The growing demand for ferrous metallurgy products necessitates the introduction of technologies that increase the efficiency of the processing of iron-bearing raw materials. A promising trend in this area is the implementation of solutions based on the possibility of selective disintegration of ores. The purpose of this work was to establish the laws of selective disintegration of ferruginous quartzites based on the results of the study of mineralogical and technological properties of raw materials. We present data on the study of mineralogical and technological features of ferruginous quartzites of the Mikhailovskoye deposit. The data were obtained using X-ray fluorescence analysis and automated mineralogical analysis. Based on studies of the nature of dissemination and the size of grains of rock-forming and ore minerals, the tasks of ore preparation are formulated. The parameters for the iron and silicon oxide distribution by grain-size classes in the grinding products were established during the study. Based on empirical dependences, the grain size of grinding was predicted, at which the most effective release of intergrowths of ore minerals and their minimum transition to the size class of –44 µm should be achieved.
In the special issue of the Journal of Mining Institute we collected articles considering the problems of Russian and world science in the field of complex and deep processing of mineral raw materials of natural and anthropogenic origin, development of theory and methods of intensification of selective disintegration of finely dispersed mineral clusters, and leaching of noble metals and rare-earth elements from resistant ores and un-conventional raw materials and concentrates, improvement of basic and auxiliary processes of concentration and their digitalization
The paper studies the possibility of assessing the separation of mineral raw materials, taking into account the rheology of the mineral slurry. The ores of the Mayskoye deposit were chosen as the object of the study, characterized by a thin impregnation of the valuable component – gold in the host minerals, which determines the use of fine and ultrafine milling. This fact is essential because the presence of a fine grade seriously affects the rheology of the mineral slurry used in subsequent mineral processing stages. This predetermines the necessity to take into account rheological parameters. The research performed provides the development of a methodology for assessing the separation of minerals in the hydrocyclone based on the interpretation of numerical and mathematical modeling data. using the object-oriented programming language Python, a program for calculating empirical coefficients of the rheological equation, theoretically describing the dynamics of internal transformations of the mineral slurry, was developed. Taking into account the process parameters of the laboratory unit with hydrocyclone and ore properties, three concentrations of solids in the mineral slurry were selected, conditionally corresponding to the minimum, average and maximum values. Rheological equations successively composed for three concentrations, i.e., 400, 500, and 700 g/l, made it possible to calculate the critical shear rates corresponding to the maximum dispersion of the mineral slurry in the hydrocyclone flow. Subsequent numerical simulation using Ansys Fluent software, as well as statistical evaluation of the shear rates at different levels of solids content showed that the shear rate profile in the cross-section of the hydrocyclone corresponding to the maximum dispersion of the mineral slurry is obtained at the content of 400 g/l.
The paper presents flotation of two phosphate ore samples of different origin. Statistical analysis was used to study the effect of operating parameters on flotation efficiency. The paper proposes to increase the efficiency of flotation processing of magmatic phosphate ore with a low grade of the valuable component (P 2 O 5 = 10.88 %), containing nepheline and feldspars, by means of direct anionic flotation. Authors present an optimization of anionic flotation using tall oil fatty acids mixed with anionic phospholane as an anionic collector. The effect of adding soda ash to compensate for the influence of calcium cations on technological parameters of P 2 O 5 flotation was examined. The results of studying the flotation of nepheline ore (flotation tailings of magmatic phosphate ore) showed that replacement of phospholane with oxyethylated isotridecanol allowed to obtain a high-quality concentrate. It was estimated that with the addition of Na 2 CO 3 in the amount of 2,000 g/t, a concentrate was obtained with the grade and recovery of phosphorus pentoxide equal to 39.15 and 94.19 %, respectively. The paper proposes to increase the efficiency of flotation processing of sedimentary phosphate ore with a low grade of the valuable component (P 2 O 5 = 22.5 %), containing gypsum and quartz, by means of desliming followed by anionic or cationic reverse flotation. Tall oil fatty acid with anionic phospholane was used as a collector in anionic reverse flotation, and amine was used in cationic reverse flotation. Sodium tripolyphosphate was used as a P 2 O 5 depressant. It was found to be an effective depressant in both anionic and cationic flotation. When analyzing the statistical plan, it was estimated that the maximum grade of the valuable component in the concentrate (P 2 O 5 = 31.23 %) and the recovery to concentrate of 95.22 % were obtained in the chamber product at amine consumption of 950.88 g/t and sodium tripolyphosphate consumption of 500 g/t.
The presented study is devoted to a comparative review of the mineral raw material base of platinum group metals (PGMs) and technologies of their processing in South Africa and Russia, the largest PGM producers. Mineralogical and geochemical classification and industrial value of iron-platinum and platinum-bearing deposits are presented in this work. The paper also reviews types of PGM ore body occurrences, ore processing methods (with a special focus on flotation processes), as well as difficulties encountered by enterprises at the processing stage, as they increase recovery of the valuable components. Data on mineralogical features of PGM deposits, including the distribution of elements in the ores, are provided. The main lines of research on mineralogical features and processing of raw materials of various genesis are identified and validated. Sulfide deposits are found to be of the highest industrial value in both countries. Such unconventional PGM sources, as black shale, dunites, chromite, low-sulfide, chromium and titanomagnetite ores, anthropogenic raw materials, etc. are considered. The main lines of research that would bring into processing non-conventional metal sources are substantiated. Analysis of new processing and metallurgical methods of PGM recovery from non-conventional and industrial raw materials is conducted; the review of existing processing technologies for platinum-bearing raw materials is carried out. Technologies that utilize modern equipment for ultrafine grinding are considered, as well as existing reagents for flotation recovery; evaluation of their selectivity in relation to platinum minerals is presented. Basing on the analysis of main technological processes of PGM ore treatment, the most efficient schemes are identified, i.e.,gravity and flotation treatment with subsequent metallurgical processing.
The article presents the results of a study on the possibility to assess refractory gold-bearing ores using thermal analysis data. It studies the flotation concentrates obtained during the enrichment of double refractory sulfide gold-bearing ores. This type of ore is complicated by the fine impregnation of gold in sulphide minerals and the presence of sorption-active scattered carbonaceous matter, which is in close association with sulphides. The results of thermogravimetric and mass spectrometric studies of refractory gold-bearing ores are presented. The obtained fragments for kerogen CH (m/z = 15), C 2 H (m/z = 29) and C 3 H (m/z = 43) indicate the presence of various types of carbonaceous matter in the studied samples. It is justified that the degree of sorption activity of carbonaceous matter depends on the presence of kerogen and bitumen in the ore. High sorption activity of scattered carbonaceous material significantly affects the processing technology of ores and concentrates, both flotation and pyro- and hydrometallurgical methods. Thermogravimetric and mass spectroscopic analyzes can be used to determine the degree of preg-robbing of refractory gold-bearing ores. The obtained results predetermine the direction of creating new methods and technologies in the field of decarburization of refractory gold-bearing ores in the integrated development of solid minerals in the mining regions of Russia.
Mathematical statistics techniques and the data from laboratory mineral and technological studies of samples were used to identify the most common natural and technological associations of microelements in carbonaceous rocks which could be of industrial value if extracted in the form of commercial products. The discovered structures of spheroidal and ring ferrocarbonaceous clusters are respective formations of the class of metal fullerens with expressed magnetic properties. Such clusters may serve as construction blocks for new magnetic structures since each of them is a separate magnetic domain. Extracting such structures and their practical use opens the way to future technologies. It is expected to employ such results in the future in the course of designing new techniques and technologies for benefication of carbonaceous raw materials while developing comprehensively solid mineral resources in the mining industry regions of Russia.
The study characterizes the role of coal in the fuel and energy balance of the Far East Region and points out the issue of losses of coal fines in the processes of coal mining, transportation and processing. To solve the problem of losses of coal fines, the mined coal is sorted into different size classes and fuel briquettes are produced from coal fines. Physical foundations are presented in short of briquetting solid combustible mineral resources. The dependences and variations of briquette compression strength limit are studied vs. charge humidity and briquetting pressure. Optimal parameters are retrieved for briquetting coal fines. The principal technological scheme is given of the process of briquette production. The developed technological solutions include sorting regular coal and briquetting coal fines, as well as the involvement of technogenic carbon-containing wastes from the hydrolysis production lines, plus residuals from oil refining.
The results of mineralogical, geochemical and technological research of black shale rocks are given. It is proved that black shales are now regarded as a new promising and innovative source of precious and rare-metal raw materials. It is pointed out that 3 wt. % of black shales samples is colloid-salt fraction (nanofraction) with a particle size less than 1000 nm and it can be extracted with water under specially chosen conditions. The use of water instead of chemically active reagents guarantees the absence of dissolved mineral matrix and clearly shows the colloidal salt component in samples. The results determine the direction of creating some new methods and technologies of carbonaceous feed dressing for integrated development of solid minerals in the mining and oil producing regions of Russia.
The basis for and results of experimental studies for increasing the efficiency factor of gravitation extraction for fine and ultrafine gold from geogenic and man-made mineral formations with high clay content as well as alluvial placers are presented. The clayey gold-bearing placers of the Khabarovsk region in Russia’s Far East were used as the subject of research. These placers contain a substantial amount of fine particle gold and muddy material with hard washability, which are the main reasons for gold losses. One more object of research is a placer located in the Krasnoyarsk region, east Siberia. A special method of interpretation has been created for particle size distribution, using newly developed software which can increase the accu-racy of sedimentation analysis and predict the morphology of gold. It has been proved that one of the most promising ways in which to intensify the gravity processes can be effective preparation, including the chemical dispersion of gold dust before gravitational processing. Exploring the joint effect of sodium hexapolyphosphate and halogen oxidant on the efficiency of processing revealed that the combination of the peptization-coagulation cycles improves gold recovery. Also, the possibility of using concentration tables with various designs for production of rough concentrate is shown. The use of a new round disk concentrated table design enables metallurgi-cal results to be improved in comparison with shaking tables.