The methodology of building a digital elevation model based on the results of aerial photogrammetric survey from an unmanned aircraft is proposed, which is based on the division of the initial point cloud into equal segments. This allows, having made an assumption of the linear character of change of height of points in a separate segment, to approximate them by separate planes. RMS errors of the models from the survey data were calculated according to the scattering of the points in relation to the approximating surfaces, which made it possible to reveal the dependence of the model construction error relative to the sizes of their constituent segments, as well as to propose a method for filtering the cells containing outliers with respect to the expected model error. The proposed method was tested on the models of three mining objects – limestone quarry, phosphogypsum dump, and peat cut. The experimental results showed a multiple reduction in model error compared to standard DEM models providing the required accuracy for mining documentation.
The factors influencing the qualitative and quantitative components of the result of surveying in open-pit mining using a quadcopter were identified and systematized, and the mathematical dependence of the influence of factors on the final error of surveying was determined. After a large number of field observations – numerous flights of a geodesic quadcopter over mining facilities – the subsequent mathematical justification of the results of the aerial photogrammetric surveying was made, which allowed to analyze the degree of participation in the final accuracy of the survey of each of the considered factors. The results of this study demonstrate the source of errors, which provide the surveyor with the opportunity to efficiently and competently carry out pre-flight preparation and planning of fieldwork. The study and subsequent consideration of the factors affecting the accuracy of surveying with the use of an unmanned aerial vehicle are the basis for the subsequent development and formation of a methodology for using a geodesic quadcopter in the conditions of open-pit mining.
Studies of the processes of displacement of rock massif layers in the course of their initial underworking indicate that their maximum curvature tends to decrease in the inverse proportion to squared distance to coal bed from the layer in question. It manifests itself in the distribution of vertical extension deformations: these are the largest in the vicinity of the coal bed and decrease towards the surface. Such is the consequence of the mechanism of bending the massive layers: the curvature of underlying layers is higher than that of overlying ones. In the zone of complete underworking the maximum curvature of each layer of the repeatedly underworked bedded formation is equal to the maximum curvature of the surface, that is the curvature of the overlying layer repeats the curvature of the underlying one. Hence, the maximum curvature of any layer in the massive is inversely proportional to squared depth of the coal bed suite. Note that the distribution of vertical deformations of the massive differs in both its quality and quantity from that of the initially underworked massive: vertical deformations are an order of magnitude fewer and their distribution is presented by alternating deformations of extension and compression. Such is the consequence of the mechanism of layer bending in case the massive is underworked repeatedly and it explains why the height of the zone of water conducting fractures does not grow in such conditions with respect to the one formed during the excavation of the initial layer of the suite. The technique of forecasting the development of zone of water conducting fractures developed on the basis of such geomechanical processes makes possible safe excavation of coal beds under aquifers.
According to the results of geomechanical monitoring in the excavations of Yakovlevski mine distribution of zone water conducting fractures in consequence of displacement and deformation of rocks from concrete backfilling voids evaluated. The convergence of the boundary curvature and the curvature obtained from observations of strata movement to a single span istaken into consideration.
On the basis of the identity of qualitative distribution of curvature and horizontal deformations the boundary horizontal deformation value is found to assess the water conducting fracture zones height through the deformation parameter. Due to the characteristics of the process of strata movement in geological conditions of Yakovlevski rich iron ore deposit, the values of the boundary horizontal deformation and fracture zone height were found.
The technique of determination of deformation parameters of process of displacement of rocks on the basis of data of monitoring is stated by laser scanning systems according to which subsidence and deformation receive from comparison of the corresponding profiles which have been carried out in any direction on digital models of a site of monitoring, reflecting different stages of process of displacement.
The way of precalculation downing and raisings of the wires suspended to support air Line of electric transfers, being in a zone of influence of mountain works is resulted. The technique of carrying out of monitoring high-voltage air Line of electric transfers is stated at it mines works.
Account method of laser-scanning survey of hydraulic engineering tunnels of 2,7 km is stated in the general extent. The visual way of inspection of the tunnels, carried out in parallel with their leveling is resulted. The way of a deformation estimation of a condition of tunnels by the geometrical analysis of 3D-models received according to laser-scanning survey is considered.
The mechanism of formation of technogeny cracks (cracks of stratification and perpendicular flog cracks), including water spending is stated at primary and repeated mine layers of massif of rocks on coal deposits. It is shown possibility of application of a method of typical curves for an estimation of development of technogeny water spending cracks.
Now questions of the metrological control in маркшейдерских works have the uncertain status. The law in force about maintenance is uniform-stva measurements does not include in control sphere маркшейдерские work. Predlaga-etsja to return to practice of independent performance калибровочных works on the certificated ranges.
This paper presents a method for determining the boundary criterion for the rock deformation zone in the rock mass above a tunnel under construction when using two-layer calculation schemes in forecasts of earth surface deformations. The method is applied to the conditions of construction of tunnels of the St. Petersburg subway system.
The traditional photoplanerometric survey of the main excavation sections using digital photo and video cameras acquires a new meaning. The article considers the method of remote imaging of vertical technical boreholes. The scheme of equipment installation on surfaces and video camera placement in the borehole is given.
На первоочередном участке ведения горных работ Яковлевского рудника выполнено гидрогеомеханическое зонирование, позволившее выделить три зоны разной проницаемости пород толщи, которая отделяет высоконапорный нижнекаменноугольный горизонт от рудно-кристаллического горизонта. Предложены основные подходы к организации гидрогеомеханического мониторинга непосредственно в подземных горных выработках рудника, включающего мониторинг подземных вод и геомеханический мониторинг. Даны методические рекомендации к постановке основных работ, входящих в систему гидрогеомеханического мониторинга.
The article is devoted to professor I.N. Ushakov, who lived and worked at the Mining Institute at the department of mine surveying, and who celebrated his 100th birthday on March 21, 2004. Since 1924 he connected his fate with the Department of Surveying and for 80 years at the Institute went from student to professor - one of the leading scientists in the country and abroad in the field of surveying in the subsoil.
Outlined a method for obtaining shifts and deformations from observations of shifts of deep benchmarks for cases where the direction of the line of extraction of a useful component (methane from coal seams through wells) is not known in advance.
The results of the analysis of the invariance of fracture parameter distributions are presented, the invariance of the structural features of the second derivatives of the corresponding distribution functions of azimuths, dip angles, and distances between fractures being chosen as the criterion. The invariance studies performed in combination with the fractal analysis allowed us to identify the main macrostructures in the sandstone and coal layers, which was the basis for optimizing the volume of field observations of the fracturing of the massif.
In the article the methods of an estimation of technogenic effect of mining minings on geologic medium, statistical and probabilistic models of distribution of quality for the geographical demarcation of fields are adduced. Are set up to fundamentals of the theory of operation GPS of instrumentation and electronic techeometers at overseeing ground movement of rocks, ergonomics of realisation of these supervision (observations).
A technique of the count of influencing of cite (position) of separate layers of a strata with the definite mechanical characteristics on a strain figure of curvatureon on these layers is set up.
The technique of definition of high bound of a zone of water-permeable cracks lowering costs of measurements of heads is adduced.