The presented studies are aimed to determine the formation patterns of the gold-rare metal mineralization within one of the most inaccessible Arctic islands of the Russian Federation, Bolshevik Island of the Severnaya Zemlya archipela-go. The relevance of the work is determined by the high probability of discovering a significant in terms of metal reserves deposit, which is proved by many researchers on the example of known large deposits to be a typical feature of sites with gold-rare metal formation. Obviously, only the possibility of discovering and subsequent development of a deposit of a highly liquid type of mineral, gold, can ensure the profitability of mining production on Severnaya Zemlya. It is established that the main geological, mineralogical, and geochemical features of the gold-rare metal mineralization in the Kropotkinsko-Nikitinskaya metallogenic zone of Bolshevik Island correspond to that of similar ore sites in Russia and the world. The occurrences of other formation types revealed in this metallogenic zone suggest a certain zoning in their distribution: mineralization is located in the apical parts of granitoids and in the nearest halo of hornfelses. At a distance, with an exit from the hornfelsed zone, there are occurrences of a cassiterite-sulphide formation with elevated gold and silver content at the top of the ore column, together with an increased amount of polymetallic ores. Occurrences of gold-quartz and gold-sulphide-quartz formations are localized in fault zones, as a rule, farther from granitoids. The total vertical range of gold mineralization exceeds 300 m. The assignment of all types of mineralization in the Kropotkinsko-Nikitinskaya metallogenic zone of Bolshevik Island to a single hydrothermal process is emphasized by the similar isotope composition of lead galena from heterogeneous occurrences, which determines the age of all mineralization at 200-300 Ma.
The geological structure, structural relations with the underlying complexes, mineral composition, age and origin of sedimentary-volcanogenic and intrusive formations of the Chamberlain valley area (northern part of the Wedel Jarlsberg Land, Svalbard Archipelago) are considered. As a result of the studies, two stages of the Late Precambrian endogenous activity in this area have been identified. For the first time the Vendian ages (593-559 Ma) of intrusive (dolerites) and effusive (basalts, andesites, tuffs) rocks were determined by U-Pb-method (SHRIMP-II) for Svalbard Archipelago. At the same time, the Grenville ages for large bodies of gabbro-diorites, metadolerites bodies (1152-967 Ma), and metagranites (936 Ma) were determined for the first time for this area, which correlates well with the ages of magmatic formations obtained earlier in the southern part of Wedel Jarlsberg Land. A detailed petrographic and petrochemical characterization of all the described objects were compiled and the paleotectonic conditions of their formation were reconstructed. Based on these data, the Chemberlendalen series, which is dated to the Late Vendian, and the Rechurchbreen series, which the authors attribute to the Middle Riphean and correlate with the lower part of the Nordbucht series are distinguished. The data obtained indicate a two-stage Precambrian magmatism in this area of the Svalbard archipelago and, most importantly, provide evidence for the first time ever of endogenous activity on Svalbard in the Vendian time. This fact makes it possible to reconsider in the future the history of the formation of folded basement of the Svalbard archipelago and the nature of the geodynamic conditions in which it was formed.
The authors analyzed the content of a number of rare and rare-earth elements in the rocks of the Northwest manganese ore occurrence, confined to the Neoarchean dolomites of the Malmani series of the Transvaal Basin. 30 samples of manganese ores and host rocks were analyzed by ICP-MS and XRF methods. Average values of Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) were used as the geochemical standard for data calculation and normalization. The concentrations of elements normalized on PAAS reveal the LREE anomaly in manganese ores. Positive Ce and negative Y–anomalies indicate the hydro-genetical type of sedimentation of ore minerals from manganese-bearing aqueous solutions. This is consistent with the ratios of the elements: Ce and Y SN /Ho SN , Ce and Nd, Fe – Mn – (Co + Ni + Cu) × 10. A clear correlation between the contents of rare-earth elements in manganese nodules and the underlying Malmani dolomites indicates their close genetic relationship. Negative Ce and positive Y–anomalies in manganese wad minerals indicate differences in the conditions of their formation. The manganese wad formed earlier than the rest of the ore with the active participation of microorganisms.
The Northwest manganese ore mineralisation is located at a relative distance from traditionally known manganese mining areas in a new manganese-bearing region (Highveld) in the Northwest Province, Republic of South Africa. The ore occurrence was studied on farms: Buchansvale 61 IQ, Weltevreden 517 JQ, Rhenosterhoek 343 JP and Kafferskraal 306 JP. The data obtained from studying the geology of the area pointed out to interests regarding the development criterias for search of similar ore mineralisations in the northwest region of South Africa. The ore occurs predominantly in the form of powdered manganese wad, manganese nodules and crusts, confined to the karstic structures of the upper section of the dolomites. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive link (SEM-EDS) and X-ray fluorescence were utilized to unveil the mineral and chemical composition of the ore samples. The present study therefore presents the results on both chemical and mineral composition of manganese ores, and their depth and longitudinal distribution. Karstic areas causing an increased local thickness of the ore body were identified. The geochemical and microspcopic study of the ores indicates their supergene nature. The main ore minerals includes cryptomelane, lithiophorite, purolusite, hollandite and romanechite associated with impurity components of Ba, Ce, Co, La, Cr, Zn and V.
Identifying complexes of the early Proterozoic age in the composition of crystal foundation is a key task in studying pre-Cambrian formations of the whole of Spitzbergen and its northwestern part in particular. The territory of that region is formed by three deeply metamorphosed complexes that underwent the processes of migmatization and granitization in mid-Rifey and were broken through by granitoids of mid-Rifey and mid-Paleozoic. In their turn, the outbursts of the foundation are overlayed by terrigene rocks of the Devonian graben of Spitzbergen, conglomerates forming a large share among them. In the course of petrographic and chemical studies of such compositions, as well as isotopic characteristics of zircons from the boulders of basal conglomerates of Red Bay (D 1 ) series, the suite of Wolfberget at Cape Conglomeratodden the presence was identified of reddish (meat-red) granites of isotopic age of 1631±19 Mil years, which is comparable to late Karelian processes manifested actively across the archipelago. It is also proven that transformations of these rocks within the range of 380±42 Mil years are well associated with mid-paleozoic events, considerable restructuring of the foundation associated with them. The age range we defined is another proof of manifestation of early pre-Cambrian (late Karelian) processes in the northwestern Spitzbergen.
Gold content, at least twice higher than the gold percentage abundance in Earth’s crust, has been discovered in a number of black slates formations in Tajmyr-Severnaya Zemlya gold province. The article shows the measurement data on organic carbon and ore elements concentrations in carbonaceous sediments, with pyrite, being their constituent, in the region. The dependence of ore elements availability, including gold, on sulphidisation degree in rocks has been identified in an ore bundle of Golyshevskaja strata. The comparison of gold concentrations in sampled monocrystals and pyrite aggregates has been carried out. It has been empirically supported that the content of gold, lead, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel and copper normally grows with the increase of sulphides quantity. Concentrations of chromium, manganese, tin, vanadium decrease respectively; however, titanium and zinc content remains unchanged.
There is an increased interest in the Arctic regions of the planet in recent years. Russia has the longest Arctic shelf with great prospects for hydrocarbons under its jurisdiction. So, the Arctic Islands will play a major role as an infrastructural base for development of oil and gas resources on the shelf in the Arctic Ocean in the near future. Minerals of major islands and archipelagos of the Russian Arctic: Novaya Zemlya, Franz-Josef Land, Severnaya Zemlya, the New Siberian Islands and the Wrangel Island as well as the Spitsbergen archipelago (Norway) where Russia has its own territory formally enshrined for the extraction of coal and other minerals are considered in the article.
Acting in Russia methodology of estimation and expert’s examination of calculated mineral reserves has been organized in the Soviet period, during development of the rigidly centralized system of the state planning and management. Since, 20 years there isn’t in the country any state monopoly (and financing) in the mining brunch and geological exploration. The new approaches are needed in procedure of estimating mineral reserves explored by the private enterprises. Anyway, functions, which the State Commission on mineral reserves (SCR) used to carry out in the Soviet time, remain nearly the same at present. Its full-scale authority, obligatory specifications are in clear contradiction with real economic relationship in the country. Computer modeling of ore bodies, composed on the base of geostatistical analysis of the exploration data, determines their natural contours and the ore grade distribution far more precisely than the formal index of the reserve’s category. There isn’t any necessity to approve in the SCR the so called group of the ore deposit complexity, nor the Technical-economic validation of limiting conditions. The mere procedure of the state approval of explored ore reserves ought to have the record keeping character.