Submit an Article
Become a reviewer
Vol 263
Download volume:

Scientific and technical substantiation of the possibility for the organization of needle coke production in Russia

Vyacheslav А. Rudko1
Renat R. Gabdulkhakov2
Igor N. Pyagai3
About authors
Date submitted:
Date accepted:
Date published:


Russia is one of the world's leading steel producers, while about 33 % of production comes from the scrap remelted in arc steelmaking furnaces. The graphitized electrodes of SHP and UHP grades, mainly consisting of needle coke, are used for high current loads and temperatures in furnaces. USA, Japan, Korea, and China are focused on needle coke production, where coal (tar and pitch) and petroleum (decantoil), by-products of metallurgical factories and oil refineries, are used as raw materials. Russia's annual demand for needle coke is approximately 100 thousand tons, but all of it is covered by imports. Russia's raw material potential, established by the authors of the article, is more than 5 million tons per year and includes decantoil, coal tar and pitch, and heavy pyrolysis tar. The results of obtaining needle coke from decantoil and heavy pyrolysis tar are given below. The prototypes of needle coke were produced on specially designed delayed coking laboratory units (loading up to 0.25 and 80 kg). Raw materials were modified according to the original technology of Saint Petersburg Mining University, the convergence of target properties of which is confirmed by the results of quality analysis of the obtained needle coke, including after 100-fold scaling. The electrodes were molded from the obtained coke. After standardized stages of firing, mechanical processing and graphitization at 2,800-3,000 °C, the coefficient of linear thermal expansion was less than 1 × 10 –6 К –1 , and the value of specific electrical resistance was 7.1-7.4 μOhm, which proves that the obtained carbon material corresponds in quality to Japanese analogues and Super Premium needle coke.

needle coke graphitized electrodes delayed coking unit decantoil heavy pyrolysis tar petroleum coke calcined coke arc steelmaking furnace
Go to volume 263


  1. Xian Xu, Louwei Cui, Junhe Shi et al. Effects of co-carbonization of medium and low temperature refined pitch and high temperature refined pitch on the structure and properties of needle coke // Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 2023. Vol. 169. № 105783. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaap.2022.105783
  2. Yangyang Yu, Feng Wang, Wiafe Biney B. et al. Co-carbonization of ethylene tar and fluid catalytic cracking decant oil: Development of high-quality needle coke feedstock // Fuel. 2022. Vol. 322. № 124170. DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2022.124170
  3. He Liu, Shouhui Jiao, Wenchao Liu et al. Effects of decompressing carbonization on the preparation of needle coke from FCC decant oil // Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 2022. Vol. 162. № 105454. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaap.2022.105454
  4. Kieush L., Schenk J., Koveria A. et al. Utilization of Renewable Carbon in Electric Arc Furnace-Based Steel Production: Comparative Evaluation of Properties of Conventional and Non-Conventional Carbon-Bearing Sources // Metals. 2023. Vol. 13. Iss. 4. № 722. DOI: 10.3390/met13040722
  5. Бажин В.Ю., Крылов К.А., Шариков Ф.Ю. Обоснование термофизического воздействия на электродную массу для получения равномерной структуры электродов из игольчатого кокса для руднотермических печей // iPolytech Journal. 2023. Т. 27. № 1. С. 161-173. DOI: 10.21285/1814-3520-2023-1-161-173
  6. Simakov A.S., Trifonova M.E., Gorlenkov D.V. Virtual Analyzer of the Voltage and Current Spectrum of the Electric Arc in Electric Arc Furnaces // Russian Metallurgy (Metally). 2021. Vol. 2021. № 6. P. 713-719. DOI: 10.1134/S0036029521060252
  7. Polyakov A.A., Gorlanov E.S., Mushihin E.A. Analytical Modeling of Current and Potential Distribution over Carbon and Low-Consumable Anodes during Aluminum Reduction Process // Journal of The Electrochemical Society. 2022. Vol. 169. Iss. 5. № 053502. DOI: 10.1149/1945-7111/ac6a16
  8. Свергузова С.В., Сапронова Ж.А., Зубкова О.С. и др. Пыль электросталеплавильного производства как сырье для получения коагулянта // Записки Горного института. 2023. Т. 260. С. 279-288. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2023.23
  9. Xiangye Li, Lei Zhao, Tieshi He et al. Highly conductive, hierarchical porous ultra-fine carbon fibers derived from polyacrylonitrile/polymethylmethacrylate/needle coke as binder-free electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors // Journal of Power Sources. 2022. Vol. 521. № 230943. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2021.230943
  10. Stratiev D., Shishkova I., Yankov V. et al. Impact of H-Oil vacuum residue hydrocracking severity on fluid catalytic cracking unit performance // Petroleum Science and Technology. 2020. Vol. 38. Iss. 6. P. 565-573. DOI: 10.1080/10916466.2020.1772821
  11. Qi Li, Dongyun Han, Haiyan Qiao et al. Structural evolution of the thermal conversion products of modified coal tar pitch // Carbon Letters. 2023. Vol. 33. Iss. 1. P. 261-271. DOI: 10.1007/s42823-022-00433-8
  12. Malzahn J., Preciado I., Ding Wang et al. Effect of secondary gas-phase reactions (SGR) in pyrolysis of carbon feedstocks for anisotropic carbon materials production – 1: Controlling SGR to modify intermediate coal tar species to improve pitch anisotropy // Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 2022. Vol. 164. № 105541. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaap.2022.105541
  13. Bo Wang, Limao Wang, Shuai Zhong et al. Low-Carbon Transformation of Electric System against Power Shortage in China: Policy Optimization // Energies. 2022. Vol. 15. Iss. 4. № 1574. DOI: 10.3390/en15041574
  14. Guilhot L. An analysis of China’s energy policy from 1981 to 2020: Transitioning towards to a diversified and low-carbon energy system // Energy Policy. 2022. Vol. 162. № 112806. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2022.112806
  15. Kapustin V.M., Glagoleva V.F. Physicochemical Aspects of Petroleum Coke Formation (Review) // Petroleum Chemistry. 2016. Vol. 56. № 1. P. 1-9. DOI: 10.1134/S0965544116010035
  16. Литвинова Т.Е., Сучков Д.В. Комплексный подход к утилизации техногенных отходов минерально-сырьевого комплекса // Горный информационно-аналитический бюллетень. 2022. № 6-1. С. 331-348. DOI: 10.25018/0236_1493_2022_61_0_331
  17. Cherepovitsyn A., Rutenko E. Strategic Planning of Oil and Gas Companies: The Decarbonization Transition // Energies. 2022. Vol. 15. Iss. 17. № 6163. DOI: 10.3390/en15176163
  18. Lei Li, Xiongchao Lin, Yukun Zhang et al. Characteristics of the mesophase and needle coke derived from the blended coal tar and biomass tar pitch // Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 2020. Vol. 150. № 104889. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaap.2020.104889
  19. Kozlov A.P., Cherkasova T.G., Frolov S.V. et al. Innovative Coal-Tar Products at PAO Koks // Coke and Chemistry. 2020. Vol. 63. № 7. P. 344-350. DOI: 10.3103/S1068364X20070054
  20. Zhichen Zhang, Bin Lou, Ning Zhao et al. Co-carbonization behavior of the blended heavy oil and low temperature coal tar for the preparation of needle coke // Fuel. 2021. Vol. 302. № 121139. DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2021.121139
  21. Litvinenko V.S. Digital Economy as a Factor in the Technological Development of the Mineral Sector // Natural Resources Research. 2020. Vol. 29. № 3. P. 1521-1541. DOI: 10.1007/s11053-019-09568-4
  22. Smol M., Marcinek P., Duda J., Szołdrowska D. Importance of Sustainable Mineral Resource Management in Implementing the Circular Economy (CE) Model and the European Green Deal Strategy // Resources. 2020. Vol. 9. Iss. 5. № 55. DOI: 10.3390/resources9050055
  23. Ershov M.A., Savelenko V.D., Makhmudova A.E. et al. Technological Potential Analysis and Vacant Technology Forecasting in Properties and Composition of Low-Sulfur Marine Fuel Oil (VLSFO and ULSFO) Bunkered in Key World Ports // Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2022. Vol. 10. Iss. 12. № 1828. DOI: 10.3390/jmse10121828
  24. Литвиненко В.С., Петров Е.И., Василевская Д.В. и др. Оценка роли государства в управлении минеральными ресурсами // Записки Горного института. 2023. Т. 259. С. 95-111. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.100
  25. Litvinenko V., Bowbriсk I., Naumov I., Zaitseva Z. Global guidelines and requirements for professional competencies of natural resource extraction engineers: Implications for ESG principles and sustainable development goals // Journal of Cleaner Production. 2022. Vol. 338. № 130530. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.130530
  26. Andreoli S., Brown S.H., Uppili S., Eser S. Laboratory Coking and a New Optical Texture Classification Parameter: Screening of Petroleum Refinery Streams for Premium Needle Coke Production // Energy & Fuels. 2022. Vol. 36. Iss. 18. P. 10910-10919. DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.2c02077
  27. Zhichen Zhang, Hui Du, Shuhai Guo et al. Probing the effect of molecular structure and compositions in extracted oil on the characteristics of needle coke // Fuel. 2021. Vol. 301. № 120984. DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2021.120984
  28. Ismagilov Z.R., Sozinov S.A., Popova A.N., Zaporin V.P. Structural Analysis of Needle Coke // Coke and Chemistry. 2019. Vol. 62. № 4. P. 135-142. DOI: 10.3103/S1068364X19040021
  29. Dolomatov M.Y., Burangulov D.Z., Dolomatova M.M. et al. Low-Sulphur Vacuum Gasoil of Western Siberia Oil: The Impact of Its Structural and Chemical Features on the Properties of the Produced Needle Coke // Journal of Carbon Research. 2022. Vol. 8. Iss. 1. № 19. DOI: 10.3390/c8010019
  30. Патент № 2717815 РФ. Способ получения нефтяного игольчатого кокса / В.П.Запорин, С.В.Сухов, К.В.Федотов и др. Опубл. 25.03.2020. Бюл. № 9.
  31. Bazhin V.Yu. Structural Modification of Petroleum Needle Coke by Adding Lithium on Calcining // Coke and Chemistry. 2015. Vol. 58. № 4. P. 138-142. DOI: 10.3103/S1068364X15040043
  32. Kondrasheva N.K., Vasilev V.V., Boitsova A.A. Study of Feasibility of Producing High-Quality Petroleum Coke from Heavy Yarega Oil // Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils. 2017. Vol. 52. № 6. P. 663-669. DOI: 10.1007/s10553-017-0758-x
  33. Sharikov Yu.V., Sharikov F.Yu., Krylov K.A. Mathematical Model of Optimum Control for Petroleum Coke Production in a Rotary Tube Kiln // Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Engineering. 2021. Vol. 55. № 4. P. 711-719. DOI: 10.1134/S0040579521030192
  34. Назаренко М.Ю., Салтыкова С.Н. Получение полукокса из горючих сланцев Ленинградского месторождения // Черные металлы. 2022. № 10. С. 4-8. DOI: 10.17580/chm.2022.10.01
  35. Vinogradova A., Gogolinskii K., Umanskii A. et al. Method of the Mechanical Properties Evaluation of Polyethylene Gas Pipelines with Portable Hardness Testers // Inventions. 2022. Vol. 7. Iss. 4. № 125. DOI: 10.3390/inventions7040125
  36. Cултанбеков Р.Р., Щипачев А.М. Проявление несовместимости судовых остаточных топлив: способ определения совместимости, исследования состава топлив и осадка // Записки Горного института. 2022. Т. 257. С. 843-852. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.56
  37. Sverchkov I.P., Gembitskaya I.M., Povarov V.G., Chukaeva M.A. Method of reference samples preparation for X-ray fluorescence analysis // Talanta. 2023. Vol. 252. № 123820. DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2022.123820
  38. Qingwen Wei, Keliang Pang, Cai Liang et al. The fracture characteristics and enhancement mechanism of crushing strength for the coke with hot pressing // Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 2023. Vol. 171. № 105981. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaap.2023.105981
  39. Поваров В.Г., Ефимов И.И. Применение модели UNIFAC в расчете физико-химических свойств экотоксикантов для технологических и экоаналитических целей // Записки Горного института. 2023. Т. 260. С. 238-247. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2023.41
  40. Savchenkov S.A., Bazhin V.Yu., Povarov V.G. Research on the process of gadolinium recovery from the melt of salts on formation of Mg – Zn – Gd master alloys for manufacturing of magnesium and aluminium special-purpose alloys // Non-ferrous Metals. 2020. № 1. P. 35-40. DOI: 10.17580/nfm.2020.01.06
  41. Savchenkov S.A., Bazhin V.Yu., Brichkin V.N. et al. Production Features of Magnesium-Neodymium Master Alloy Synthesis // Metallurgist. 2019. Vol. 63. № 3-4. P. 394-402. DOI: 10.1007/s11015-019-00835-6

Similar articles

Structure maintenance experience and the need to control the soils thermal regime in permafrost areas
2023 Anatolii V. Brushkov, Andrei G. Alekseev, Svetlana V. Badina, Dmitrii S. Drozdov, Vladimir A. Dubrovin, Oleg V. Zhdaneev, Mikhail N. Zheleznyak, Vladimir P. Melnikov, Sergei N. Okunev, Aleksei B. Osokin, Nikolai A. Ostarkov, Marat R. Sadurtinov, Dmitrii O. Sergeev, Roman Yu. Fedorov, Konstantin N. Frolov
Experimental simulation of a system of swamp biogeocenoses to improve the efficiency of quarry water treatment
2023 Mariya A. Pashkevich, Anna E. Korotaeva, Vera A. Matveeva
Mineral composition and thermobarometry of metamorphic rocks of Western Ny Friesland, Svalbard
2023 Yurii L. Gulbin, Sima A. Akbarpuran Khaiyati, Aleksandr N. Sirotkin
Pink-violet diamonds from the Lomonosov mine: morphology, spectroscopy, nature of colour
2023 Galina Yu. Kriulina, Sergei V. Vyatkin, Evgenii A. Vasilev
Gold-rare metal and associated mineralization in the western part of Bolshevik Island, Severnaya Zemlya archipelago
2023 Aleksandr N. Evdokimov, Vladimir I. Fokin, Nikolai K. Shanurenko
Magmatic system of the Klyuchevskoy volcano according to seismic data and their geomechanical interpretation
2023 Aleksei V. Kiryukhin, Olga V. Bergal-Kuvikas, Mikhail V. Lemzikov, Nikita B. Zhuravlev