Currently, the determination of the emission rate of suspended solids from a unit of the surface area of a man-made mass at various parameters of the wind flow is not sufficiently described. The analysis of the world experience of researchers shows that existing laboratory installations have various design features that do not allow to correctly determine the mass of the dust being flapped and wind-blown. Based on the analysis results, the concept of an innovative laboratory installation for the study of dust-forming surfaces has been developed. It takes into account the influence of wind shadows, the deturbulization of an artificially created air flow, the possibility of regulating not only the flow velocity mode, but also the creation of a vacuum or disturbance in the area of sample placement, as well as the formation of a certain angle of wind flow attack relative to the surface. The concept provides for the possibility of determining the volume of dust emissions by the values of the lost dust masses in the sample and by the values of dust concentrations in the outgoing stream. The calculation of the main basic elements of the installation using the ANSYS FLUENT software package was carried out. The model and configuration of the wind tunnel have been developed and calculated, the main geometric parameters and functional elements for the possibility of use in scientific work have been determined. For practical use of the empirical roughness value of the underlying surface, its values are recommended in a wide range – from zero for the water surface to 0.44 for large cities with tall buildings and skyscrapers.
The article discusses the fields and methods of application of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Current legislation in Russia and in the world, significantly limit the use of UAV in monitoring. For the first time, we present a solution to the problem of a monitoring measurement system included in the state register of measuring instruments using the example of the basic UAV model. We conducted an analysis of promising approaches to the creation of UAV metrological and methodological support, as well as ways to adapt their target load to meet the challenges of operational monitoring of air pollution.
In the Mining University conducted test flights of drones developed on the basis of RDR-2012 «Mining», designed and ready for implementation techniques detour routes and measurement methods for conversion and transmission of information for environmental studies.
In the Mining University there was set construction of pneumohydraulic sprayer for dust suppression systems. Important development stage of dust suppression sprayer is creation meth computing model for optimization of a hydraulic flow in a sprayer for reduction of working expenses.
As a result of undertaken studies the innovative system of monitoring of atmospheric air, based on the use of the modern systems of measuring, set on pilotless flying vehicles, is worked out, allow to decide actual tasks on the quickly deployed systems of the ecological monitoring after the state of environment. The choice of effective methods of realization of monitoring researches is produced on territories of mining agglomerations. The use of pilotless aircrafts gives an unique opportunity of combination of the controlled from distance and pin methods of monitoring researches, that allows to work with materials various on scales, permission, geometrical and spectral properties and here to get quantitative and quality descriptions of the state of components of natural environment with the complete list of the controlled parameters for the detailed analysis of ecological situation in the districts of mining agglomerations.
As a result of theoretical researches and experimental researches in Mining University development and introduction of monitoring complex are conducted on the base of pilotless aircrafts with a maximally possible actual load for productive ecological control and automatic stream information transfer more than from 10 channels simultaneously to the surface station of management, equipped by the special software. Drawing on this monitoring complex will allow to conduct zoning of mining industrial aglomeration taking into account the worked out classification of degree technogenic loading.
The construction of pneumohydraulic sprayer-snow generator for effective and economical dust suppression was proposed. Developed and made more than ten sprayer models and was made several series of experiment for identification optimal parameters this construction. There was made special dust suppression bunker and was made several series of experiment for identification optimal parameters bunker and efficiency of dust suppression. With this plant there was efficiency of dust suppression 85 %.
On the basis of world and Russian experience, and also the spent experimental researches high efficiency of processing of a firm and liquid organic waste on a basis biogaswormtechnology is established. On the basis of the Mining University the physical biogaswormtechnology farm model is created. On the basis of this model were studied biogas and worm technology processes of processing of an organic waste. Physical and chemical properties of initial raw materials, and also a received product – a biohumus and biogas are analysed.
Around placing of the enterprises of a mineral complex, and especially in areas of placing of sailings, as a result of mass emissions of a dust in environment there are adverse ecological conditions, and also, level of dust loading on an organism of the worker increases. In article the way of dust control, based on mechanical catching of the weighed particles by snow, on filtering and shielding action of snow is considered.
In places of possible allocation of a dust, near sources of its formation or at allocation places ways of dust-depressing now are applied. Principal views of dust-depressing are: a water irrigation (including dispersing, the ionized water), a foamy irrigation (aerofoams, air-mechanical foams), an irrigation steam (fog). In article condensation of steams of water on a surface of hygroscopic particles is considered stream-condensation way of dust-depressing, based on action.
In Saint Petersburg State Mining Institute series of measures aimed at protection of environment from harmful impact of technological processes during open-cast mining and underground operation of coal, which is the most popular power resource for today are carried out. In future coal will be one of the main resource, as its supply may satisfy the needs of all branches of industry for a long period of time. The problem of stable maintenance with a heat and electric energy of the north remote territories, settlements, objects of ability to live of the person is stubborn in a modern level of development of a fuel and energy complex of Russia. Application of new technologies on use of local renewed energy sources in small energetic will allow to approach essentially manufacture of energy to the consumer and to involve in manufacture of heat and an electricity alternative kinds of fuel.
Mining is closely connected with human impact on the environment in order to provide it with primary resources. In the SPMI laboratory under the guidance of Prof. Yu.V. Shuvalov, a number of measures have been taken to protect the environment from the harmful effects of technological processes in open pit and underground coal mining, which is currently the most demanded energy resource. In the future, coal will be one of the main resources, as its supply can meet the needs of all industries for a long period of time. The research was supported by the Government of St. Petersburg, CRDF USA, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and REC-015 at SPMI, Russia.
Mineral extraction is closely connected with the processes of human impact on the environment in order to provide raw materials and their partial loss. With the total extraction of mineral resources exceeding 6.5bn tons, the total losses in the subsoil amount to 2.5bn tons: about 50bn tons of harmful substances are emitted into the atmosphere, more than 2bn m3 of polluted waste water is discharged into water bodies and more than 8bn tons of solid waste is stored on the surface of the earth. The scientific school of SPGGI is developing a set of measures to protect the environment from the harmful effects of technological processes in open-pit and underground coal mining, which today is a demanded natural energy resource, and in the future will become one of the main ones, as its supply can satisfy the needs of all industries for several hundred years.
The most promising and practically feasible is the method of applying a fertile layer based on sapropel on the surface. The project of reducing dustiness of mining waste dumps and increasing their bioproductivity is proposed. The economic efficiency of various methods of reclamation is analyzed.
An important problem of anthropogenic massifs is the slowdown in the natural formation of vegetation cover on dumps and tailings dumps of mining enterprises, which is explained by the impoverishment of rocks with nutrients. In this regard, of particular importance are the studies aimed at developing economically feasible ways to reduce dust emissions into the atmosphere and restore the biological productivity of disturbed areas, excluding the performance of labor-intensive operations to apply a traditional soil layer during reclamation. Based on the study of properties of various biologically active substances, the use of a new environmentally friendly bioactive foam is proposed, which fulfills the main tasks of biological reclamation: return of disturbed lands to the agricultural fund and fixation of dusty surfaces (soils, dumps, tailings).