The paper considers the main factors affecting the assessment and forecast of the environmental situation in the exploration and development of ore deposits. The data on the composition of soils, water and bottom sediments in some large mining areas (Norilsk, Komsomolsk, etc.) are presented. It is shown that the variability of mineral and chemical composition of ores and host rocks within the subsurface is one of the most important factors both for solving the problem of rational use of mineral deposits and for predicting the environmental consequences of their mining.
The article considers the main directions of research in the analysis of the regularities of the location, properties and state of the main types of deposits of solid minerals in Russia. A summary of the available data on the main patterns of variability of both individual minerals and aggregates in the main types of endogenous ore deposits is made. Mineralogical features of large and unique deposits connected with granite magmatism are analyzed. It is concluded that their formation was determined by the long-term evolution of deep fluid systems serving as a means of mantle-core interaction and redistribution of matter in the Earth's crust. The principles of granite pegmatites analysis and methods of its carrying out are offered. The computational modeling of the processes of structure formation during magma solidification using the Monte Carlo method has been carried out. The possibilities of application of fractal analysis to solve the problems of ore geology are investigated. Possibilities of quantitative assessment of morphology of ore bodies are shown. Methods of studying and modeling of anomalous geochemical fields associated with mineral deposits are outlined. Tasks of geological exploration and prospecting works in connection with the further development of the coal industry are given.