Scientific research in the area close to the Russian Antarctic station Vostok has been carried out since its founding on December 16, 1957. The relevance of work to study the region is steadily increasing, which is confirmed by the Strategy for the Development of Activities of the Russian Federation in the Antarctica until 2030. As part of the Strategy implementation, Saint Petersburg Mining University solves the comprehensive study issues of the Vostok station area, including the subglacial Lake Vostok, related to the development of modern technologies and technical means for drilling glaciers and underlying rocks, opening subglacial reservoirs, sampling water and bottom sediments, as well as carrying out comprehensive geological and geophysical research. For the successful implementation of the Strategy, at each stage of the work it is necessary to identify and develop interdisciplinary connections while complying with the requirements for minimizing the impact on the environment. During the season of the 68th Russian Antarctic Expedition, the staff of the Mining University, along with the current research works , began research of the dynamic interactions between the forces of the Earth, from the deepest depths to the surface glacier. Drilling and research programs have been completed. The drilling program was implemented jointly with colleagues from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute at the drilling complex of the 5G well. The research program included: shallow seismic studies, core drilling of snow-firn strata, study of the snow-firn strata petrostructural features, studies of cuttings collection filters effectiveness when drilling snow-firn strata and the process of ice destruction in a reciprocating rotational method, bench testing of an acoustic scanner. As a result of drilling in 5G well at the depth range of 3453.37-3534.43 m, an ice core more than 1 million years old was obtained.
The subglacial Lake Vostok in Antarctic is a unique natural phenomenon, its comprehensive study involves sampling of water and bottom surface rocks. For further study of the lake, it is necessary to drill a new access well and develop environmentally safe technologies for its exploration. This article discusses existing and potential technologies for sampling bottom surface rocks of subglacial lakes. All these technologies meet environmental safety requirements and are conducive for sampling. The authors have proposed an alternative technology, using a walking device, which, due to its mobility, enables selective sampling of rocks across a large area from a single access well. The principal issues, related to the implementation of the proposed technology, are investigated within this article. This report is prepared by a team of specialists with many years of experience in drilling at the Vostok Station in Antarctic and in experimental work on the design of equipment and non-standard means of mechanization for complicated mining, geological and climatic conditions.
The research focuses on mathematical methods of mining pressure forecast to develop rational support patterns for mining tunnels and to ensure safety of mining operations. The purpose of research is to develop the methodology of applying advanced calculation methods and software solutions based on neural networks to reduce dispersion of factors influencing stability of mining tunnels, as well as to define rational parameters of mining tunnel support. The authors review the algorithm of geomechanical process examination, which is divided into several stages. First of all, it is proposed to use cluster analysis to examine location conditions of man-made outcrops, which allows to divide all the diversity of existing conditions for mining tunnel construction. Cluster analysis first allows to reduce the dispersion of factors that influence the stability of mining tunnels in various clusters, and then to determine rational parameters of tunnel support in each cluster. After the problem of cluster analysis is solved, it is proposed to use software programs that allow to study geomechanical processes in each cluster. At this stage, both standard methods (normative techniques, numerical modelling, analogies use, etc.) and the most advanced methods – neural networks – can be applied. Described algorithm of solving geomechanical problems, which utilizes advanced numerical methods and a software package based on neural networks, ensures an individual approach to estimation of mining pressure under varying conditions of man-made outcrop location in the rock mass.
The paper addresses an issue of creating an environment favorable for the life in megacities by planting vegetation on the rooftops. It also provides information about rooftop greening practices adopted in other countries. The issues of ‘green roof’ building in climatic conditions of Saint Petersburg and roof vegetation impact on the urban ecosystem are examined. Vegetation composition quality- and quantity-wise has been proposed for the roof under research and a 3D model of this roof reflecting its geometric properties has been developed. A structure of roof covering and substrate qualitative composition is presented. An effect of rooftop geometry on the substrate temperature is explored. The annual substrate temperature and moisture content in different parts of the roof have been analyzed. Results of thermal imaging monitoring and insolation modelling for different parts of green roof surface are presented.
Представлен вариант компоновки исполнительного органа проходческого комплекса для шахт Метростроя Санкт-Петербурга. Приведены формулы и результаты расчета основных параметров исполнительного органа комплекса на ЭВМ по методике Р.Ю.Подэрни для гидроударников и модернизированной программе KOR_N для гидравлических фрез. Обосновано использование гидравлических фрез продольного вращения в качестве исполнительного органа при отработке забоя. Изложен цикл проходческих работ комплекса.
A symbatic (and in some cases linear) correlation between water repellent and protective properties of currently known nanostructured and conventional paint-and-lacquer steel coatings has been established; the effect of passivation of steel surface with triamon nanocoating during long-term corrosion tests under industrial conditions has been revealed. For the first time in history, nanostructured protective coatings were developed and implemented at mining enterprises.