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Vol 263

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Vol 262
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-11-29
  • Date accepted
    2023-03-02
  • Date published
    2023-10-27

New data on the composition of growth medium of fibrous diamonds from the placers of the Western Urals

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This article presents the results of studying microinclusions of fluids/melts in diamonds from the placers of the Krasnovishersky District (western slope of the Middle/Northern Urals), which make it possible to establish the evolution of diamond-forming media in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle of the eastern margin of the East European craton. Impurity composition of the studied crystals reveals three different types of diamonds, the formation of which was associated with separated metasomatic events. Microinclusions in B-type diamonds containing A and B nitrogen defects reflect an older metasomatic stage characterized by the leading role of silicic and low-Mg carbonatitic fluids/melts. The second stage is associated with the growth of A-type diamonds containing nitrogen exclusively in the form of A-centers. At this stage, the formation of diamonds was related with low-Mg carbonatitic media, more enriched in MgO, CaO, CO2, and Na2O compared to B-type diamonds. The third stage probably preceded the eruption of the transporting mantle melt and led to the formation of C-type diamond containing A and C nitrogen defect centers and microinclusions of silicic to low-Mg carbonatitic composition. The recorded trend in the evolution of diamond-forming fluids/melts is directed towards more carbonatitic compositions. Fluids/melts are probably sourced from eclogitic and pyroxenitic mantle substrates.

How to cite: Gubanov N.V., Zedgenizov D.A., Vasilev E.A., Naumov V.A. New data on the composition of growth medium of fibrous diamonds from the placers of the Western Urals // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. Vol. 263. p. 645-656. EDN RYMYTJ
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-03-30
  • Date accepted
    2023-09-21
  • Date published
    2023-10-27

Mineral composition and thermobarometry of metamorphic rocks of Western Ny Friesland, Svalbard

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The results of the study of mineral composition and microstructure of representative metapelitic and calcic pelitic schist and amphibole-biotite gneiss, occurring in the northern part of the Western Ny Friesland anticlinorium, are reported. Mineral composition was analyzed with a JSM-6510LA scanning electron microscope with a JED-2200 (JEOL) energy dispersive spectrometer. Metamorphic conditions were assessed with various mineral geothermometers (garnet-biotite, Ti-in-biotite, Ti-in-muscovite, Ti-in-amphibole, garnet-amphibole, amphibole-plagioclase, and chlorite) and geothermobarometers (GASP, GBPQ, GRIPS, GBPQ, phengite, etc.). It has been shown that peak temperature and pressure for rocks of the Paleoproterozoic Atomfjella Series forming the western limb of the anticlinorium are consistent with those for the high-pressure part of the upper amphibolite facies (690-720 °С, 9-12 kbar), and the peak temperature and pressure for rocks of the Mossel Series occurring in the eastern limb and rest on the Atomfjella rock sequence, are consistent with the high-pressure part of the lower amphibolite facies (580-600 °С, 9-11 kbar). In addition to the high-temperature parageneses Ms-Bt-Grt-Pl (±Ky, St), Bt-Grt-Pl-Kfs-Cal (±Scp) and Bt-Hbl-Ep-Grt-Pl, the rocks of the both series display the low-temperature assemblage Ms-Chl-Ep-Ab-Prh-Ttn, which was formed upon transition from greenschist to prehnite-pumpellyite facies (260-370 °С).

How to cite: Gulbin Y.L., Akbarpuran Khaiyati S.A., Sirotkin A.N. Mineral composition and thermobarometry of metamorphic rocks of Western Ny Friesland, Svalbard // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. Vol. 263. p. 657-673. EDN XGNKDQ
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-04-23
  • Date accepted
    2023-10-24
  • Date published
    2023-10-27

Mining Museum as a space of science and education in Mining University

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An interdisciplinary investigation is presented focusing on the study of the Mining Museum collections in relation to research, educational and social practices. Natural science and artistic exhibits are considered. The authors made an attempt to determine the significance of the mineralogical collection based on the criteria proposed by I.V.Pekov. For the first time, general statistics on the new minerals in the mineralogical museums of the USSR was collected in 1988; in subsequent years, such information was not published. Collection of the Mining Museum comprises mineral species received after 1988 and having the status of holotypes, neotypes, and cotypes. In anticipation of the 250th anniversary of Saint Petersburg Mining University its special contribution to the progress of science was noted; the merits of scientists were immortalized in the names of minerals stored in the Mining Museum collection. An important role of the Museum in recording and representation of achievements of the Mining University is shown. The authors present the Mining Museum as a special educational space where an objective image of the world is created shaped by the scientific and humanitarian environment. The Museum is regarded as a space for forming the professional identity, important for the successful work of future University graduates. The interior of the Mining Museum designed and created in the 1st half of the XIX century taking into account the ideas about the succession of scientists from different epochs, respect for scientific traditions of antiquity and achievements in the field of studying the world plays a significant role in this process. Images of thinkers of the antiquity in the interiors of the educational and public spaces of the XIX century made it possible to emphasize the importance of cultural correlation with ideas of the Enlightenment. Specific examples from the collection show how the Mining Museum was implementing the scientific and educational goals of the Mining University throughout its history.

How to cite: Dorofeev D.Y., Borovkova N.V., Vasileva М.А. Mining Museum as a space of science and education in Mining University // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. Vol. 263. p. 674-686. EDN VLAJYZ
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-04-15
  • Date accepted
    2022-09-06
  • Date published
    2023-10-27

Gold-rare metal and associated mineralization in the western part of Bolshevik Island, Severnaya Zemlya archipelago

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The presented studies are aimed to determine the formation patterns of the gold-rare metal mineralization within one of the most inaccessible Arctic islands of the Russian Federation, Bolshevik Island of the Severnaya Zemlya archipela-go. The relevance of the work is determined by the high probability of discovering a significant in terms of metal reserves deposit, which is proved by many researchers on the example of known large deposits to be a typical feature of sites with gold-rare metal formation. Obviously, only the possibility of discovering and subsequent development of a deposit of a highly liquid type of mineral, gold, can ensure the profitability of mining production on Severnaya Zemlya. It is established that the main geological, mineralogical, and geochemical features of the gold-rare metal mineralization in the Kropotkinsko-Nikitinskaya metallogenic zone of Bolshevik Island correspond to that of similar ore sites in Russia and the world. The occurrences of other formation types revealed in this metallogenic zone suggest a certain zoning in their distribution: mineralization is located in the apical parts of granitoids and in the nearest halo of hornfelses. At a distance, with an exit from the hornfelsed zone, there are occurrences of a cassiterite-sulphide formation with elevated gold and silver content at the top of the ore column, together with an increased amount of polymetallic ores. Occurrences of gold-quartz and gold-sulphide-quartz formations are localized in fault zones, as a rule, farther from granitoids. The total vertical range of gold mineralization exceeds 300 m. The assignment of all types of mineralization in the Kropotkinsko-Nikitinskaya metallogenic zone of Bolshevik Island to a single hydrothermal process is emphasized by the similar isotope composition of lead galena from heterogeneous occurrences, which determines the age of all mineralization at 200-300 Ma.

How to cite: Evdokimov A.N., Fokin V.I., Shanurenko N.K. Gold-rare metal and associated mineralization in the western part of Bolshevik Island, Severnaya Zemlya archipelago // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. Vol. 263. p. 687-697. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2022.94
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-08-14
  • Date accepted
    2023-10-25
  • Date published
    2023-10-27

Magmatic system of the Klyuchevskoy volcano according to seismic data and their geomechanical interpretation

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3D analysis of the magma transport and accumulation mechanism in the structure and basement of the Klyuchevskoy volcano preceding 11 eruptions in 2003-2021 has been performed. Using the Frac-Digger method and seismological data from the Kamchatka Branch Federal Research Center United Geophysical Survey Russia Academy of Sciences it has been shown that magma transport from the deep crustal magma chamber (−30 km) is carried out in the vertical fracturing (dykes) mode to the peripheral shallow magma chamber (+1 km). The feeding dykes orientation corresponds to geomechanical conditions of radial or N-NNE extension. This is followed by inclined dykes and sills of various orientations from the peripheral magmatic chamber. Magma accumulation in the peripheral magmatic chamber in the form of sills (in the horizontal fracturing mode at elevations of +0,3 to +2,3 km) contributes to the efficiency of magma degassing and heat exchange with meteoric waters, and to the formation of a high-pressure vapour-gas reservoir with subsequent venting of the volcano channel and its eruption. Three-dimensional analysis of the distribution of flank eruptions of the Klyuchevskoy volcano in 1932-2021 (16 cinder cones) shows their association with two main low-inclined structural surfaces. Changes in the drainage level of the magmatic system are reflected in the volumes and geochemical history of the 1932-2021 flank eruption products.

How to cite: Kiryukhin A.V., Bergal-Kuvikas O.V., Lemzikov M.V., Zhuravlev N.B. Magmatic system of the Klyuchevskoy volcano according to seismic data and their geomechanical interpretation // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. Vol. 263. p. 698-714. EDN RPIBWW
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-04-29
  • Date accepted
    2023-10-11
  • Date published
    2023-10-27

Pink-violet diamonds from the Lomonosov mine: morphology, spectroscopy, nature of colour

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The article presents the results of the first comprehensive study of mineralogical and spectroscopic (IR, PL, EPR) characteristics of diamonds from the Lomonosov mine (Arkhangelskaya pipe) with a unique pink, pink-violet colour. It is shown that all crystals belong to the IaA type, with a total nitrogen content in the range of 500-1500 ppm, with a low degree of aggregation. The colour is heterogeneous, concentrated in narrow twin layers. It is presumably caused by the previously described M2 centres. The colour shade is affected by the content of P1 paramagnetic centres (C-defect). A positive correlation is observed between the colour saturation and the intensity of W7 paramagnetic centres. A convergent model of the formation of pink diamonds is assumed, according to which the determining factors are the ratio and concentration of structural impurities in the diamond, its thermal history, and conditions of plastic deformation, and not the origin of the diamond and the petrochemical properties of its host rocks.

How to cite: Kriulina G.Y., Vyatkin S.V., Vasilev E.A. Pink-violet diamonds from the Lomonosov mine: morphology, spectroscopy, nature of colour // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. Vol. 263. p. 715-723. EDN NYGZOX
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-08-16
  • Date accepted
    2023-10-24
  • Date published
    2023-10-27

Results of complex experimental studies at Vostok station in Antarctica

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Scientific research in the area close to the Russian Antarctic station Vostok has been carried out since its founding on December 16, 1957. The relevance of work to study the region is steadily increasing, which is confirmed by the Strategy for the Development of Activities of the Russian Federation in the Antarctica until 2030. As part of the Strategy implementation, Saint Petersburg Mining University solves the comprehensive study issues of the Vostok station area, including the subglacial Lake Vostok, related to the development of modern technologies and technical means for drilling glaciers and underlying rocks, opening subglacial reservoirs, sampling water and bottom sediments, as well as carrying out comprehensive geological and geophysical research. For the successful implementation of the Strategy, at each stage of the work it is necessary to identify and develop interdisciplinary connections while complying with the requirements for minimizing the impact on the environment. During the season of the 68th Russian Antarctic Expedition, the staff of the Mining University, along with the current research works , began research of the dynamic interactions between the forces of the Earth, from the deepest depths to the surface glacier. Drilling and research programs have been completed. The drilling program was implemented jointly with colleagues from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute at the drilling complex of the 5G well. The research program included: shallow seismic studies, core drilling of snow-firn strata, study of the snow-firn strata petrostructural features, studies of cuttings collection filters effectiveness when drilling snow-firn strata and the process of ice destruction in a reciprocating rotational method, bench testing of an acoustic scanner. As a result of drilling in 5G well at the depth range of 3453.37-3534.43 m, an ice core more than 1 million years old was obtained.

How to cite: Bolshunov A.V., Vasilev D.A., Dmitriev A.N., Ignatev S.A., Kadochnikov V.G., Krikun N.S., Serbin D.V., Shadrin V.S. Results of complex experimental studies at Vostok station in Antarctica // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. Vol. 263. p. 724-741. EDN WQNJET
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-07-04
  • Date accepted
    2023-09-20
  • Date published
    2023-10-27

Structure maintenance experience and the need to control the soils thermal regime in permafrost areas

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The risks of reducing the stability of buildings and structures are increasing in conditions of climate change and the active development of the territories under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors. The main causes include: loss of the bearing capacity of frozen soils, various geocryological processes, errors at the stages of design, construction and operation of facilities. Main actual task when conducting research and industrial operations in the cryolithozone is monitoring and, if necessary, managing thermal processes in the permafrost layers interacting with facilities. In this article the obtained positive experience of various technologies applying at various stages of the life cycle of civil and industrial facilities was analyzed. It helps to eliminate or prevent the structure deformation or destruction under the influence of climate change. The methods of permafrost stabilization used in the oil and gas industry in process of industrial infrastructure development of the fields have been studied – freezing (cooling) of foundation soils during construction on heterogeneous foundations. The solution to the problems of minimizing accidents when locating production wells in the permafrost zone of the Yamal Peninsula is considered using the example of an oil and gas condensate field and restoring of the temperature regime of perennial unfrozen soils in areas of valve units of main gas pipelines. An assessment of methods used to maintain the industrial and residential infrastructure within the northern municipalities that ensure the functioning of the fuel and energy complex of the Russian Federation in the Arctic was made. The systems of thermal stabilization in the foundations of buildings and industrial facilities built and operated on permafrost soils allow to fully use the high strength and low deformability of frozen grounds. It ensures the state's long-term plans of the industrial development in the Arctic.

How to cite: Brushkov A.V., Alekseev A.G., Badina S.V., Drozdov D.S., Dubrovin V.A., Zhdaneev O.V., Zheleznyak M.N., Melnikov V.P., Okunev S.N., Osokin A.B., Ostarkov N.A., Sadurtinov M.R., Sergeev D.O., Fedorov R.Y., Frolov K.N. Structure maintenance experience and the need to control the soils thermal regime in permafrost areas // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. Vol. 263. p. 742-756. EDN IMQTQY
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-04-11
  • Date accepted
    2023-09-20
  • Date published
    2023-10-27

Current state of above-ground and underground structures of the Alexander Column: an integral basis for its stability

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The Alexander Column as a compositional center of the architectural ensemble of Palace Square in Saint Petersburg, Russia, has always been a matter of concern for both the public and specialists due to progressive deterioration of its granite shaft caused by crack formation. The article examines previous studies related to the inspection and restoration of the column's shaft and other parts above ground level, as well as reasons for crack initiation and propagation in the column. An analysis was performed on the anomalies in the Fennoscandian Shield and the structural-tectonic conditions at the Montferrand quarry site, revealing the presence of faults and circular features within the studied area. The research considers N.Hast's measurements of excess tectonic stresses in anomaly zones (southeastern Finland), which acted horizontally and resulted in the development of tensile cracks within the granite massif and later in the column’s shaft after its installation. The most dangerous type of deformation for the Alexander Column is its tilt in the northeast direction, recorded in 1937 and 2000. The article analyzes the construction features of the column's foundations and additional underground elements, as well as soil and groundwater characteristics based on archival data. The contamination history of the underground space is taken into account, and an analogy-based method is used to assess the engineering-geological and hydrogeological conditions of the underground load-bearing structures within the placement zone of the Alexander Column and the New Hermitage buildings. The results of visual observations on the nature of deterioration and deformation of the pavement around the monument, as well as its pedestal, indicating the development of uneven settlement of the foundation, are presented. The article concludes with general recommendations for organizing and implementing comprehensive monitoring to forecast the deformation dynamics of the Alexander Column.

How to cite: Dashko R.E., Karpenko A.G. Current state of above-ground and underground structures of the Alexander Column: an integral basis for its stability // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. Vol. 263. p. 757-773. EDN OSYEHQ
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2022-10-13
  • Date accepted
    2023-10-11
  • Date published
    2023-10-27

An innovative approach to injury prevention in mining companies through human factor management

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This study argues that human error has an effect on occupational injury risks in mining companies. It shows through an analysis of existing approaches to occupational risk assessment that it is necessary to develop a quantitative assessment method factoring in individual psychophysiological attributes in order to analyze injury risks posed to miners. The article presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of how workers’ psychophysiological attributes influence their susceptibility to occupational injuries in underground mining conditions. By utilizing statistical data processing methods, such as discriminant and regression analysis, the study develops models to forecast personal injury risks among miners. These quantitative models underlie the proposed method for assessing miners’ susceptibility to injuries. The study outlines an algorithm for the practical application of this method and shows how the method was validated using a training sample. It provides recommendations for managing the human factor, incorporating the results of the proposed method, and emphasizes the importance of implementing a series of protective measures to mitigate the risk of occupational injuries in underground mining operations.

How to cite: Kabanov E.I., Tumanov M.V., Smetanin V.S., Romanov K.V. An innovative approach to injury prevention in mining companies through human factor management // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. Vol. 263. p. 774-784. EDN DRHFAN
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-03-20
  • Date accepted
    2023-09-20
  • Date published
    2023-10-27

Experimental simulation of a system of swamp biogeocenoses to improve the efficiency of quarry water treatment

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Mining activities were producing large quantities of wastewater contaminated with nitrogen compounds and metals. With insufficient treatment, these pollutants are released into the environment and have a toxic effect on living organisms. Constructed wetlands are now widely adopted as wastewater treatment systems because of the combination of physical, chemical and biological processes for the removal of contaminants. In this study, an experimental system was modeled to improve the efficiency of the quarry wastewater treatment of a mining enterprise by sharing the higher aquatic vegetation: broad-leaved cattail (Typha latifolia L.), common water-plantain (Alisma plantago-aquatica L.), jointed rush (Juncus articulatus L.) and lower aquatic vegetation (Chlorella sp.). Concentrations of nitrogen compounds and metal were analyzed both in the model and in the treated solution of quarry wastewater for calculation of treatment efficiency. Concentrations of the pollutants in the tissues of the higher aquatic vegetation were analyzed to assess the accumulation capacity and efficiency of translocation of the pollutants. The results of the experimental study showed the practical applicability of the constructed integrated treatment system to reduce the concentration of pollutants in quarry wastewater, as well as increasing the efficiency of treatment by introducing lower aquatic vegetation into the system

How to cite: Pashkevich M.A., Korotaeva A.E., Matveeva V.A. Experimental simulation of a system of swamp biogeocenoses to improve the efficiency of quarry water treatment // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. Vol. 263. p. 785-794. EDN QJYDIH
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-05-17
  • Date accepted
    2023-08-17
  • Date published
    2023-10-27

Scientific and technical substantiation of the possibility for the organization of needle coke production in Russia

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Russia is one of the world's leading steel producers, while about 33 % of production comes from the scrap remelted in arc steelmaking furnaces. The graphitized electrodes of SHP and UHP grades, mainly consisting of needle coke, are used for high current loads and temperatures in furnaces. USA, Japan, Korea, and China are focused on needle coke production, where coal (tar and pitch) and petroleum (decantoil), by-products of metallurgical factories and oil refineries, are used as raw materials. Russia's annual demand for needle coke is approximately 100 thousand tons, but all of it is covered by imports. Russia's raw material potential, established by the authors of the article, is more than 5 million tons per year and includes decantoil, coal tar and pitch, and heavy pyrolysis tar. The results of obtaining needle coke from decantoil and heavy pyrolysis tar are given below. The prototypes of needle coke were produced on specially designed delayed coking laboratory units (loading up to 0.25 and 80 kg). Raw materials were modified according to the original technology of Saint Petersburg Mining University, the convergence of target properties of which is confirmed by the results of quality analysis of the obtained needle coke, including after 100-fold scaling. The electrodes were molded from the obtained coke. After standardized stages of firing, mechanical processing and graphitization at 2,800-3,000 °C, the coefficient of linear thermal expansion was less than 1 × 10–6 К–1, and the value of specific electrical resistance was 7.1-7.4 μOhm, which proves that the obtained carbon material corresponds in quality to Japanese analogues and Super Premium needle coke.

How to cite: Rudko V.А., Gabdulkhakov R.R., Pyagai I.N. Scientific and technical substantiation of the possibility for the organization of needle coke production in Russia // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. Vol. 263. p. 795-809. EDN KYNHWL
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Date submitted
    2023-08-16
  • Date accepted
    2023-10-25
  • Date published
    2023-10-27

250 years in the service of the Fatherland: Empress Catherine II Saint Petersburg Mining University in facts and figures

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In 2023, Empress Catherine II Saint Petersburg Mining University – the first higher technical educational institution in Russia – turns 250 years. Any significant anniversary is an occasion to look back, analyze and evaluate the way traveled. The article analyzes the main achievements of the Mining University on the basis of statistical material from the moment of the foundation of the Mining School to the present day: educational and pedagogical experience in the education and training of mining specialists, scientific and technical intelligentsia; the outstanding contribution of its scientists, graduates to the establishment and development of the mineral resource complex of Russia, in strengthening the country's defense power, the creation of scientific schools. The first part of the article provides data on the number of graduates for different periods of the history of the university, shows the dynamics of their number growth, the peculiarities of learning. According to the authors, over 250 years, about 99 thousand engineers and mining specialists have been prepared in the university. The second part of the article is devoted to the characteristics of the teaching staff, in which a special place is occupied by his favorites, who have become outstanding scientists, academicians and corresponding members of the Academies of Sciences. Those of them who have devoted more than a dozen years of their lives to teaching within the walls of the university are noted. The final part shows the main scientific achievements of the university: the organization of scientific societies, the development of scientific schools, research institutes, etc. About 200 graduates of the Mining University have been awarded State Prizes for their contribution to the development of science and technology. The work of dissertation councils was noted, in which more than 5 thousand dissertations have been defended since 1943.

How to cite: Rudnik S.N., Afanasev V.G., Samylovskaya E.A. 250 years in the service of the Fatherland: Empress Catherine II Saint Petersburg Mining University in facts and figures // Journal of Mining Institute. 2023. Vol. 263. p. 810-830. EDN VGZYMM