The article presents the results of the first comprehensive study of mineralogical and spectroscopic (IR, PL, EPR) characteristics of diamonds from the Lomonosov mine (Arkhangelskaya pipe) with a unique pink, pink-violet colour. It is shown that all crystals belong to the IaA type, with a total nitrogen content in the range of 500-1500 ppm, with a low degree of aggregation. The colour is heterogeneous, concentrated in narrow twin layers. It is presumably caused by the previously described M 2 centres. The colour shade is affected by the content of P 1 paramagnetic centres ( C -defect). A positive correlation is observed between the colour saturation and the intensity of W 7 paramagnetic centres. A convergent model of the formation of pink diamonds is assumed, according to which the determining factors are the ratio and concentration of structural impurities in the diamond, its thermal history, and conditions of plastic deformation, and not the origin of the diamond and the petrochemical properties of its host rocks.
This work studies and compares the main morphological, structural, and mineralogical features of 350 diamond crystals from the Karpinsky-I and 300 crystals of the Arkhangelskaya kimberlite pipes. The share of crystals of octahedral habit together with individual crystals of transitional forms with sheaf-like and splintery striation is higher in the Arkhangelskaya pipe and makes 15 %. The share of cuboids and tetrahexahedroids is higher in the Karpinsky-I pipe and stands at 14 %. The share of dodecahedroids in the Arkhangelskaya and Karpinsky-I pipes are 60 % and 50 %, respectively. The indicator role of the nitrogen-vacancy N3 center active in absorption and luminescence is shown. Crystals with the N3 absorption system have predominantly octahedral habit or dissolution forms derived from the octahedra. Their thermal history is the most complex. Absorption bands of the lowest-temperature hydrogen-containing defects (3050, 3144, 3154, 3188, 3310 cm −1 , 1388, 1407, 1432, 1456, 1465, 1503, 1551, 1563 cm −1 ), are typical for crystals without N3 system, where in the absorption spectra nitrogen is in the form of low-temperature A and C defects. The above mentioned bands are registered in the spectra of 16 % and 42 % of crystals from the Arkhangelskaya and Karpinsky-I pipes, respectively. The diamond of the studied deposits is unique in the minimum temperature (duration) of natural annealing. Based on a set of features, three populations of crystals were distinguished, differing in growth conditions, post-growth, and thermal histories. The established regularities prove the multi-stage formation of diamond deposits in the north of the East European Platform and significant differences from the diamonds of the Western Cisurals. The results suggest the possibility of the existence of primary deposits dominated by diamonds from one of the identified populations.