On the basis of world and Russian experience, and also the spent experimental researches high efficiency of processing of a firm and liquid organic waste on a basis biogaswormtechnology is established. On the basis of the Mining University the physical biogaswormtechnology farm model is created. On the basis of this model were studied biogas and worm technology processes of processing of an organic waste. Physical and chemical properties of initial raw materials, and also a received product – a biohumus and biogas are analysed.
In Saint Petersburg State Mining Institute series of measures aimed at protection of environment from harmful impact of technological processes during open-cast mining and underground operation of coal, which is the most popular power resource for today are carried out. In future coal will be one of the main resource, as its supply may satisfy the needs of all branches of industry for a long period of time. The problem of stable maintenance with a heat and electric energy of the north remote territories, settlements, objects of ability to live of the person is stubborn in a modern level of development of a fuel and energy complex of Russia. Application of new technologies on use of local renewed energy sources in small energetic will allow to approach essentially manufacture of energy to the consumer and to involve in manufacture of heat and an electricity alternative kinds of fuel.
Mineral extraction is closely connected with the processes of human impact on the environment in order to provide raw materials and their partial loss. With the total extraction of mineral resources exceeding 6.5bn tons, the total losses in the subsoil amount to 2.5bn tons: about 50bn tons of harmful substances are emitted into the atmosphere, more than 2bn m3 of polluted waste water is discharged into water bodies and more than 8bn tons of solid waste is stored on the surface of the earth. The scientific school of SPGGI is developing a set of measures to protect the environment from the harmful effects of technological processes in open-pit and underground coal mining, which today is a demanded natural energy resource, and in the future will become one of the main ones, as its supply can satisfy the needs of all industries for several hundred years.
The growth in the use of solid waste in the global industry has occurred throughout the twentieth century with varying effects in different sectors and with the aim of more efficient utilization of solid energy sources. The main suppliers of solid combustible carbon-containing wastes are mining, chemical, metallurgical, fuel and energy industries. Creation of technologies for processing and enrichment of solid combustible wastes and their use for obtaining environmentally friendly high-calorific combustibles will save labor resources and obtain a positive environmental effect, as well as increase the efficiency of fuel and energy resources use.
The annual amount of organic waste in different sectors of the national economy of Russia is more than 390 mln tons. Effective utilization of processed solid biomass is provided by creation of artificial structured complexes - blocks, briquettes, pellets for subsequent combustion in household or industrial furnace devices. The new method of briquettes production is based on the experimentally established, not-known earlier phenomenon of migration in the briquette thickness of complex fluid systems, and includes preparation of briquette mass by mixing chopped straw with binder fine-dispersed material, introduced in dry form; briquetting of the mass and subsequent temperature treatment at 120-150°С.
As a result of the conducted research in assessing the possibility of using carbonaceous waste from the woodworking industry of the Leningrad region for heat energy production, harmonious compositions of energy raw materials and methods of their processing were determined. The most rational, as calculations have shown, is the use of large-tonnage woodworking waste for these purposes. At the same time, the most effective ways of processing raw materials and variants of rational location of woodworking enterprises in the Leningrad region depending on the distance to the consumer and prices for alternative energy carriers were proposed.
The Leningrad Region has very insignificant reserves of the main types of fuel and energy resources, represented mainly by wood, peat, oil shale and uranium, the development of deposits of which is not planned even in the long term for environmental reasons. However, the consistent introduction of new technologies for processing fuel and energy resources, the involvement of local resources in the fuel and energy balance, primarily wood, peat and shale fuels, and the creation on this basis of processing and energy-producing complexes of local type can ensure energy security and change both the economic and demographic situation in the Leningrad region.
One of the main directions of changing the country's fuel and energy balance is to increase the share of coal, as well as the rational use of combustible waste of extractive industries (coal, shale, forestry, etc.). Up to 10% (coal) and up to 70% (timber) of the extracted raw materials are not only not used, but also cause significant damage to the environment, polluting it. Creation of technologies of processing and ennoblement of products, obtaining environmentally clean, high-calorie combustibles, will save labor and get a serious environmental effect, will increase the efficiency of fuel and energy resources use.