The risks of reducing the stability of buildings and structures are increasing in conditions of climate change and the active development of the territories under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors. The main causes include: loss of the bearing capacity of frozen soils, various geocryological processes, errors at the stages of design, construction and operation of facilities. Main actual task when conducting research and industrial operations in the cryolithozone is monitoring and, if necessary, managing thermal processes in the permafrost layers interacting with facilities. In this article the obtained positive experience of various technologies applying at various stages of the life cycle of civil and industrial facilities was analyzed. It helps to eliminate or prevent the structure deformation or destruction under the influence of climate change. The methods of permafrost stabilization used in the oil and gas industry in process of industrial infrastructure development of the fields have been studied – freezing (cooling) of foundation soils during construction on heterogeneous foundations. The solution to the problems of minimizing accidents when locating production wells in the permafrost zone of the Yamal Peninsula is considered using the example of an oil and gas condensate field and restoring of the temperature regime of perennial unfrozen soils in areas of valve units of main gas pipelines. An assessment of methods used to maintain the industrial and residential infrastructure within the northern municipalities that ensure the functioning of the fuel and energy complex of the Russian Federation in the Arctic was made. The systems of thermal stabilization in the foundations of buildings and industrial facilities built and operated on permafrost soils allow to fully use the high strength and low deformability of frozen grounds. It ensures the state's long-term plans of the industrial development in the Arctic.
The review to achieve technological sovereignty of the Russian fuel and energy complex (FEC) in the ongoing geopolitical situation is presented in the article. The main scope has been to identify the key technology development priorities, restrictions and internal resources to overcome these utilizing the developed by the author the innovative methodology that consists of novel approaches to calculate level of local content, digitalization, business continuity andinteractions with military-industrial complex. Some organizational changes have been proposed to intensify the development of hi-tech products for the FEC and related industries, including establishment of the state committee for science and technology and the project office of lead engineers for the critical missing technologies. Two successful examples to utilize the described in the paper methodology is presented: the first domestic hydraulic fracturing fleet and polycrystalline diamond compact cutter bit inserts.
Development of high-tech well electronic measuring systems is aimed at creating modern equipment: telemetry, well geophysical measurement equipment, the architecture of which is divided into basic (with measurement channels for gamma logging and inductive resistance) and advanced (with radioactive, acoustic, magnetic resonance and thermobarometric measurement channels, including azimuthal methods of investigation). Over-the-bit measurement modules, rotary steerable systems are being developed and channels for transmitting data to the surface are being improved. Vice versa, specialized surface equipment with highly integrated software is being created. Different measurement modules are manufactured by different companies, which creates uncertainties in the possibility of interfacing the manufacturers' measurement modules into a single well measurement system. The article presents an analysis of the readiness of Russian oil service companies to produce well and surface equipment for drilling Russian directional oil and gas wells, meeting modern requirements for accuracy, lifetime and operating conditions. The possibility of creating a fully Russian well high-tech equipment and the required resources, risks and measures to mitigate them when creating a modern well measurement system are considered.
The article discusses the problems associated with metrological support of equipment for geophysical research, issues of ensuring the uniformity of well measurements, the creation of Russian standards for calibrating well equipment when determining the porosity coefficients and oil, gas, water saturation, determining the parameters of defects during well cementing and technical condition of casing strings and the water-oil-gas flow. The problems of creating full-fledged methods for measuring the parameters of oil and gas fields with conventional and hard-to-recover reserves have been investigated. The key directions of development of the Russian metrological support of geophysical well measurements were determined. The tasks that need to be solved to create metrological support for geophysical well logging as an industry that meet international standards are indicated. The expediency of creating a Russian Geophysical Center for Metrology and Certification, the need to develop a new and update the existing regulatory framework, which will allow Russian geophysics to reach the level of world leaders in the field of geophysical research, are substantiated.