assessing social effects with systematization and highlighting a set of indicators for their assessment, which can serve as a basis for re-estimation of the values of CC(U)S projects. The main research methods used were methods of decomposition, systematization and typology, as well as strategic analysis with a focus on relevant practical materials on the topic of the work. Directions for further research are related to the substantiation of the methodology for assessing social effects of CC(U)S projects, including for the conditions of Russia, based on the principles of balancing the interests of key participants.

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Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2019-05-30
  • Date published
    2020-02-25

Study on influence of two-phase filtration transformation on formation of zones of undeveloped oil reserves

In order to study the process of fluid filtration during flooding of an oil field, article uses Rapoport – Lis model of non-piston oil displacement by water. During plane-radial filtration in a homogeneous formation, radii of disturbance zones are determined with and without taking into account the end effect. Influence of changes in value of capillary pressure gradient on distribution of water saturation coefficient in the non-piston displacement zone for high and low permeability reservoirs is revealed. Application of an element model for a five-point injection and production well placement system showed that, using traditional flooding technology, flat-radial fluid filtration is transformed into rectilinear-parallel. At solving equation of water saturation, Barenblatt method of integral relations was used, which allows determining the transformation time. By solving the saturation equation for rectilinear-parallel filtration, change in the value of water saturation coefficient at bottomhole of production well for an unlimited and closed deposit is determined. It is shown that an increase in water cut coefficient of a production well is possible only for a closed formation. To determine coefficient of water saturation in a closed deposit, a differential equation with variable coefficients is obtained, an iterative solution method is proposed. In the element of the five-point system, oil-saturated zones not covered by development were identified. For channels of low filtration resistance, conditions for their location in horizontal and vertical planes are established. It is shown that, at maintaining formation pressure, there is an isobar line in formation, corresponding to initial formation pressure, location of which determines direction of fluid crossflow rates. Intensity of crossflows affects application efficiency of hydrodynamic, physical and chemical, thermal and other methods of enhanced oil recovery.  

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Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2019-10-30
  • Date published
    2020-02-25

Methodology for determining the parameters of drilling mode for directional straight sections of well using screw downhole motors

Article presents results of study on possibility of increasing the efficiency of drilling directional straight sections of wells using screw downhole motors (SDM) with a combined method of drilling with rotation of drilling string (DS). Goal is to ensure steady-state operation of SDM with simultaneous rotation of DS by reducing the amplitude of oscillations with adjusting the parameters of drilling mode on the basis of mathematical modeling for SDM – DS system. Results of experimental study on determination of extrema distribution of lateral and axial oscillations of SDM frame depending on geometrical parameters of gerotor mechanism and modes ensuring stable operation are presented. Approaches to development of a mathematical model and methodology are conceptually outlined that allow determining the range of self-oscillations for SDM – DS system and boundaries of rotational and translational wave perturbations for a heterogeneous rod with an installed SDM at drilling directional straight sections of well. This mathematical model of SDM – DS system's dynamics makes it possible to predict optimal parameters of directional drilling mode that ensure stable operation of borehole assembly.    

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Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2019-10-15
  • Date accepted
    2019-11-19
  • Date published
    2020-10-13

Oilfield service companies as part of economy digitalization: assessment of the prospects for innovative development

The digital transformation of the economy as the most important stage of scientific and technological progress and transition to a new technological structure is becoming one of the determining factors in the development and competitiveness of the domestic upstream sector. Prospects for innovative development of oilfield service companies are the key technological areas within the first project of the Hi-Tech Strategy of the German Government until 2020 – “Industry 4.0”. The purpose of this study is to assess the prospects for innovative development of the domestic oilfield service industry in the context of the digitalization of the oil and gas industry. The subject of the research is the process of the formation of key technological lines of “Industry 4.0” and their impact on the domestic oil and gas sector. The research is based on logical-theoretical and empirical analyses. The main factors that determine processes of digital transformation in the oil and gas industry are considered; the results of digitalization processes in the largest foreign and Russian industry companies of the upstream and oilfield services segments are presented. The information base is made up of data from oilfield service and oil and gas producing companies, presented on the official websites of companies in the public domain on the Internet. It has been proven that, unlike the world's leading companies in oilfield services segment, independent domestic oilfield service companies provide mainly traditional service technologies in a fairly narrow range. The limited scope of functioning and technological capabilities of Russian companies is explained by the lack of necessary investment in development and expansion of business, as well as interest on the part of the state and corporate sectors in the development and replication of domestic technologies and the formation of a full-fledged oilfield services market in Russia.

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Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2019-06-22
  • Date accepted
    2019-09-11
  • Date published
    2020-04-26

Effective capacity building by empowerment teaching in the field of occupational safety and health management in mining

The paper is dealing with a developed concept named Empowerment Teaching, which is based on practical teaching experience gained in various mining universities. It is demonstrated that this concept can be used to increase the effectiveness of knowledge transfer to mining countries in the world, as well as to overcome cultural barriers between lecturers and their students. The two models of participatory training, which are proposed to be named “physical” and “emotional” models, are portrayed. The authors are convinced that participatory training methods can be an ideal answer to a challenge associated with workers’ competencies in mining, namely – the potential of highly motivated and well-educated young academics is often diminished by a lack of ability to apply their knowledge. A special emphasis is made on the possible application of empowerment teaching for educational and training activities in the field of occupational safety and health (OSH), which is a matter of utmost importance for the mining industry. Several benchmarking initiatives in the field of OSH (“safety culture”, zero-accident vision) are underlined to be encouraged and promoted by means of new teaching methods. The examples of successful international cooperation among universities are given, as well.

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Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2019-09-25
  • Date accepted
    2019-12-20
  • Date published
    2020-04-26

Study of the well near-bottomhole zone permeability during treatment by process fluids

In the process of drilling-in productive horizons, several irreversible physical and chemical processes take place in the near-wellbore zone of the formation: stress state of the rocks changes, penetration of the filtrate and solid phase, as well as drilling mud into the reservoir, and swelling of clay particles of intergranular cementing material are observed. As a result, permeability of productive horizon is significantly reduced and, consequently, potential inflow of oil or gas from formation is excluded. An equally serious problem exists during well servicing and workover, when the use of irrational fluids of well killing causes negative consequences associated with deterioration of reservoir properties of formations in the wells being repaired. Article presents the results of the experiments on permeability of clayed porous samples after exposure to various compositions of liquids. In order to increase permeability of near-borehole zone of the formation and increase productivity of wells completed by drilling, and after well servicing and workover, a composition of the process fluid containing a 15 % aqueous solution of oxyethylene diphosphonic acid (OEDA) with addition of a surfactant is proposed.

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Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-13
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-24
  • Date published
    2020-10-13

Barriers to implementation of hydrogen initiatives in the context of global energy sustainable development

Modern trends in the global energy market linked to the Sustainable Development Goals often lead to the adoption of political decisions with little basis in fact. Stepping up the development of renewable energy sources is an economically questionable but necessary step in terms of its social and ecological effects. However, subsequent development of hydrogen infrastructure is, at the very least, a dangerous initiative. In connection with mentioned above, an attempt to examine hydrogen by conducting an integral assessment of its characteristics has been made in this article. As a result of the research conducted, the following conclusions concerning the potential of the widespread implementation of hydrogen in the power generation sector have been made: as a chemical element, it harms steel structures, which significantly impedes the selection of suitable materials; its physical and volume characteristics decrease the general efficiency of the energy system compared to similar hydrocarbon solutions; the hydrogen economy does not have the necessary foundation in terms of both physical infrastructure and market regulation mechanisms; the emergence of widely available hydrogen poses a danger for society due to its high combustibility. Following the results of the study, it was concluded that the existing pilot hydrogen projects are positive yet not scalable solutions for the power generation sector due to the lack of available technologies to construct large-scale and geographically distributed infrastructure and adequate international system of industry regulation. Thus, under current conditions, the risks of implementing such projects considerably exceed their potential ecological benefits.

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Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2021-02-05
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-30
  • Date published
    2021-04-21

Assessment of negative infrastructural externalities when determining the land value

The work forms and substantiates the concept of land value, based on a new institutional theory. The infrastructural component of the cost of land in the presented concept determines, on the one hand, the efficiency of the use of natural resources, properties, demand for land on the market, on the other hand, the costs, which are determined not only by capital investments in construction of engineering infrastructure, but also by losses associated with restrictions on activities within zones with special conditions for territory use, creation of unfavorable conditions for economic activity, small contours, irregularities and others on a specific land plot, which are external negative infrastructural externalities that create losses of rights holders of land plots that are not compensated by the market, falling within the boundaries of these zones. Methods for assessing the impact of such negative infrastructural externalities on the cost of land encumbered by zones in different conditions of land market activity have been developed and tested, based on an expert-analytical approach (depressed market); the ratio of market values of land plots encumbered and unencumbered by a specific zone, and qualimetric modeling (inactive market); modeling by introducing into the model the factor of presence of zones with special conditions for territory use, based on the grouping of zones according to similar regulations for use, or by introducing the parameters of this factor (active market). Methods for taking into account spatial deficiencies and compensating for restrictions and prohibitions on activities on the territory of land plots with an individual market assessment are proposed.

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Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-10-19
  • Date accepted
    2021-12-01
  • Date published
    2021-12-17

Potential technological solution for sampling the bottom sediments of the subglacial lake Vostok: relevance and formulation of investigation goals

The subglacial Lake Vostok in Antarctic is a unique natural phenomenon, its comprehensive study involves sampling of water and bottom surface rocks. For further study of the lake, it is necessary to drill a new access well and develop environmentally safe technologies for its exploration. This article discusses existing and potential technologies for sampling bottom surface rocks of subglacial lakes. All these technologies meet environmental safety requirements and are conducive for sampling. The authors have proposed an alternative technology, using a walking device, which, due to its mobility, enables selective sampling of rocks across a large area from a single access well. The principal issues, related to the implementation of the proposed technology, are investigated within this article. This report is prepared by a team of specialists with many years of experience in drilling at the Vostok Station in Antarctic and in experimental work on the design of equipment and non-standard means of mechanization for complicated mining, geological and climatic conditions.

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Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-03-18
  • Date accepted
    2021-09-10
  • Date published
    2021-10-29

Development of blocking compositions with a bridging agent for oil well killing in conditions of abnormally low formation pressure and carbonate reservoir rocks

Production well killing before workover operations in late-stage oil and gas-condensate fields can be complicated by abnormally low formation pressure, carbonate type of reservoir rocks, and high gas-oil ratio. These complications lead to the intensive absorption of technological fluids by the formation and gas ingresses, which, in its turn, increases the time of killing wells and putting them on production, reduction of productivity, and additional costs. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a high-performance well-killing composition that would allow improving the efficiency of killing wells in complicated geological, physical, and technological conditions at the expense of reliable overlapping of the perforation interval (or open wellbore) to prevent gas intakes and gas outflow from the formation. To develop blocking compounds, a set of laboratory tests has been carried out, including physical and chemical (determination of density, viscosity, thermal stability, sedimentation stability, etc.) and research of blocking and filtration properties of compositions during simulation of a fractured reservoir. In the course of laboratory tests, the choice of fractional composition and polymer filler concentration was substantiated in the blocking emulsion and polymer compositions to increase the efficiency of their application under the complicated conditions of killing oil wells. As a result of laboratory research and field tests, the emulsion and polymer blocking compositions containing bridging agent (microcalcite) were developed, which increase the oil well killing efficiency by preventing the absorption of technological fluids in the formations and, as a result, preserving its productivity.

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Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2020-04-24
  • Date accepted
    2020-05-20
  • Date published
    2020-10-13

Prospects and social effects of carbon dioxide sequestration and utilization projects

The issues of global warming and occurrence of the greenhouse effect are widely discussed on a global scale. Various methods of reducing greenhouse gas emissions are actively being investigated and tested, including technologies for sequestration of carbon dioxide, the implementation of which is carried out in the form of CC(U)S (carbon capture, utilization and storage) projects related to capture, disposal and, in some cases, use of CO 2 . In Russia, CC(U)S technologies are not yet used, but there is a significant potential for their development and distribution. CC(U)S technologies acquire a special role in the context of the development of the energy and industrial sectors of Russia, which are key sources of emissions, and the geological objects belonging to them are potential carbon storages. The purpose of this study is to conceptually analyze the CC(U)S technological cycle and typify such projects, assess the prospects for their implementation in Russia, and identify social effects from the implementation of CC(U)S projects. The main results of the study are presented in the form of a typology of CC(U)S projects, a strategic analysis of the prospects for introduction of such technologies in Russia, as well as development of approaches to assessing social effects with systematization and highlighting a set of indicators for their assessment, which can serve as a basis for re-estimation of the values of CC(U)S projects. The main research methods used were methods of decomposition, systematization and typology, as well as strategic analysis with a focus on relevant practical materials on the topic of the work. Directions for further research are related to the substantiation of the methodology for assessing social effects of CC(U)S projects, including for the conditions of Russia, based on the principles of balancing the interests of key participants.

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Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2021-04-15
  • Date accepted
    2021-07-27
  • Date published
    2021-09-29

Analysis of the application and impact of carbon dioxide media on the corrosion state of oil and gas facilities

Products of several currently operated production facilities (Bovanenkovskoye, Urengoyskoye oil and gas condensate fields, etc.) contain an increased amount of corrosive CO 2 . Effect of CO 2 on the corrosion of steel infrastructure facilities is determined by the conditions of its use. Carbon dioxide has a potentially wide range of applications at oil and gas facilities for solving technological problems (during production, transportation, storage, etc.). Each of the aggregate states of CO 2 (gas, liquid and supercritical) is used and affects the corrosion state of oil and gas facilities. Article analyzes the results of simulation tests and evaluates the corrosion effect of CO 2 on typical steels (carbon, low-alloy and alloyed) used at field facilities. The main factors influencing the intensity of carbonic acid corrosion processes in the main conditions of hydrocarbon production with CO 2 , storage and its use for various technological purposes are revealed. Development of carbon dioxide corrosion is accompanied and characterized by the localization of corrosion and the formation of defects (pitting, pits, etc.). Even alloyed steels are not always resistant in the presence of moisture and increased partial pressures of CO 2 , especially in the presence of additional factors of corrosive influence (temperature, aggressive impurities in gas, etc.).

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Mining
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-26
  • Date accepted
    2020-09-23
  • Date published
    2020-12-29

Automated ventilation control in mines. Challenges, state of the art, areas for improvement

The article is divided into three main parts. The first part provides an overview of the existing literature on theoretical methods for calculating the optimal air distribution in mines according to the criteria of energy efficiency and providing all sections of mines with the required amount of air. It is shown that by the current moment there are many different formulations of the problem of searching the optimal air distribution, many different approaches and methods for optimizing air distribution have been developed. The case of a single (main) fan is most fully investigated, while for many fans a number of issues still remain unresolved. The second part is devoted to the review of existing methods and examples of the automated mine ventilation control systems implementation in Russia and abroad. Two of the most well-known concepts for the development of such systems are automated ventilation control systems (AVCS) in Russia and the CIS countries and Ventilation on demand (VOD) abroad. The main strategies of ventilation management in the framework of the AVCS and VOD concepts are described and also the key differences between them are shown. One of the key differences between AVCS and VOD today is the automatic determination of the operation parameters of fan units and ventilation doors using the optimal control algorithm, which is an integral part of the AVCS. The third part of the article describes the optimal control algorithm developed by the team of the Mining Institute of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences with the participation of the authors of the article. In this algorithm, the search for optimal air distribution is carried out by the system in a fully automated mode in real time using algorithms programmed into the microcontrollers of fans and ventilation doors. Minimization of energy consumption is achieved due to the most efficient selection of the fan speed and the rate of ventilation doors opening and also due to the air distribution shift control and the partial air recirculation systems introduction. It is noted that currently the available literature poorly covers the issue related to emergency operation modes ventilation systems of mines and also with the adaptation of automated control systems to different mining methods. According to the authors, further development of automated ventilation control systems should be carried out, in particular, in these two areas.

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Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2020-06-12
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-15
  • Date published
    2020-12-29

Analysis of project organization specifics in small-scale LNG production

Gas industry plays an important role in the global energy sector, and in the coming decades amountsof natural gas production will only increase. One of the fastest growing trends in gas industry is the production of liquefiednatural gas (LNG), which is associated with the necessity to organize flexible systems of gas supply to the regions,remote from gas extraction sites. Industrial structure of LNG production includes projects, belonging to several different groups depending to their scale, in particular, small-scale production (SSLNG), cumulative production capacityof which is approximately 10 % from the industry-wide one. Economic aspects of implementing such projects remainunderexplored, which does not allow to draw objective conclusions regarding the prospects of their implementationin particular regions.This paper contains a review of publications, devoted to SSLNG project studies, aimed at identifying specifics oftheir organization compared to projects of greater scale. The results demonstrate that the majority of internationalcompanies classify projects as SSLNG, if their annual production capacity is below 0.5 million tonnes per annum.Specific capital costs, as well as implementation timelines of such projects, are several times lower than those of projects with greater production capacity, which reduces their risks and minimizes barriers to market entry. Furthermore,SSLNG is the most decentralized subsector in gas industry, aiming to cover the market due to a growing numberof projects, not their specific production capacity. These specific features define significant prospects of SSLNGdevelopment in Russia, both in the context of energy supply to remote regions and diversification of export deliveries.

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Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2021-04-26
  • Date accepted
    2021-07-27
  • Date published
    2021-09-29

Study of the dynamics for gas accumulation in the annulus of production wells

Accumulation of associated petroleum gas in the annulus is one of the negative factors that impede the intensification of mechanized oil production. An increase in annular gas pressure causes growth of bottomhole pressure, a decrease in back pressure to the formation and the inflow of formation fluid. In addition, accumulation of gas in the annulus leads to displacement and a decrease in the liquid level above the submersible pump. Insufficient level of the pump submersion (rod or electric submersible) causes a number of complications in the operation of mechanized production units associated with overheating of the elements in pumping units. Therefore, the development of technologies for optimizing the gas pressure in the annulus is relevant. Method for calculating the intensity of gas pressure increase in the annulus of production wells operated by submersible pumps has been developed. Analytical dependence for calculating the time interval of gas accumulation in the annulus, during which the dynamic level decreases to the pump intake, is obtained. This value can be used to estimate the frequency of gas withdrawal from the annulus using compressors. It has been found that the rate of increase in annular gas pressure in time increases non-linearly with a rise in the gas-oil ratio and a decrease in water cut, and also linearly increases with a rise in liquid flow rate. Influence of the operating (gas-oil ratio) and technological (value of the gas pressure maintained in the annulus) factors on the flow rate of the suspended reciprocating compressor driven by the beam engine, designed for forced withdrawal and redirection of the annular gas into the flow line of the well is analyzed.

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Geology
  • Date submitted
    2020-07-27
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-30
  • Date published
    2021-06-24

New data on the granite pedestal of the monument to Peter the Great “The Bronze Horseman” in Saint Petersburg

In order to expand and popularize knowledge about the stone decoration of Saint Petersburg, we present new data on the mineralogy and petrography of the famous Thunder-Stone, the parts of which were the basis for the monument to Peter the Great – the legendary “Bronze Horseman”. In the course of studying geological documentation of the monument's granite base, we examined the mineral composition and internal structure of granite, as well as the fragments of a pegmatite vein and veinlets found in it. 25 single-mineral samples were collected from the available micro-scaled shear fractures within the pedestal surface and studied by electron microscopy, electron probe and X-ray phase analysis. It was established that K-Na feldspar in the granite composition was represented by microcline, whereas micas were represented by annite-siderophyllite and muscovite. Accessory minerals included monazite, xenotime, thorite, zircon, rutile, apatite, fluorite, Ti-, Nb-, Ta-bearing minerals, uranium phosphates. The presence of topaz is characteristic of pegmatites. The revealed structural and textural features of four granite boulders in the monument pedestal, as well as mineralogical and chemical composition of their rock-forming and accessory minerals, showed the similarity of this rock to Precambrian biotite-muscovite granites and topaz-containing pegmatites (stockscheiders) of the late formation phase of the Vyborg rapakivi granite massif. The research results are considered as the basis for further geological and mineralogical study of the Thunder-Stone origin and determining the place of its separation from the primary source.

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Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-13
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-24
  • Date published
    2020-10-13

Barriers to implementation of hydrogen initiatives in the context of global energy sustainable development

Modern trends in the global energy market linked to the Sustainable Development Goals often lead to the adoption of political decisions with little basis in fact. Stepping up the development of renewable energy sources is an economically questionable but necessary step in terms of its social and ecological effects. However, subsequent development of hydrogen infrastructure is, at the very least, a dangerous initiative. In connection with mentioned above, an attempt to examine hydrogen by conducting an integral assessment of its characteristics has been made in this article. As a result of the research conducted, the following conclusions concerning the potential of the widespread implementation of hydrogen in the power generation sector have been made: as a chemical element, it harms steel structures, which significantly impedes the selection of suitable materials; its physical and volume characteristics decrease the general efficiency of the energy system compared to similar hydrocarbon solutions; the hydrogen economy does not have the necessary foundation in terms of both physical infrastructure and market regulation mechanisms; the emergence of widely available hydrogen poses a danger for society due to its high combustibility. Following the results of the study, it was concluded that the existing pilot hydrogen projects are positive yet not scalable solutions for the power generation sector due to the lack of available technologies to construct large-scale and geographically distributed infrastructure and adequate international system of industry regulation. Thus, under current conditions, the risks of implementing such projects considerably exceed their potential ecological benefits.

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Geomechanics, geodesy, mine surveying and cadastre
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-08
  • Date published
    2011-01-01

Software of automation of the decision of the linear notch and equalizing of network triangulation with measured lengths

The mathematical apparatus of the decision of a linear notch for development of networks triangulation with measured lengths in the conditions of Hebron (Palestin) is presented. The algorithm of equalizing and an estimation of accuracy of the points inserted into a network is offered. Using algorithms of the decision of a linear notch, equalizing and an estimation of accuracy of the inserted points, the program automating these procedures is written. Practical application of this program is shown.

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Geology
  • Date submitted
    2016-10-13
  • Date published
    2015-01-01

Results of applying self-potential method and electrical resistivity tomography to study Alexandrovsky settlement (Kaluga region)

Alexandrovsky ancient settlement is situated in the Kaluga region near the river Voria and Alexandrovka village. Self potential (SP) measurements with new non-polarizing electrodes of the second generation instead of traditional copper-copper sulfate electrodes were performed in 2013 and increased the quality of measurements. SP data were analyzed together with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The authors found filtration SP anomalies and proved that the main SP anomaly has diffusion-adsorption origin, determined that the Alexandrovsky site of the ancient settlement has decreased SP values.

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Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2021-02-05
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-30
  • Date published
    2021-04-21

Assessment of negative infrastructural externalities when determining the land value

The work forms and substantiates the concept of land value, based on a new institutional theory. The infrastructural component of the cost of land in the presented concept determines, on the one hand, the efficiency of the use of natural resources, properties, demand for land on the market, on the other hand, the costs, which are determined not only by capital investments in construction of engineering infrastructure, but also by losses associated with restrictions on activities within zones with special conditions for territory use, creation of unfavorable conditions for economic activity, small contours, irregularities and others on a specific land plot, which are external negative infrastructural externalities that create losses of rights holders of land plots that are not compensated by the market, falling within the boundaries of these zones. Methods for assessing the impact of such negative infrastructural externalities on the cost of land encumbered by zones in different conditions of land market activity have been developed and tested, based on an expert-analytical approach (depressed market); the ratio of market values of land plots encumbered and unencumbered by a specific zone, and qualimetric modeling (inactive market); modeling by introducing into the model the factor of presence of zones with special conditions for territory use, based on the grouping of zones according to similar regulations for use, or by introducing the parameters of this factor (active market). Methods for taking into account spatial deficiencies and compensating for restrictions and prohibitions on activities on the territory of land plots with an individual market assessment are proposed.

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Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2019-01-23
  • Date published
    2019-10-27

Effective Power and Speed of Mining Dump Trucks in Fuel Economy Mode

Existing methods for determining the effective power, based on the calculation of the average indicator operation of the engine during the piston stroke, do not take into account the change in thermodynamic parameters and the polytropic operation of the engine, the value of which depends on the polytropic efficiency of the duty cycle. This is the reason that the calculation of the effective power leads to some error – the margin of the engine features. The identification of this stock allows us to review the entire line of dump trucks in the direction of increasing their pass- port effective capacity, which will lead to a reduction in capital purchase costs due to the choice of a previously un- derestimated and cheaper option, as well as a reduction in current operating costs due to a decrease in the specific fuel consumption rate. Taking into account the stochastic nature of the transport process and assessing the influence of all external and internal factors when calculating the rational mode of operation of a mining truck can further reduce specific fuel consumption by choosing the rational speed of its movement in loaded and empty directions.

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Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2020-04-24
  • Date accepted
    2020-05-20
  • Date published
    2020-10-13

Prospects and social effects of carbon dioxide sequestration and utilization projects

The issues of global warming and occurrence of the greenhouse effect are widely discussed on a global scale. Various methods of reducing greenhouse gas emissions are actively being investigated and tested, including technologies for sequestration of carbon dioxide, the implementation of which is carried out in the form of CC(U)S (carbon capture, utilization and storage) projects related to capture, disposal and, in some cases, use of CO 2 . In Russia, CC(U)S technologies are not yet used, but there is a significant potential for their development and distribution. CC(U)S technologies acquire a special role in the context of the development of the energy and industrial sectors of Russia, which are key sources of emissions, and the geological objects belonging to them are potential carbon storages. The purpose of this study is to conceptually analyze the CC(U)S technological cycle and typify such projects, assess the prospects for their implementation in Russia, and identify social effects from the implementation of CC(U)S projects. The main results of the study are presented in the form of a typology of CC(U)S projects, a strategic analysis of the prospects for introduction of such technologies in Russia, as well as development of approaches to assessing social effects with systematization and highlighting a set of indicators for their assessment, which can serve as a basis for re-estimation of the values of CC(U)S projects. The main research methods used were methods of decomposition, systematization and typology, as well as strategic analysis with a focus on relevant practical materials on the topic of the work. Directions for further research are related to the substantiation of the methodology for assessing social effects of CC(U)S projects, including for the conditions of Russia, based on the principles of balancing the interests of key participants.

Read more
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2020-07-27
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-30
  • Date published
    2021-06-24

New data on the granite pedestal of the monument to Peter the Great “The Bronze Horseman” in Saint Petersburg

In order to expand and popularize knowledge about the stone decoration of Saint Petersburg, we present new data on the mineralogy and petrography of the famous Thunder-Stone, the parts of which were the basis for the monument to Peter the Great – the legendary “Bronze Horseman”. In the course of studying geological documentation of the monument's granite base, we examined the mineral composition and internal structure of granite, as well as the fragments of a pegmatite vein and veinlets found in it. 25 single-mineral samples were collected from the available micro-scaled shear fractures within the pedestal surface and studied by electron microscopy, electron probe and X-ray phase analysis. It was established that K-Na feldspar in the granite composition was represented by microcline, whereas micas were represented by annite-siderophyllite and muscovite. Accessory minerals included monazite, xenotime, thorite, zircon, rutile, apatite, fluorite, Ti-, Nb-, Ta-bearing minerals, uranium phosphates. The presence of topaz is characteristic of pegmatites. The revealed structural and textural features of four granite boulders in the monument pedestal, as well as mineralogical and chemical composition of their rock-forming and accessory minerals, showed the similarity of this rock to Precambrian biotite-muscovite granites and topaz-containing pegmatites (stockscheiders) of the late formation phase of the Vyborg rapakivi granite massif. The research results are considered as the basis for further geological and mineralogical study of the Thunder-Stone origin and determining the place of its separation from the primary source.

Read more
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-26
  • Date accepted
    2020-09-23
  • Date published
    2020-12-29

Automated ventilation control in mines. Challenges, state of the art, areas for improvement

The article is divided into three main parts. The first part provides an overview of the existing literature on theoretical methods for calculating the optimal air distribution in mines according to the criteria of energy efficiency and providing all sections of mines with the required amount of air. It is shown that by the current moment there are many different formulations of the problem of searching the optimal air distribution, many different approaches and methods for optimizing air distribution have been developed. The case of a single (main) fan is most fully investigated, while for many fans a number of issues still remain unresolved. The second part is devoted to the review of existing methods and examples of the automated mine ventilation control systems implementation in Russia and abroad. Two of the most well-known concepts for the development of such systems are automated ventilation control systems (AVCS) in Russia and the CIS countries and Ventilation on demand (VOD) abroad. The main strategies of ventilation management in the framework of the AVCS and VOD concepts are described and also the key differences between them are shown. One of the key differences between AVCS and VOD today is the automatic determination of the operation parameters of fan units and ventilation doors using the optimal control algorithm, which is an integral part of the AVCS. The third part of the article describes the optimal control algorithm developed by the team of the Mining Institute of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences with the participation of the authors of the article. In this algorithm, the search for optimal air distribution is carried out by the system in a fully automated mode in real time using algorithms programmed into the microcontrollers of fans and ventilation doors. Minimization of energy consumption is achieved due to the most efficient selection of the fan speed and the rate of ventilation doors opening and also due to the air distribution shift control and the partial air recirculation systems introduction. It is noted that currently the available literature poorly covers the issue related to emergency operation modes ventilation systems of mines and also with the adaptation of automated control systems to different mining methods. According to the authors, further development of automated ventilation control systems should be carried out, in particular, in these two areas.

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Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2020-06-12
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-15
  • Date published
    2020-12-29

Analysis of project organization specifics in small-scale LNG production

Gas industry plays an important role in the global energy sector, and in the coming decades amountsof natural gas production will only increase. One of the fastest growing trends in gas industry is the production of liquefiednatural gas (LNG), which is associated with the necessity to organize flexible systems of gas supply to the regions,remote from gas extraction sites. Industrial structure of LNG production includes projects, belonging to several different groups depending to their scale, in particular, small-scale production (SSLNG), cumulative production capacityof which is approximately 10 % from the industry-wide one. Economic aspects of implementing such projects remainunderexplored, which does not allow to draw objective conclusions regarding the prospects of their implementationin particular regions.This paper contains a review of publications, devoted to SSLNG project studies, aimed at identifying specifics oftheir organization compared to projects of greater scale. The results demonstrate that the majority of internationalcompanies classify projects as SSLNG, if their annual production capacity is below 0.5 million tonnes per annum.Specific capital costs, as well as implementation timelines of such projects, are several times lower than those of projects with greater production capacity, which reduces their risks and minimizes barriers to market entry. Furthermore,SSLNG is the most decentralized subsector in gas industry, aiming to cover the market due to a growing numberof projects, not their specific production capacity. These specific features define significant prospects of SSLNGdevelopment in Russia, both in the context of energy supply to remote regions and diversification of export deliveries.

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Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2019-10-15
  • Date accepted
    2019-11-19
  • Date published
    2020-10-13

Oilfield service companies as part of economy digitalization: assessment of the prospects for innovative development

The digital transformation of the economy as the most important stage of scientific and technological progress and transition to a new technological structure is becoming one of the determining factors in the development and competitiveness of the domestic upstream sector. Prospects for innovative development of oilfield service companies are the key technological areas within the first project of the Hi-Tech Strategy of the German Government until 2020 – “Industry 4.0”. The purpose of this study is to assess the prospects for innovative development of the domestic oilfield service industry in the context of the digitalization of the oil and gas industry. The subject of the research is the process of the formation of key technological lines of “Industry 4.0” and their impact on the domestic oil and gas sector. The research is based on logical-theoretical and empirical analyses. The main factors that determine processes of digital transformation in the oil and gas industry are considered; the results of digitalization processes in the largest foreign and Russian industry companies of the upstream and oilfield services segments are presented. The information base is made up of data from oilfield service and oil and gas producing companies, presented on the official websites of companies in the public domain on the Internet. It has been proven that, unlike the world's leading companies in oilfield services segment, independent domestic oilfield service companies provide mainly traditional service technologies in a fairly narrow range. The limited scope of functioning and technological capabilities of Russian companies is explained by the lack of necessary investment in development and expansion of business, as well as interest on the part of the state and corporate sectors in the development and replication of domestic technologies and the formation of a full-fledged oilfield services market in Russia.

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Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-13
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-24
  • Date published
    2020-10-13

Barriers to implementation of hydrogen initiatives in the context of global energy sustainable development

Modern trends in the global energy market linked to the Sustainable Development Goals often lead to the adoption of political decisions with little basis in fact. Stepping up the development of renewable energy sources is an economically questionable but necessary step in terms of its social and ecological effects. However, subsequent development of hydrogen infrastructure is, at the very least, a dangerous initiative. In connection with mentioned above, an attempt to examine hydrogen by conducting an integral assessment of its characteristics has been made in this article. As a result of the research conducted, the following conclusions concerning the potential of the widespread implementation of hydrogen in the power generation sector have been made: as a chemical element, it harms steel structures, which significantly impedes the selection of suitable materials; its physical and volume characteristics decrease the general efficiency of the energy system compared to similar hydrocarbon solutions; the hydrogen economy does not have the necessary foundation in terms of both physical infrastructure and market regulation mechanisms; the emergence of widely available hydrogen poses a danger for society due to its high combustibility. Following the results of the study, it was concluded that the existing pilot hydrogen projects are positive yet not scalable solutions for the power generation sector due to the lack of available technologies to construct large-scale and geographically distributed infrastructure and adequate international system of industry regulation. Thus, under current conditions, the risks of implementing such projects considerably exceed their potential ecological benefits.

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Geology
  • Date submitted
    2016-10-13
  • Date published
    2015-01-01

Results of applying self-potential method and electrical resistivity tomography to study Alexandrovsky settlement (Kaluga region)

Alexandrovsky ancient settlement is situated in the Kaluga region near the river Voria and Alexandrovka village. Self potential (SP) measurements with new non-polarizing electrodes of the second generation instead of traditional copper-copper sulfate electrodes were performed in 2013 and increased the quality of measurements. SP data were analyzed together with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The authors found filtration SP anomalies and proved that the main SP anomaly has diffusion-adsorption origin, determined that the Alexandrovsky site of the ancient settlement has decreased SP values.

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Geomechanics, geodesy, mine surveying and cadastre
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-08
  • Date published
    2011-01-01

Software of automation of the decision of the linear notch and equalizing of network triangulation with measured lengths

The mathematical apparatus of the decision of a linear notch for development of networks triangulation with measured lengths in the conditions of Hebron (Palestin) is presented. The algorithm of equalizing and an estimation of accuracy of the points inserted into a network is offered. Using algorithms of the decision of a linear notch, equalizing and an estimation of accuracy of the inserted points, the program automating these procedures is written. Practical application of this program is shown.

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Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2020-04-24
  • Date accepted
    2020-05-20
  • Date published
    2020-10-13

Prospects and social effects of carbon dioxide sequestration and utilization projects

The issues of global warming and occurrence of the greenhouse effect are widely discussed on a global scale. Various methods of reducing greenhouse gas emissions are actively being investigated and tested, including technologies for sequestration of carbon dioxide, the implementation of which is carried out in the form of CC(U)S (carbon capture, utilization and storage) projects related to capture, disposal and, in some cases, use of CO 2 . In Russia, CC(U)S technologies are not yet used, but there is a significant potential for their development and distribution. CC(U)S technologies acquire a special role in the context of the development of the energy and industrial sectors of Russia, which are key sources of emissions, and the geological objects belonging to them are potential carbon storages. The purpose of this study is to conceptually analyze the CC(U)S technological cycle and typify such projects, assess the prospects for their implementation in Russia, and identify social effects from the implementation of CC(U)S projects. The main results of the study are presented in the form of a typology of CC(U)S projects, a strategic analysis of the prospects for introduction of such technologies in Russia, as well as development of approaches to assessing social effects with systematization and highlighting a set of indicators for their assessment, which can serve as a basis for re-estimation of the values of CC(U)S projects. The main research methods used were methods of decomposition, systematization and typology, as well as strategic analysis with a focus on relevant practical materials on the topic of the work. Directions for further research are related to the substantiation of the methodology for assessing social effects of CC(U)S projects, including for the conditions of Russia, based on the principles of balancing the interests of key participants.

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Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2021-02-05
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-30
  • Date published
    2021-04-21

Assessment of negative infrastructural externalities when determining the land value

The work forms and substantiates the concept of land value, based on a new institutional theory. The infrastructural component of the cost of land in the presented concept determines, on the one hand, the efficiency of the use of natural resources, properties, demand for land on the market, on the other hand, the costs, which are determined not only by capital investments in construction of engineering infrastructure, but also by losses associated with restrictions on activities within zones with special conditions for territory use, creation of unfavorable conditions for economic activity, small contours, irregularities and others on a specific land plot, which are external negative infrastructural externalities that create losses of rights holders of land plots that are not compensated by the market, falling within the boundaries of these zones. Methods for assessing the impact of such negative infrastructural externalities on the cost of land encumbered by zones in different conditions of land market activity have been developed and tested, based on an expert-analytical approach (depressed market); the ratio of market values of land plots encumbered and unencumbered by a specific zone, and qualimetric modeling (inactive market); modeling by introducing into the model the factor of presence of zones with special conditions for territory use, based on the grouping of zones according to similar regulations for use, or by introducing the parameters of this factor (active market). Methods for taking into account spatial deficiencies and compensating for restrictions and prohibitions on activities on the territory of land plots with an individual market assessment are proposed.

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Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2019-01-23
  • Date published
    2019-10-27

Effective Power and Speed of Mining Dump Trucks in Fuel Economy Mode

Existing methods for determining the effective power, based on the calculation of the average indicator operation of the engine during the piston stroke, do not take into account the change in thermodynamic parameters and the polytropic operation of the engine, the value of which depends on the polytropic efficiency of the duty cycle. This is the reason that the calculation of the effective power leads to some error – the margin of the engine features. The identification of this stock allows us to review the entire line of dump trucks in the direction of increasing their pass- port effective capacity, which will lead to a reduction in capital purchase costs due to the choice of a previously un- derestimated and cheaper option, as well as a reduction in current operating costs due to a decrease in the specific fuel consumption rate. Taking into account the stochastic nature of the transport process and assessing the influence of all external and internal factors when calculating the rational mode of operation of a mining truck can further reduce specific fuel consumption by choosing the rational speed of its movement in loaded and empty directions.

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Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2019-10-15
  • Date accepted
    2019-11-19
  • Date published
    2020-10-13

Oilfield service companies as part of economy digitalization: assessment of the prospects for innovative development

The digital transformation of the economy as the most important stage of scientific and technological progress and transition to a new technological structure is becoming one of the determining factors in the development and competitiveness of the domestic upstream sector. Prospects for innovative development of oilfield service companies are the key technological areas within the first project of the Hi-Tech Strategy of the German Government until 2020 – “Industry 4.0”. The purpose of this study is to assess the prospects for innovative development of the domestic oilfield service industry in the context of the digitalization of the oil and gas industry. The subject of the research is the process of the formation of key technological lines of “Industry 4.0” and their impact on the domestic oil and gas sector. The research is based on logical-theoretical and empirical analyses. The main factors that determine processes of digital transformation in the oil and gas industry are considered; the results of digitalization processes in the largest foreign and Russian industry companies of the upstream and oilfield services segments are presented. The information base is made up of data from oilfield service and oil and gas producing companies, presented on the official websites of companies in the public domain on the Internet. It has been proven that, unlike the world's leading companies in oilfield services segment, independent domestic oilfield service companies provide mainly traditional service technologies in a fairly narrow range. The limited scope of functioning and technological capabilities of Russian companies is explained by the lack of necessary investment in development and expansion of business, as well as interest on the part of the state and corporate sectors in the development and replication of domestic technologies and the formation of a full-fledged oilfield services market in Russia.

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Mining
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-24
  • Date accepted
    2020-07-23
  • Date published
    2020-11-24

Estimation of ore contour movements after the blast using the BMM system

Measurement of ore movements by blast is one of the key components of the quality control system at any mining enterprise, which allows to obtain the accuracy necessary for determining the location of ore contours. About 15 years ago, a monitoring system was developed in Australia that allows mine personnel to make three-dimensional measurements of ore blocks movement at each blast. Studies have shown that ore blocks movement is extremely variable, and it characterized by a complete absence of a deterministic component. The consequence is that modeling ore contour movements during the blast will be inaccurate, and the best results for the mining enterprise can only be achieved by directly measuring the movement. The technology of measuring ore contours movements considered in the article is based on three-dimensional movement vectors obtained in different parts of the blasted block, characterized by different movements. It is obvious that the accuracy of determining the ore contours position after the blast is proportional to the number of measurements made on the block. Currently, the movement control technology based on the BMM system is actively used by global mining companies, its use reduces losses and dilution of ore. In 2017, the pilot implementation of the BMM system was started at the Olympiadinsky GOK, and the system is being implemented in several Russian mining companies.

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Geology
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-17
  • Date accepted
    2020-10-05
  • Date published
    2020-11-24

Geological structure of the northern part of the Kara Shelf near the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago according to recent studies

Until recently, the North of the Kara Shelf was completely unexplored by seismic methods. Seismic and seismo-acoustic data that have appeared in recent years have made it possible to decipher features of the regional geological structure. This study solves the urgent problem of determining the prospects for the oil and gas potential of the North Kara sedimentary basin. The relevance of the research is associated with determining the prospects of the oil and gas potential of the North Kara sedimentary basin. The aim of the study is to clarify the age of the reflecting horizons using data on the geology of the island, as well as to determine the tectonic position of the sedimentary cover and basement structures in the north of the Kara shelf. The sedimentary cover is divided into three structural levels: Cambrian-Devonian, Middle Carboniferous-Cretaceous, Miocene-Quarter. The Cambrian-Devonian complex fills the deep troughs of the North Kara shelf. The most noticeable discontinuity is the base of Carboniferous-Permian rocks, lying on the eroded surface of folded Silurian-Devonian seismic complexes. The blanket-like plate part of the cover is composed of thin Carbon-Quarter complexes. The authors came to the conclusion that the fold structures of the Taimyr-Severozemelskiy fold belt gradually degenerate towards the Kara sedimentary basin and towards the continental slope of the Eurasian basin of the Arctic Ocean. A chain of narrow uplifts within the seabed relief, which correspond to narrow anticlines is traced to the West of the Severnaya Zemlya islands. Paleozoic rocks have subhorizontal bedding further to the West, within the Kara shelf. Mesozoic folding in the North of the Kara Sea is expressed exclusively in a weak activation of movements along faults. At the neotectonic stage, the shelf near Severnaya Zemlya was raised and the Mesozoic complexes were eroded. The modern seismic activity of the North Zemlya shelf is associated with the ongoing formation of the continental margin.

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Mining
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-26
  • Date accepted
    2020-09-23
  • Date published
    2020-12-29

Automated ventilation control in mines. Challenges, state of the art, areas for improvement

The article is divided into three main parts. The first part provides an overview of the existing literature on theoretical methods for calculating the optimal air distribution in mines according to the criteria of energy efficiency and providing all sections of mines with the required amount of air. It is shown that by the current moment there are many different formulations of the problem of searching the optimal air distribution, many different approaches and methods for optimizing air distribution have been developed. The case of a single (main) fan is most fully investigated, while for many fans a number of issues still remain unresolved. The second part is devoted to the review of existing methods and examples of the automated mine ventilation control systems implementation in Russia and abroad. Two of the most well-known concepts for the development of such systems are automated ventilation control systems (AVCS) in Russia and the CIS countries and Ventilation on demand (VOD) abroad. The main strategies of ventilation management in the framework of the AVCS and VOD concepts are described and also the key differences between them are shown. One of the key differences between AVCS and VOD today is the automatic determination of the operation parameters of fan units and ventilation doors using the optimal control algorithm, which is an integral part of the AVCS. The third part of the article describes the optimal control algorithm developed by the team of the Mining Institute of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences with the participation of the authors of the article. In this algorithm, the search for optimal air distribution is carried out by the system in a fully automated mode in real time using algorithms programmed into the microcontrollers of fans and ventilation doors. Minimization of energy consumption is achieved due to the most efficient selection of the fan speed and the rate of ventilation doors opening and also due to the air distribution shift control and the partial air recirculation systems introduction. It is noted that currently the available literature poorly covers the issue related to emergency operation modes ventilation systems of mines and also with the adaptation of automated control systems to different mining methods. According to the authors, further development of automated ventilation control systems should be carried out, in particular, in these two areas.

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Geology
  • Date submitted
    2020-07-27
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-30
  • Date published
    2021-06-24

New data on the granite pedestal of the monument to Peter the Great “The Bronze Horseman” in Saint Petersburg

In order to expand and popularize knowledge about the stone decoration of Saint Petersburg, we present new data on the mineralogy and petrography of the famous Thunder-Stone, the parts of which were the basis for the monument to Peter the Great – the legendary “Bronze Horseman”. In the course of studying geological documentation of the monument's granite base, we examined the mineral composition and internal structure of granite, as well as the fragments of a pegmatite vein and veinlets found in it. 25 single-mineral samples were collected from the available micro-scaled shear fractures within the pedestal surface and studied by electron microscopy, electron probe and X-ray phase analysis. It was established that K-Na feldspar in the granite composition was represented by microcline, whereas micas were represented by annite-siderophyllite and muscovite. Accessory minerals included monazite, xenotime, thorite, zircon, rutile, apatite, fluorite, Ti-, Nb-, Ta-bearing minerals, uranium phosphates. The presence of topaz is characteristic of pegmatites. The revealed structural and textural features of four granite boulders in the monument pedestal, as well as mineralogical and chemical composition of their rock-forming and accessory minerals, showed the similarity of this rock to Precambrian biotite-muscovite granites and topaz-containing pegmatites (stockscheiders) of the late formation phase of the Vyborg rapakivi granite massif. The research results are considered as the basis for further geological and mineralogical study of the Thunder-Stone origin and determining the place of its separation from the primary source.

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Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-10-19
  • Date accepted
    2021-12-01
  • Date published
    2021-12-17

Potential technological solution for sampling the bottom sediments of the subglacial lake Vostok: relevance and formulation of investigation goals

The subglacial Lake Vostok in Antarctic is a unique natural phenomenon, its comprehensive study involves sampling of water and bottom surface rocks. For further study of the lake, it is necessary to drill a new access well and develop environmentally safe technologies for its exploration. This article discusses existing and potential technologies for sampling bottom surface rocks of subglacial lakes. All these technologies meet environmental safety requirements and are conducive for sampling. The authors have proposed an alternative technology, using a walking device, which, due to its mobility, enables selective sampling of rocks across a large area from a single access well. The principal issues, related to the implementation of the proposed technology, are investigated within this article. This report is prepared by a team of specialists with many years of experience in drilling at the Vostok Station in Antarctic and in experimental work on the design of equipment and non-standard means of mechanization for complicated mining, geological and climatic conditions.

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Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-13
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-24
  • Date published
    2020-10-13

Barriers to implementation of hydrogen initiatives in the context of global energy sustainable development

Modern trends in the global energy market linked to the Sustainable Development Goals often lead to the adoption of political decisions with little basis in fact. Stepping up the development of renewable energy sources is an economically questionable but necessary step in terms of its social and ecological effects. However, subsequent development of hydrogen infrastructure is, at the very least, a dangerous initiative. In connection with mentioned above, an attempt to examine hydrogen by conducting an integral assessment of its characteristics has been made in this article. As a result of the research conducted, the following conclusions concerning the potential of the widespread implementation of hydrogen in the power generation sector have been made: as a chemical element, it harms steel structures, which significantly impedes the selection of suitable materials; its physical and volume characteristics decrease the general efficiency of the energy system compared to similar hydrocarbon solutions; the hydrogen economy does not have the necessary foundation in terms of both physical infrastructure and market regulation mechanisms; the emergence of widely available hydrogen poses a danger for society due to its high combustibility. Following the results of the study, it was concluded that the existing pilot hydrogen projects are positive yet not scalable solutions for the power generation sector due to the lack of available technologies to construct large-scale and geographically distributed infrastructure and adequate international system of industry regulation. Thus, under current conditions, the risks of implementing such projects considerably exceed their potential ecological benefits.

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Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-02-24
  • Date accepted
    2021-10-18
  • Date published
    2021-10-29

A probabilistic approach to the dynamic cut-off grade assessment

Cut-off grade is an important conditioning parameter that determines the quantity and quality of recoverable reserves and development efficiency. Today, Russian mining companies operate with certified quality requirements. By setting permanent quality requirements, the government seeks to prevent depletion of reserves, reduced production during periods of falling prices, and decreased budget revenues, expressing the interests of all members of society. But to what extent do the permanent quality requirements protect the interests of the state? The answer to this question is ambiguous and does not lie on the surface. The State Commission for Reserves and domestic researchers are working to find a rational solution to the problem of quality requirements. One solution is dynamic quality requirements. The effectiveness of their application has been proven for individual mining companies, but it is incorrect to transfer these conclusions to the entire mineral resource base of the country. This article presents a new approach to determining the dynamic cut-off grade, which varies depending on the price of minerals. The dynamic cut-off grade is proposed to be determined based on the indicators of constant requirements to the quality of exploration work, using the maximum allowable costs in the region. The approach allows to calculate the effect of the introduction of dynamic cut-off grade in the practice of subsurface use for the state (in the form of the amount of taxes received) and for subsoil users (in the form of the amount of income). For a group of gold-bearing deposits with open-pit mining method, it was established that the development of reserves using dynamic values of the cut-off grade in periods of price changes ensures compliance with the interests of the state and subsoil users.

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Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-10-14
  • Date accepted
    2022-01-25
  • Date published
    2022-04-29

Monitoring of compressed air losses in branched air flow networks of mining enterprises

Compressed air as a type of safe technological energy carrier is widely used in many industries. In economically developed countries energy costs for the production and distribution of compressed air reach 10 % of the total energy costs. The analysis of compressed air production and distribution systems in the industrial sector shows that the efficiency of the systems is at a relatively low level. This is due to the fact that insufficient attention is paid to these systems since the compressed air systems energy monitoring has certain difficulties – the presence of complex and branched air pipeline networks with unique characteristics; low sensitivity of the equipment which consumes compressed air; the complexity of auditing pneumatic equipment that is in constant operation. The article analyzes the options for reducing the cost of production and compressed air distribution. One of the promising ways to reduce the compressed air distribution cost is timely detection and elimination of leaks that occur in the external air supply network of the enterprise. The task is solved by hardware-software monitoring of compressed air pressure at key points in the network. The proposed method allows real-time detecting of emerging air leaks in the air duct network and sending commands to maintenance personnel for their timely localization. This technique was tested in the industrial conditions of ALROSA enterprises on the air pipeline network of the Mir mine of the Mirninsky Mining and Processing Plant and showed satisfactory convergence of the calculated leakage values ​​with the actual ones. The practical significance of the obtained results is that the developed method for monitoring air leaks in the air duct network is simple, it requires an uncomplicated software implementation and allows to localize leaks in a timely manner, thereby reducing unproductive energy costs at the enterprises.

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Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-06-08
  • Date accepted
    2021-12-01
  • Date published
    2021-12-17

Management of groundwater resources in transboundary territories (on the example of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Estonia)

Groundwater, as a source of water supply, the most important mineral and geopolitical resource, , is often the only source of high-quality drinking water that is protected from pollution under conditions of increasing deterioration of surface water quality. Transboundary groundwaters are the focus of hydrogeological researchers for a number of reasons, including the reduction and pollution of water resources as a result of economic activities. The increased controversy between states over transboundary water issues has necessitated the development of international legal documents on issues related to water conflict prevention and the sustainable use of fresh water. As part of the analysis of the problem of legal regulation of groundwater extraction from transboundary aquifers and complexes, it is proposed to consider this aspect on the example of Russia. The problems of regulation of rational use and protection of fresh water in the bilateral treaties of the Russian Federation were revealed; a methodology for the management of groundwater extraction in the territory of the transboundary aquifer was developed, the size, parameters, and factors influencing the formation of the transboundary zone have been determined (based on research and analysis of water intake activities in the border areas of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Estonia) were determined.

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Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-10-27
  • Date accepted
    2022-01-25
  • Date published
    2022-04-29

Prediction of the geomechanical state of the rock mass when mining salt deposits with stowing

The technogenic impact of mining on the environment is analyzed and the transition to geotechnology with stowing to reduce the impact of mining operations is proposed. The results of the research work devoted to the justification of parameters of the development of salt deposits with stowing and the definition of the influence of stowing on the dynamics of deformation of the underworked rock massif are presented. The relevance of research aimed at creating a safe and efficient technology for the transition from systems with natural maintenance of stoping space to systems with stowing has been substantiated. The results of studies on qualitative and quantitative assessment of the state of the rock massif (by the finite element method using FLAC3D software), worked out by combines, are given and the dynamics of the impact of mining operations on the rock mass and the change in the maximum stresses during the hardening of the stowing in the chambers are revealed. The numerical modeling method is used to analyze the conditions of change in the state of the underworked rock mass, to establish the mechanisms of its deformation at various stages of development. It is recommended to use this approach for geotechnical assessment of the rock mass state in conditions of using development systems of different classes.

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Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-10-18
  • Date accepted
    2022-01-25
  • Date published
    2022-04-29

Development of a hydrocarbon completion system for wells with low bottomhole temperatures for conditions of oil and gas fields in Eastern Siberia

The paper presents the results of investigations on the influence of low bottomhole temperatures in the intervals of productive formations on the technological properties of solutions used for drilling and completion of wells in order to determine the possibility of increasing gas recovery coefficient at the field of the “Sila Sibiri” gas pipeline. The analysis of technological measures determining the quality of the productive horizon drilling-in was carried out. It was found out that the dispersion of bridging agent in the composition of the hydrocarbon-based drilling mud selected from the existing methods does not have significant influence on the change in the depth of filtrate penetration into the formation in conditions of low bottomhole temperatures. The main reason for the decrease in the near-bottomhole zone permeability was found out – the increase in plastic viscosity of the dispersion medium of the hydrocarbon-based drilling mud under the influence of low bottomhole temperatures. A destructor solution for efficient wellbore cleaning from hydrocarbon-based solution components in conditions of low bottomhole temperatures was developed. The paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of hydrocarbon-based drilling mud and the developed destructor solution, as well as its pilot field tests. The mechanism of interaction between the destructor solution and the filter cake of the hydrocarbon-based drilling mud ensuring the reduction of the skin factor in the conditions of the geological and hydrodynamic structure of Botuobinsky, Khamakinsky and Talakhsky horizons of the Chayandinskoye oil and gas condensate field has been scientifically substantiated.

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Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2021-06-22
  • Date accepted
    2021-12-01
  • Date published
    2021-12-17

Increasing the efficiency of rare earth metal recovery from technological solutions during processing of apatite raw materials

The issues of complex processing of mineral resources are relevant due to the depletion of available raw materials. So, it is necessary to involve technological waste, generated during the processing of raw materials, to obtain valuable components. In the process flow of apatite concentrate treatment using the sulfuric acid method, a large amount of phosphogypsum is produced with an average content of light rare earth metals (REMs) reaching 0.032-0.45 %. When phosphogypsum is treated with sulfuric acid solutions, a part of REMs is transferred to the sulfate solution, from which it can be extracted by means of ion exchange method. The study focuses on sorption recovery of light REMs (praseodymium, neodymium and samarium) in the form of anionic sulfate complexes of the composition [ln(SO 4 ) 2 ] – on polystyrene anion exchanger AN-31. The experiments were performed under static conditions at a liquid-to-solid ratio of 1:1, pH value of 2, temperature of 298 K and initial REM concentration in the solutions ranging from 0.83 to 226.31 mmol/kg. Thermodynamic description of sorption isotherms was carried out by the method based on linearization of the mass action equation, modified for the ion exchange reaction. As a result of performed calculations, the authors obtained the constants of ion exchange equilibrium for Pr, Nd and Sm, as well as the values of the change in the Gibbs energy for the ion exchange of REM sulfate complexes on the AN-31 anion exchanger and the values of total capacity of the anion exchanger. Calculated separation factors indicated low selectivity of AN-31 anionite exchanger for light REMs; however, the anion exchanger is suitable for effective recovery of a sum of light REMs. Based on the average value of ion exchange equilibrium constant for light REMs, parameters of a sorption unit with a fluidized bed of anion exchanger were estimated.

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Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-03-18
  • Date accepted
    2021-09-10
  • Date published
    2021-10-29

Development of blocking compositions with a bridging agent for oil well killing in conditions of abnormally low formation pressure and carbonate reservoir rocks

Production well killing before workover operations in late-stage oil and gas-condensate fields can be complicated by abnormally low formation pressure, carbonate type of reservoir rocks, and high gas-oil ratio. These complications lead to the intensive absorption of technological fluids by the formation and gas ingresses, which, in its turn, increases the time of killing wells and putting them on production, reduction of productivity, and additional costs. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a high-performance well-killing composition that would allow improving the efficiency of killing wells in complicated geological, physical, and technological conditions at the expense of reliable overlapping of the perforation interval (or open wellbore) to prevent gas intakes and gas outflow from the formation. To develop blocking compounds, a set of laboratory tests has been carried out, including physical and chemical (determination of density, viscosity, thermal stability, sedimentation stability, etc.) and research of blocking and filtration properties of compositions during simulation of a fractured reservoir. In the course of laboratory tests, the choice of fractional composition and polymer filler concentration was substantiated in the blocking emulsion and polymer compositions to increase the efficiency of their application under the complicated conditions of killing oil wells. As a result of laboratory research and field tests, the emulsion and polymer blocking compositions containing bridging agent (microcalcite) were developed, which increase the oil well killing efficiency by preventing the absorption of technological fluids in the formations and, as a result, preserving its productivity.

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Geology
  • Date submitted
    2020-07-27
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-30
  • Date published
    2021-06-24

New data on the granite pedestal of the monument to Peter the Great “The Bronze Horseman” in Saint Petersburg

In order to expand and popularize knowledge about the stone decoration of Saint Petersburg, we present new data on the mineralogy and petrography of the famous Thunder-Stone, the parts of which were the basis for the monument to Peter the Great – the legendary “Bronze Horseman”. In the course of studying geological documentation of the monument's granite base, we examined the mineral composition and internal structure of granite, as well as the fragments of a pegmatite vein and veinlets found in it. 25 single-mineral samples were collected from the available micro-scaled shear fractures within the pedestal surface and studied by electron microscopy, electron probe and X-ray phase analysis. It was established that K-Na feldspar in the granite composition was represented by microcline, whereas micas were represented by annite-siderophyllite and muscovite. Accessory minerals included monazite, xenotime, thorite, zircon, rutile, apatite, fluorite, Ti-, Nb-, Ta-bearing minerals, uranium phosphates. The presence of topaz is characteristic of pegmatites. The revealed structural and textural features of four granite boulders in the monument pedestal, as well as mineralogical and chemical composition of their rock-forming and accessory minerals, showed the similarity of this rock to Precambrian biotite-muscovite granites and topaz-containing pegmatites (stockscheiders) of the late formation phase of the Vyborg rapakivi granite massif. The research results are considered as the basis for further geological and mineralogical study of the Thunder-Stone origin and determining the place of its separation from the primary source.

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Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-13
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-24
  • Date published
    2020-10-13

Barriers to implementation of hydrogen initiatives in the context of global energy sustainable development

Modern trends in the global energy market linked to the Sustainable Development Goals often lead to the adoption of political decisions with little basis in fact. Stepping up the development of renewable energy sources is an economically questionable but necessary step in terms of its social and ecological effects. However, subsequent development of hydrogen infrastructure is, at the very least, a dangerous initiative. In connection with mentioned above, an attempt to examine hydrogen by conducting an integral assessment of its characteristics has been made in this article. As a result of the research conducted, the following conclusions concerning the potential of the widespread implementation of hydrogen in the power generation sector have been made: as a chemical element, it harms steel structures, which significantly impedes the selection of suitable materials; its physical and volume characteristics decrease the general efficiency of the energy system compared to similar hydrocarbon solutions; the hydrogen economy does not have the necessary foundation in terms of both physical infrastructure and market regulation mechanisms; the emergence of widely available hydrogen poses a danger for society due to its high combustibility. Following the results of the study, it was concluded that the existing pilot hydrogen projects are positive yet not scalable solutions for the power generation sector due to the lack of available technologies to construct large-scale and geographically distributed infrastructure and adequate international system of industry regulation. Thus, under current conditions, the risks of implementing such projects considerably exceed their potential ecological benefits.

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Geology
  • Date submitted
    2020-08-03
  • Date accepted
    2020-12-13
  • Date published
    2021-06-24

Tectonic and magmatic factors of Li-F granites localization of the East of Russia

We have investigated tectonic and magmatic factors of Li-F granites localization of the East of Russia. The study is based on the ideas of Far Eastern geologists about the deep structures of intraplate activity. A model of a source structure with mantle heat sources and ore-forming magmatic complexes was used. We carried out a special metallogenic analysis of the East of Russia as applied to the rare metal-tin-bearing formation of subalkaline leucogranites, including Li-F ones. Source structures are the main factor in the tectonic and magmatic development of the East of Russia, localization of ore-forming granites and the formation of rare-metal-tin ore regions. On deep layers of source structures there are areas of the mantle and earth's crust decompaction, heat, magmas and fluids sources, as well as granitoid cryptobatholiths. Relatively large massifs of leucogranites, small intrusions of tin monzonitoids and Li-F granites are concentrated near the modern surface. The source structures correspond to the rank of the ore region. The source structures in the South of the region are: Badzhalskaya, Miao-Chanskaya, Ippato-Merekskaya, Hogdu-Lianchlinskaya, Arminskaya, etc.; in the North: Pevekskaya, Kuiviveem-Pyrkakayskaya, Kuekvun-Ekiatapskaya, Iultinskaya, Telekayskaya, Central Polousnaya, Omsukchanskaya, etc. Three types of ore regions have been identified according to the degree of source structures and Li-F granites erosion. We have also outlined the patterns of source structures evolution and their place in the geological history of ore-bearing granites. A classification of source structures and its comparison with the classifications of regional intrusives and metallogenic subdivisions are proposed. It has been established that, despite the diversity of tectonic, geological and petrological settings in the East of Russia, the intrusions of Li-F granites are regulated by the same tectonic and magmatic factors. The tectonic and magmatic factors of Li-F granites localization in the East of Russia are identified and classified as geophysical, orogenic, geoblock, magmatic, metasomatic and disjunctive.

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Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-10-19
  • Date accepted
    2021-12-01
  • Date published
    2021-12-17

Potential technological solution for sampling the bottom sediments of the subglacial lake Vostok: relevance and formulation of investigation goals

The subglacial Lake Vostok in Antarctic is a unique natural phenomenon, its comprehensive study involves sampling of water and bottom surface rocks. For further study of the lake, it is necessary to drill a new access well and develop environmentally safe technologies for its exploration. This article discusses existing and potential technologies for sampling bottom surface rocks of subglacial lakes. All these technologies meet environmental safety requirements and are conducive for sampling. The authors have proposed an alternative technology, using a walking device, which, due to its mobility, enables selective sampling of rocks across a large area from a single access well. The principal issues, related to the implementation of the proposed technology, are investigated within this article. This report is prepared by a team of specialists with many years of experience in drilling at the Vostok Station in Antarctic and in experimental work on the design of equipment and non-standard means of mechanization for complicated mining, geological and climatic conditions.

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Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-06-10
  • Date accepted
    2021-07-27
  • Date published
    2021-09-29

Defects of diamond crystal structure as an indicator of crystallogenesis

Based on the study of a representative collections of diamonds from diamondiferous formations of the Urals and deposits of the Arkhangelsk and Yakutian diamond provinces, we established patterns of zonal and sectoral distribution of crystal structure defects in crystals of different morphological types, identified the specifics of crystals formed at different stages of crystallogenesis and performed a comprehensive analysis of constitutional and population diversity of diamonds in different formations. We identified three stages in the crystallogenesis cycle, which correspond to normal and tangential mechanisms of growth and the stage of changing crystal habit shape. At the stage of changing crystal habit shape, insufficient carbon supersaturation obstructs normal growth mechanism, and the facets develop from existing surfaces. Due to the absent stage of growth layer nucleation, formation of new {111} surfaces occurs much faster compared to tangential growth mechanism. This effect allows to explain the absence of cuboids with highly transformed nitrogen defects at the A-B 1 stage: they have all been refaceted by a regenerative mechanism. Based on the revealed patterns, a model of diamond crystallogenesis was developed, which takes into account the regularities of growth evolution, thermal history and morphological diversity of the crystals. The model implies the possibility of a multiply repetitive crystallization cycle and the existence of an intermediate chamber; it allows to explain the sequence of changes in morphology and defect-impurity composition of crystals, as well as a combination of constitutional and population diversity of diamonds from different geological formations.

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Mining
  • Date submitted
    2020-06-16
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-29
  • Date published
    2021-09-20

Empirical regularities investigation of rock mass discharge by explosion on the free surface of a pit bench

Minimizing the discharge of blasted rock mass into the developed space of the pit is a very relevant area for study, as it allows to increase the processability of work and reduce the cost of mining. The article presents the results of experimental industrial explosions, during which the study of this issue was conducted. The main purpose of the work was to establish the key factors affecting the volume of rock mass discharge to the pit haulage berm. During the analysis of the world experience of research on this topic, the key factors affecting the formation of collapse and discharge – natural and technological – are identified. The method of conducting experiments and collecting data for analyzing the influence of technological parameters of location, charging and initiation of wells on the volume of rock mass discharge is described. It is established that the main discharge to the pit haulage berm is formed by the volume of rock mass limited by the prism of the slope angle. With a sufficient rock mass displacement from the edge of the bench crest towards the center of the block, only the wells of the 1st and 2nd rows participate in the discharge formation. Empirical dependences of the total volume of rock mass discharge on the length of the block along the bench crest, the specific consumption of explosives, the size of a rock piece P 50 and the rate of rock breaking are obtained. The obtained results can be used to design the parameters of the drilling and blasting operations (DBO), as well as to predict and evaluate the possible consequences of a mass explosion in similar mining and geological conditions.

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Mining
  • Date submitted
    2020-07-04
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-29
  • Date published
    2021-09-20

Transition between relieved and unrelieved modes when cutting rocks with conical picks

In the modern theory of rock cutting in production conditions, it is customary to distinguish two large classes of achievable cutting modes – relieved and unrelieved. The kinematics of rock-breaking machines in most cases determines the operation of the cutting tool in both modes in one cycle of the cutting tool. The currently available calculation methods have been developed for a stable, usually unrelieved cutting mode. In this article, the task is set to determine the conditions for the transition between cutting modes and the modernization of the calculation method for determining the forces on the cutting tool. The problem is solved by applying methods of algebraic analysis based on the search for the extremum of the force function on the cutter, depending on the ratio of the real cut spacing to the optimal spacing for the current chip thickness. As a result of solving the problem, an expression is obtained for determining the chip thickness, for which, at the specified parameters, the transition between the relieved and unrelieved cutting modes is provided. The obtained result made it possible to improve the method of calculating the forces on the cutting tool in the areas of the cutter movement with relieved cutting.

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Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2020-12-02
  • Date accepted
    2021-04-21
  • Date published
    2021-06-24

Modeling the processes of deformation and destruction of the rock sample during its extraction from great depths

Article investigates the change in the geophysical properties of rocks in the process of extracting the rock sample from great depths. Evaluation of changes in effective elastic properties, porosity and permeability of rock samples during extraction was carried out by means of finite element modeling. Assessment of the critical dimensions and orientation of internal defects, leading to the destruction of the rock samples during extraction from great depths, has been made based on the methods of linear destruction mechanics. Approach that makes it possible to calculate the change in the mechanical properties, porosity and fracturing of reservoir rocks in the process of extracting the rock sample from depths to the surface is proposed. Use of refined data on the mechanical properties of recoverable rock samples makes it possible to increase the accuracy of digital geological models required for geological exploration, determination of reservoir properties and oil and gas saturation of a field, and development of oil and gas deposits. Application of such models is especially relevant at all stages of the fields development with hard-to-recover reserves.

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Mining
  • Date submitted
    2021-01-18
  • Date accepted
    2021-05-21
  • Date published
    2021-09-20

Improving the efficiency of the technology and organization of the longwall face move during the intensive flat-lying coal seams mining at the Kuzbass mines

The reasons for the lag of the indicators of the leading Russian coal mines engaged in the longwall mining of the flat-lying coal seams from similar foreign mines are considered. The analysis of the efficiency of the longwall face move operations at the JSC SUEK-Kuzbass mines was carried out. A significant excess of the planned deadlines for the longwall face move during the thick flat-lying seams mining, the reasons for the low efficiency of disassembling operations and the main directions for improving the technology of disassembling operations are revealed. The directions of ensuring the operational condition of the recovery room formed by the longwall face are considered. The recommended scheme of converged coal seams mining and a three-dimensional model of a rock mass to justify its parameters are presented. Numerical studies using the finite element method are performed. The results of modeling the stress-strain state of a rock mass in the vicinity of a recovery room formed under conditions of increased stresses from the boundary part of a previously mined overlying seam are shown. The main factors determining the possibility of ensuring the operational condition of the recovery rooms are established. It is shown that it is necessary to take into account the influence of the increased stresses zone when choosing timbering standards and organizing disassembling operations at a interbed thickness of 60 m or less. A sufficient distance from the gob of above- or undermined seams was determined to ensure the operational condition of the recovery room of 50 m, for the set-up room – 30 m. Recommendations are given for improving technology and organization of the longwall face move operations at the mines applied longwall mining of flat-lying coal seams with the formation of a recovery room by the longwall face.

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Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2021-03-10
  • Date accepted
    2021-05-21
  • Date published
    2021-09-20

Influence of heat treatment on the microstructure of steel coils of a heating tube furnace

Transportation and refining of heavy metal-bearing oil are associated with the problems of localized destruction of metal structures and elements due to corrosion. In the process of equipment operation, it was revealed that premature failure of steel coils of heating tube furnaces at oil refineries and petrochemical plants was associated with insufficient strength and corrosion resistance of the steelwork. The study of the effect that structure and phase composition of 15KH5M-alloy steel elements of heating furnaces at oil refineries have on the corrosion properties, associated with mass loss and localized destructions in the process of heat treatment, allows to develop protective measures and determine heating modes with a rate-limiting step of oxidation. The rate of various corrosion types of 15KH5M steel is used as an indicator to assess the effectiveness of the applied modes of coil heat treatment in order to increase their corrosion resistance and improve their operational characteristics. Conducted experiments on heat treatment of certain steel coil sections allowed to determine rational heating modes for the studied coils, which made it possible to reduce their mass loss and increase corrosion resistance of working surfaces in the process of operation. Proposed heat treatment of steel coils at specified intervals of their operation in the tube furnaces creates conditions for their stable performance and affects the degree of industrial and environmental safety, as well as reduces material costs associated with the repair and replacement of individual assemblies and parts of tube furnaces.

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Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-13
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-24
  • Date published
    2020-10-13

Barriers to implementation of hydrogen initiatives in the context of global energy sustainable development

Modern trends in the global energy market linked to the Sustainable Development Goals often lead to the adoption of political decisions with little basis in fact. Stepping up the development of renewable energy sources is an economically questionable but necessary step in terms of its social and ecological effects. However, subsequent development of hydrogen infrastructure is, at the very least, a dangerous initiative. In connection with mentioned above, an attempt to examine hydrogen by conducting an integral assessment of its characteristics has been made in this article. As a result of the research conducted, the following conclusions concerning the potential of the widespread implementation of hydrogen in the power generation sector have been made: as a chemical element, it harms steel structures, which significantly impedes the selection of suitable materials; its physical and volume characteristics decrease the general efficiency of the energy system compared to similar hydrocarbon solutions; the hydrogen economy does not have the necessary foundation in terms of both physical infrastructure and market regulation mechanisms; the emergence of widely available hydrogen poses a danger for society due to its high combustibility. Following the results of the study, it was concluded that the existing pilot hydrogen projects are positive yet not scalable solutions for the power generation sector due to the lack of available technologies to construct large-scale and geographically distributed infrastructure and adequate international system of industry regulation. Thus, under current conditions, the risks of implementing such projects considerably exceed their potential ecological benefits.

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Geology
  • Date submitted
    2020-07-27
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-30
  • Date published
    2021-06-24

New data on the granite pedestal of the monument to Peter the Great “The Bronze Horseman” in Saint Petersburg

In order to expand and popularize knowledge about the stone decoration of Saint Petersburg, we present new data on the mineralogy and petrography of the famous Thunder-Stone, the parts of which were the basis for the monument to Peter the Great – the legendary “Bronze Horseman”. In the course of studying geological documentation of the monument's granite base, we examined the mineral composition and internal structure of granite, as well as the fragments of a pegmatite vein and veinlets found in it. 25 single-mineral samples were collected from the available micro-scaled shear fractures within the pedestal surface and studied by electron microscopy, electron probe and X-ray phase analysis. It was established that K-Na feldspar in the granite composition was represented by microcline, whereas micas were represented by annite-siderophyllite and muscovite. Accessory minerals included monazite, xenotime, thorite, zircon, rutile, apatite, fluorite, Ti-, Nb-, Ta-bearing minerals, uranium phosphates. The presence of topaz is characteristic of pegmatites. The revealed structural and textural features of four granite boulders in the monument pedestal, as well as mineralogical and chemical composition of their rock-forming and accessory minerals, showed the similarity of this rock to Precambrian biotite-muscovite granites and topaz-containing pegmatites (stockscheiders) of the late formation phase of the Vyborg rapakivi granite massif. The research results are considered as the basis for further geological and mineralogical study of the Thunder-Stone origin and determining the place of its separation from the primary source.

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Mining
  • Date submitted
    2020-02-19
  • Date accepted
    2020-04-17
  • Date published
    2020-10-13

Decrease in coal losses during mining of contiguous seams in the near-bottom part at Vorkuta deposit

The problem of formation of extended zones with high rock pressure (HRP) from safety pillars at the boundaries of extraction pillars formed due to the mine layout of complex geometry is considered at the example of JSC Vorkutaugol mines. A detailed analysis of the remaining reserves of the near-bottom part of the deposit was carried out to estimate losses and the impact of HRP zones from the Chetvertyi protective seam to mining operations on the Troinoi upper seam along with the possibilities for the reduction of sizes of HRP zones at the account of expanding the underworked space. Due to research on the near-bottom part of the Vorkuta deposit, within the framework of the accepted layout, a zone at the Komsomolskaya mine and two zones at the Zapolyarnaya-2 mine were singled out, at which losses at the boundaries of the extraction pillars amount up to 13-22 % of the total resources of the mine field. The high volume of losses in these pillars indicates the relevance of research on the priority extraction impact of protective seams on the efficiency and safety of mining operations in the working area of underworked and HRP zones. Based on the analysis of foreign and Russian experience in the pillar cleaning-up at the boundaries of working areas and the methodical guidelines and instructions, a technological scheme was developed that allows increasing the coal mining recovery factor in the near-bottom part of the Vorkuta deposit from 0.75 to 0.9 without fundamental changing of the ventilation and transport networks and also without purchasing any additional mining equipment. The conducted economic calculations confirmed the effectiveness of implementing the new technological scheme for cleaning-up reserves at the boundaries of extraction districts. The economic effect is from 0.079 to1.381 billion rubles of additional profit from coaxial extraction pillars, depending on the mining and geological conditions and the size of the pillars.

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Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2019-09-29
  • Date accepted
    2020-02-24
  • Date published
    2020-04-26

Vs sustainable development: scenarios for the future

Issues of sustainable development began to concern mankind starting from the 20th century, when mass industrialization and the depletion of natural resource potential contributed to the formulation of environmental issues at one of the leading places in scientific discourse. However, what if the goals of sustainable development would not be achieved to 2030? What other way we can identify for humanity to survive? So, the study is about the problems of studying the understanding of the term “sustainable development”, considering the evolution of the formation of the concept of sustainable development and analyzing the modern goals of sustainable development for attainability. From an analysis of domestic and foreign experience, possible scenarios of the development of mankind are identified (such as 1. Creating an environmental framework, 2. Implementation of sustainable nature management practices in the conditions of natural and man-made objects, 3. Implementation of “geoengineering projects”, 4. Construction of autonomous ecosystems, 5. Space exploration in search of a new planet for life, provided that the goals of sustainable development would not be achieved. It has been established that today probability of achieving all the sustainable development goals by 2030 is too small, and the indicated scenarios require, firstly, the development of science and technology, and secondly, a competent assessment of the value of nature and solving the issue of specifying property rights for natural goods.

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Mining
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-08
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-12
  • Date published
    2020-12-29

Gas-dynamic roof fall during the potash deposits development

In the development of practically all potash salt deposits, the study of gas-dynamic phenomena (GDP) is one of the most difficult tasks to ensure mining safety. Sudden salt and gas outbursts, dynamic breakdown, which are accompanied by intense gas release and possible broken rock carry-over into the mine workings, are associated with GDP. Geological preconditions for the GDP development are often the layered structure of the salt rock mass, the presence of interlayers and layers of salt clays. For the conditions of the Usolsky potash plant mine, complex studies of factors that characterize the possibility of gas-dynamic roof fall of the stoping rooms were carried out. In mine studies, free gases pressure and the initial velocity of gas release in the rocks of the roof workings were determined. The obtained experimental estimations were used as a parametric basis for mathematical modeling of geomechanical processes under conditions of a near-contact accumulation of free gas. The deformation of a layered salt mass produced by a room development system was described by the model of an ideal elastic-plastic medium with internal friction. The parabolic envelope of Mohr circles was used as a plasticity criterion in the compression area. In the numerical implementation, the deformation of clay contacts was modeled by Goodman contact elements. Based on the results of multivariate numerical calculations, it is established that the main factors determining the possibility of implementing GDP are the additional gas pressure at the contact, the width of the workingspan, and the distance from the roof to the first gas-containing contact. With multi-level lamination of roof rocks, there is a danger of large sources of GDP formation and the mechanism of successive fall of layers in an instant mode is implemented.

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Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2020-04-24
  • Date accepted
    2020-05-20
  • Date published
    2020-10-13

Prospects and social effects of carbon dioxide sequestration and utilization projects

The issues of global warming and occurrence of the greenhouse effect are widely discussed on a global scale. Various methods of reducing greenhouse gas emissions are actively being investigated and tested, including technologies for sequestration of carbon dioxide, the implementation of which is carried out in the form of CC(U)S (carbon capture, utilization and storage) projects related to capture, disposal and, in some cases, use of CO 2 . In Russia, CC(U)S technologies are not yet used, but there is a significant potential for their development and distribution. CC(U)S technologies acquire a special role in the context of the development of the energy and industrial sectors of Russia, which are key sources of emissions, and the geological objects belonging to them are potential carbon storages. The purpose of this study is to conceptually analyze the CC(U)S technological cycle and typify such projects, assess the prospects for their implementation in Russia, and identify social effects from the implementation of CC(U)S projects. The main results of the study are presented in the form of a typology of CC(U)S projects, a strategic analysis of the prospects for introduction of such technologies in Russia, as well as development of approaches to assessing social effects with systematization and highlighting a set of indicators for their assessment, which can serve as a basis for re-estimation of the values of CC(U)S projects. The main research methods used were methods of decomposition, systematization and typology, as well as strategic analysis with a focus on relevant practical materials on the topic of the work. Directions for further research are related to the substantiation of the methodology for assessing social effects of CC(U)S projects, including for the conditions of Russia, based on the principles of balancing the interests of key participants.

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Geology
  • Date submitted
    2020-06-13
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-14
  • Date published
    2020-06-30

Deep structure and geodynamic conditions of granitoid magmatism in the Eastern Russia

We investigated the deep structure of the lithosphere and the geodynamic conditions of granitoid magmatism in the Eastern Russia within the borders of the Far Eastern Federal District. The relevance of the work is determined by the need to establish the geotectonic and geodynamic conditions of the granitoids petrogenesis and ore genesis in the Russian sector of the Pacific Ore Belt. The purpose of the article is to study the deep structure of the lithosphere and determine the geodynamic conditions of granitoid magmatism in the East of Russia. The author's data on the magmatism of ore regions, regional granitoids correlations, archive and published State Geological Map data, survey mapping, deep seismic sounding of the earth's crust, gravimetric survey, geothermal exploration, and other geophysical data obtained along geotraverses. The magma-controlling concentric geostructures of the region are distinguished and their deep structure is studied. The connection of plume magmatism with deep structures is traced. The chain of concentric geostructures of Eastern Russia controls the trans-regional zone of leucocratization of the earth's crust with a width of more than 1000 km, which includes the Far Eastern zone of Li-F granites. Magmacontrolling concentric geostructures are concentrated in three granitoid provinces: Novosibirsk-Chukotka, Yano-Kolyma, and Sikhote-Alin. The driving force of geodynamic processes and granitoid magmatism was mantle heat fluxes in the reduced zones of the lithospheric slab. The distribution of slab windows along the Pacific mobile belt's strike determines the location of concentric geostructures and the magnitude of granitoid magmatism in the regional provinces. Mantle diapirs are the cores of granitoid ore-magmatic systems. The location of the most important ore regions of the Eastern Russia in concentric geostructures surrounded by annuli of negative gravity anomalies is the most important regional metallogenic pattern reflecting the correlation between ore content and deep structure of the earth's crust.

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Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2019-10-30
  • Date published
    2020-02-25

Methodology for determining the parameters of drilling mode for directional straight sections of well using screw downhole motors

Article presents results of study on possibility of increasing the efficiency of drilling directional straight sections of wells using screw downhole motors (SDM) with a combined method of drilling with rotation of drilling string (DS). Goal is to ensure steady-state operation of SDM with simultaneous rotation of DS by reducing the amplitude of oscillations with adjusting the parameters of drilling mode on the basis of mathematical modeling for SDM – DS system. Results of experimental study on determination of extrema distribution of lateral and axial oscillations of SDM frame depending on geometrical parameters of gerotor mechanism and modes ensuring stable operation are presented. Approaches to development of a mathematical model and methodology are conceptually outlined that allow determining the range of self-oscillations for SDM – DS system and boundaries of rotational and translational wave perturbations for a heterogeneous rod with an installed SDM at drilling directional straight sections of well. This mathematical model of SDM – DS system's dynamics makes it possible to predict optimal parameters of directional drilling mode that ensure stable operation of borehole assembly.    

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Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2020-04-15
  • Date accepted
    2020-05-13
  • Date published
    2020-10-13

Processing of platinum group metal ores in Russia and South Africa: current state and prospects

The presented study is devoted to a comparative review of the mineral raw material base of platinum group metals (PGMs) and technologies of their processing in South Africa and Russia, the largest PGM producers. Mineralogical and geochemical classification and industrial value of iron-platinum and platinum-bearing deposits are presented in this work. The paper also reviews types of PGM ore body occurrences, ore processing methods (with a special focus on flotation processes), as well as difficulties encountered by enterprises at the processing stage, as they increase recovery of the valuable components. Data on mineralogical features of PGM deposits, including the distribution of elements in the ores, are provided. The main lines of research on mineralogical features and processing of raw materials of various genesis are identified and validated. Sulfide deposits are found to be of the highest industrial value in both countries. Such unconventional PGM sources, as black shale, dunites, chromite, low-sulfide, chromium and titanomagnetite ores, anthropogenic raw materials, etc. are considered. The main lines of research that would bring into processing non-conventional metal sources are substantiated. Analysis of new processing and metallurgical methods of PGM recovery from non-conventional and industrial raw materials is conducted; the review of existing processing technologies for platinum-bearing raw materials is carried out. Technologies that utilize modern equipment for ultrafine grinding are considered, as well as existing reagents for flotation recovery; evaluation of their selectivity in relation to platinum minerals is presented. Basing on the analysis of main technological processes of PGM ore treatment, the most efficient schemes are identified, i.e.,gravity and flotation treatment with subsequent metallurgical processing.

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Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2019-06-22
  • Date accepted
    2019-09-11
  • Date published
    2020-04-26

Effective capacity building by empowerment teaching in the field of occupational safety and health management in mining

The paper is dealing with a developed concept named Empowerment Teaching, which is based on practical teaching experience gained in various mining universities. It is demonstrated that this concept can be used to increase the effectiveness of knowledge transfer to mining countries in the world, as well as to overcome cultural barriers between lecturers and their students. The two models of participatory training, which are proposed to be named “physical” and “emotional” models, are portrayed. The authors are convinced that participatory training methods can be an ideal answer to a challenge associated with workers’ competencies in mining, namely – the potential of highly motivated and well-educated young academics is often diminished by a lack of ability to apply their knowledge. A special emphasis is made on the possible application of empowerment teaching for educational and training activities in the field of occupational safety and health (OSH), which is a matter of utmost importance for the mining industry. Several benchmarking initiatives in the field of OSH (“safety culture”, zero-accident vision) are underlined to be encouraged and promoted by means of new teaching methods. The examples of successful international cooperation among universities are given, as well.

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