The main objects of the research were the deposits of noble and non-ferrous metals of the Urals, Siberia and Novaya Zemlya. It is shown that the study of the variability of the material composition and stereometric features of ores (with computer modeling of the most important types of mineral aggregates) in the geological space is extremely important to reduce losses of useful components, predict the technological properties of mineral raw materials and identify the conditions of ore formation.
The main objects of the research were the deposits of noble and non-ferrous metals of the Urals, Siberia and Novaya Zemlya. It is shown that the establishment of a pomineral balance of distribution of chemical elements in ores, the study of variability of the material composition and stereometric features of ores in the geological space is extremely important to solve the problems of rational use of ore deposits and the prediction of environmental consequences of their development. When assessing the environmental impact of the deposits involved in the exploration and exploitation, both the regularities of distribution of toxic elements and minerals in the volumes of ore bodies and fields, and landscape-geochemical conditions determining the factors of migration and accumulation of these components after their extraction on the earth surface should be taken into account. For geological-economic and environmental forecasting it is necessary to accumulate materials on the distribution of impurity elements, sometimes not playing a role in assessing the industrial importance of deposits, but leading to the emergence of various man-made geochemical anomalies in areas of exploration and mining operations, as well as the formation of man-made deposits in places of waste storage of concentration plants and metallurgical plants.
The paper considers the main factors affecting the assessment and forecast of the environmental situation in the exploration and development of ore deposits. The data on the composition of soils, water and bottom sediments in some large mining areas (Norilsk, Komsomolsk, etc.) are presented. It is shown that the variability of mineral and chemical composition of ores and host rocks within the subsurface is one of the most important factors both for solving the problem of rational use of mineral deposits and for predicting the environmental consequences of their mining.
The article considers the main directions of research in the analysis of the regularities of the location, properties and state of the main types of deposits of solid minerals in Russia. A summary of the available data on the main patterns of variability of both individual minerals and aggregates in the main types of endogenous ore deposits is made. Mineralogical features of large and unique deposits connected with granite magmatism are analyzed. It is concluded that their formation was determined by the long-term evolution of deep fluid systems serving as a means of mantle-core interaction and redistribution of matter in the Earth's crust. The principles of granite pegmatites analysis and methods of its carrying out are offered. The computational modeling of the processes of structure formation during magma solidification using the Monte Carlo method has been carried out. The possibilities of application of fractal analysis to solve the problems of ore geology are investigated. Possibilities of quantitative assessment of morphology of ore bodies are shown. Methods of studying and modeling of anomalous geochemical fields associated with mineral deposits are outlined. Tasks of geological exploration and prospecting works in connection with the further development of the coal industry are given.