Many types of carbon-containing organic compounds and all possible carbon-containing products or wastes in low demand can be used to produce thermal energy. A technology has been developed for producing highly flammable briquettes on the basis of bituminous coal. These briquettes have a special incendiary layer. It is easily ignites from low energy heat sources (e.g. matches), and then flame spreads to the rest of briquette. Use of coal slacks and paper wastes as carbon-containing components playing the role of binders provides an opportunity to get a fuel briquette easy in terms of production and plain in composition while at the same time dispose of coal and paper wastes. Such briquettes may also have a special incendiary layer. Technology for fuel briquettes production from wood and slate wastes employed no binding agents, as wood products acted as binders. Thus technologies have been developed to produce fuel briquettes from various carbon-containing materials in low demand. The briquettes are intended for household boilers, fireplaces, different ovens in order to cook food, heat residential and utility premises, cabins, etc.
The basis for and results of experimental studies for increasing the efficiency factor of gravitation extraction for fine and ultrafine gold from geogenic and man-made mineral formations with high clay content as well as alluvial placers are presented. The clayey gold-bearing placers of the Khabarovsk region in Russia’s Far East were used as the subject of research. These placers contain a substantial amount of fine particle gold and muddy material with hard washability, which are the main reasons for gold losses. One more object of research is a placer located in the Krasnoyarsk region, east Siberia. A special method of interpretation has been created for particle size distribution, using newly developed software which can increase the accu-racy of sedimentation analysis and predict the morphology of gold. It has been proved that one of the most promising ways in which to intensify the gravity processes can be effective preparation, including the chemical dispersion of gold dust before gravitational processing. Exploring the joint effect of sodium hexapolyphosphate and halogen oxidant on the efficiency of processing revealed that the combination of the peptization-coagulation cycles improves gold recovery. Also, the possibility of using concentration tables with various designs for production of rough concentrate is shown. The use of a new round disk concentrated table design enables metallurgi-cal results to be improved in comparison with shaking tables.
Briquetting in ferrous metallurgy is the earliest way clotting. In the beginning of XX century briquetting has been forced out by agglomeration basically for the reason considerably more productivity of process of agglomeration. The alternative agglomeration became pelletizing which share from the XX-th century middle steadily grows that is quite explainable essential increase in manufacture fine particle concentrates. However briquetting has a number of advan- tages. And for separate kinds of iron ores briquetting can appear preferable process. Such ores are the rich iron ores containing 60 and more % iron in ore. The technology of briquetting includes, preliminary screening for removing of large classes; dispensing and preliminary mixing 85-90 % martite, iron-micaceousmartite ores and 10-15 % hydrohematite ores; mixing with connective substances; pressing; drying. The received briquettes have density 3200-3500 kg/m3, durability on compression about 4,5 MPа.
The possibility of using the vibrating segregation in the intensification of separation minerals. The possibility of the use segregation in the separation coal on the concentration tables. Also shows the effective use of segregation for dry non screen classification of loose materials.
One of the most effective gravity aggregate is concentrating tables. Concentrating tables are used for tin, tungsten, rare, precious metal ores beneficiation. The new designs of rotating disk concentrating tables are developed. Comparative tests of concentrating shaking table, spiral sluice and of the basic experimental model of a rotating circular table were conducted for concentration of artificial mixtures. The using of round tables can increase recovery and efficiency of separation оf dense particles.
Iron ores is one of the main types of minerals used used by mankind. Practically all domestic deposits contain 20-40 % iron ore and so are the deep concentration. Deposits of rich iron ores, containing more than 55-60 % in our country is not enough. One of these fields is Yakovlevskoye iron ore deposit. The use of dry magnetic separation of ore for the preliminary concentration did not give positive results. The study of grain-size composition of the ore showed a significant disparity in the distribution of iron by classes size that afford it possible to carry out preliminary concentration of ore screening. For ore processing flowsheet is proposed which includes crushing to a particle size of 10 mm, screening fraction of 5 mm. Larger fraction of 5 mm is used, for example, in the blast-furnace process, and the fraction smaller than 5 mm is direct to the briquetting. As binding substance for briquetting used solution of carboxymethyl cellulose, or a combination of binder based on carboxymethyl cellulose or highly active clay.
The non-tailing technology for processing of high grade iron ore Yakovlevsky deposit was created. The technology allows obtaining high-quality competitive product for iron and steel industry and in addition producing very high demand and competitive red iron oxide pigment. As the basis of beneficiation cycle, fine grinding of material with close circuit classification in hydrocyclones can be considered. To produce briquettes mixture of martite, hydro-hematite ores and non-pigment fraction, which is obtained in pigment cycle, are used. The ore is subjected to pre-screening. A coarse grain is used as final material for metallurgical processing. The fine grain is sent to the briquetting.
The most accessible and technically prepared method of recycling slags and a coal trifle is briquetting. In given article the technology of reception of household fuel briquettes with an incendiary layer from slags coal of Kuznetsk coal field and a paper waste is resulted. Optimum indexs for reception of stronger briquettes are described.
Briquetting in ferrous metallurgy is the earliest way clotting. In the beginning of XX century briquetting has been forced out by agglomeration basically for the reason considerably more productivity of process of agglomeration. As alternative to agglomeration pelletizing became. It started to be popular in the XX-th century, that is quite explainable by essential increase of manu- facture fine particle concentrates. However briquetting has a number of advantages. For some kinds of iron ores briquetting can be preferable process. Such ores are rich iron ores with iron content 60 % and more. The technology of briquetting includes crushing, preliminary screening for removing of large particle size classes; dispensing and mixing martite ore, and hydrohematite ores; mixing with binder substances; pressing; screening for removing of small size briquettes; drying. The received briquettes have density 3200-3600 kg/m3, durability on uniaxial compression more then 4,5 MPа.
The design of a concentrating hydrocyclone «Water-only» for coal preparation is developed and tested. The scheme of automatic control is developed by hydrocyclone work. Automatic control application has allowed raising technological indices of concentration.
Rich iron ores of the Jakovlevsky deposit are fine metallurgical raw materials. These ores are suitable for melt of high-quality metal at the minimum cost price as doesn't demand mineral processing. Ores contain a considerable quantity of fine classes particles and need briquetting. Mining operations include quality control of mined ore. The technology of briquetting includes, preliminary screening for removing of large classes; dispensing and preliminary mixing 85-90 % martite, iron-micaceousmartite ores and 10-15 % hydrohematite ores; mixing with connective substances; pressing; drying. The received briquettes have density 3200-3500 kg/m 3 , durability on compression 4,5 MPа.
Environmental tension in coal-mining regions of the country is largely determined by the high level of coal production waste. And a significant part of waste is represented by fine fraction 0-3mm of coals, formed in the process of mining, during preparation, transportation, storage, etc. It is difficult to reduce the level of coal losses in the form of slimes and fines by direct combustion due to the complexity of loading and transportation, as well as the combustion process itself. Therefore, this product must be pelletized. The most accessible, studied and technically prepared method of coal fines pelletizing is the briquetting method. Experiments on briquetting of coal fines with the use of clay and starch as binding materials have been carried out.
The results of briquetting of rich iron ore without binder additives are presented. The dependencies that can be used in briquetting with binder additives are established. The influence of ore particle size distribution, moisture content, pressing pressure, and additives of different size classes on the strength properties of briquettes is studied.
Currently, almost all iron oxide pigments production is located in the neighboring countries. Besides, the used technologies of pigments production are environmentally harmful. Development of ecologically safe technology for obtaining pigment grade ore is a priority and quite actual task for the paint and varnish industry of Russia.