Nowadays the majority of deposits are successfully exploiting by mining enterprises with the help of traditional excavation and loading equipment. Typically, metals, construction materials, etc. are mined and extracted on these deposits, but modern society is progressing and producing new requirements to metals properties for creating a new type of equipment. The metals with new properties are located in unconventional areas: either in technogenic deposits (overburden dumps, tailings, etc.) or in hard-to-get natural formations. Technogenic mines, being a tailing of Kachkanarsky mining and processing plant, are referred to such unique deposits, which have expensive metals (scandium, gallium, strontium, titanium), as well as the natural deposit – rhenium deposit, located in the crater of an active volcano. Potentialities of open mining in the largest rhenium deposit with complex environmental occurrence have been analyzed in the paper. Temperature measurement results of adjacent strata and a temperature scheme of the host rocks on a separate site and the entire field have been presented. An open mining technique for a primary mining area as well as perspective methods of rock preparation for excavation, applicable to this particular deposit, has been considered.
In work it is settled an invoice the final depth of a pit of the conditional complex occurrence presented by three minerals. It is shown that when developing complex occurrence it is more expedient to use coefficient of output, instead of overburden ratio.
The paper considers the advantages and disadvantages of technological options for the training of new horizons in the fields of mineral resources with large water production using excavators such as direct and backhoes.
The work evaluated the impact of the bench height on the development of mining operations and quarry capacity of ore. The analysis of the height of the step depends on the area of the ore deposit within the quarry field, as well as the dependence of the length of the scope of work on the angle of the ore body.
The tailings dumps of the ironore mining-reprocessing enterprises exert extremely negative influence on the environment, but at the same time, under the conditions of the impoverishment of iron ores they are potential raw source. In connection with this, a question of involvement in processing of the tails containing iron is extremely urgent. In the article the technology on processing of the waste of the beneficiation of iron ores is suggest. In this case the clotting of the obtained concentrates can be carry out by briquetting. In the work are also given the results of researches of the iron-containing tails concentrating and briquettability of the concentrates obtained of them.
New approaches to the design of low-waste opencast mining of complex mineral deposits using modern mining efficiency criteria in determining the main parameters of a opencast. The main technological and environmental characteristics flow of ore technological requirements for opencast mining environment of the Ozerny polymetallic deposit, located near specially protected zone of lake Baikal.
In the Russian Federation, about 40 % of tailings dumps are in operation GOK. The development of mechanized impossible, due to heavy water production, the stability of the dam breach and the possibility of a breakthrough. In this regard, the task of developing the existing tailings dumps will now increase the competitiveness of enterprises and reduce the cost of iron ore concentrate.
Development water sated tailing dump are accompanied explosive failure banks even at their height less 10 meters. Thereupon, the problem decision on research competence a slope and to a choice of optimum height production a dredge face «backdigger», established on the top platform tailing dump, will allow to reduce equipment downtimes and to increase intensity mining.
The technique of ore reclaiming process flowsheets with stationary both semiportable crushers and classifying points parameters definition is presented. The best results of ore reclaiming are obtained by unloading ore to the loading bunker from several working faces.
It is considered the technique of definition of ore warehouse’s capacity for the period of opencast development. This period is characterized by non-uniform opencast’s productivity on a mineral. The technique allows to estimate an initial ore warehouse’s stock, which is necessary for concentrating factory’s stable work, the possible moment of factory’s starting, and also dynamics of ore’s stocks at warehouse during period under review mining enterprise work.
In article it is considered influence of reloading points on bench turnover rate. The scheme of ore reloading with alternation of concentration horizon on the adjacent ledges is offered. It allows limit depth of distribution temporarily non-working rock pillar to work space.
In article it is considered the technology of creation and exploitation of reloading ore warehouse. As the reloading equipment it is offered to use a hydraulic backhoe excavator. At the combined transport the warehouse is an irreplaceable link in a technological chain. Basic difference from existing schemes of warehousing is that ore is housed not in a stack but in a concentration trench. The concentration trench is formed in immediate proximity from a face. It allows to prolong the operation term of the warehouse and to exclude rigid interdependence of the combined transport links.
To prevent decline in quarry production and create favorable operating conditions for the equipment in advancing watered open-pits it is recommended to employ hydraulic back shovels, which due to their cinematic and design features can perform downward digging while being located on the dry upper bench surface.
The article studies the influence of the mineral body offsetting on the schedule of current volumes of overburden stripping. This issue has not been specially studied in previous publications by various authors. The issue of replacing areas by linear sections making up the pit walls has been justified in calculation of the current overburden volumes in cross-sectional plan. A corresponding dependence has been received in order to create a schedule for minimal current overburden volumes and a schedule for changes in current volumes depending on the rising depth. The proposed approach helps to establish general regularities which can be used in selecting parameters and directions of mining operations.
The majority of mineral deposits are complex, i.e. composed of various minerals. In this case not only the main commercial mineral is mined, but also a number of co-products. As a rule, it is possible to achieve stable extraction of the main mineral, the concentration plant efficiency being directly depended on this issue. Production of co-products is a variable value as it is dependant on the direction and mode of mining operations. This results in disturbances in the concentration plant operation. Extraction of useful minerals from the ore is decreasing. Thus, production of coproducts should be stabilized through storing primary materials at storage areas. Such intermediate storages play an essential role in enhancing the ore grades. The paper offers a method to calculate basic parameters of storages for associated mineral products.
Problems of branch are formulated, decisions of the cores from them are offered. Ecologically pure technology of development of rocky rocks allowing considerably is presented to lower a level of losses and contaminations at extraction of minerals. The brief review of practice of application of the presented technology abroad is given. The technique of a choice of the process equipment is offered. Advantages of the offered technology are noted.
To prevent the undesirable occurrence of non-working leases and their exploitation, it is necessary to systematize and analyze the reasons for their creation. It is reasonable to divide the causes of temporary non-working walls ("TNWWs") into two basic categories - planned and unplanned. Internal reasons for the creation of TWAs, as a rule, are the result of errors and deficiencies in budgeting and mining operations. Such causes arise in the internal system of the operation's activities.
В настоящее время 75 % полезных ископаемых в мире добывается открытым способом, более экономичным. Однако при этом одновременно извлекают миллиарды тонн вскрышных пород, которые вывозят в отвалы, где они загрязняются, теряют свою ценность и, кроме того, снижают качество окружающей среды. Возможность промышленного использования различных горных пород карьерного поля характеризует комплексность месторождения, разрабатываемого открытым способом. Представлены современные концепции теории проектирования карьеров с учетом комплексности полезных ископаемых и их месторождений. Рекомендованные методы проектирования карьеров не отрицают действующих в настоящее время, так как носят более общий характер и в частном случае сводятся к обычным методам, характерным для месторождений однородного состава.
The high profitability of open development of technogenic deposits is proved; on the basis of statistical data, the optimum volume of technogenic reserves ready for excavation of the tailings dump is established. When solving the problem set in the form of a statistical model, the analysis of random values with the conditional distribution function has been carried out and the solution regarding some a priori distribution of states of the mining and technical system minimizing the expected value of the loss function has been obtained. The necessity of increasing the accuracy, efficiency and reliability of design decisions in conditions of the market model of economy, the stochastic nature of the initial data is substantiated. It is shown that the development of man-made deposits at the achieved level of technology can become very cost-effective. On the basis of the Bayesian function, a general expression for the optimal amount of reserves accumulated in a technogenic deposit is obtained. The calculation is made on the example of raw materials accumulated in the tailings pond. The proposed methodology is applicable to technogenic deposits of any class.
Технолого-минералогическая оценка всего объема минерального вещества, извлекаемого из недр, позволяет отойти от концепции разработки месторо ж дения как источника одного полезного ископаемого ...