The article substantiates the need to improve methodology for cadastral valuation of forest lands and change the principles for calculating the rental rate of forest lands, on the basis of which the rent for the use of these lands will be determined in future. The methodology for determining the cadastral value of forest lands, taking into account the degree of development of their infrastructure, is presented. The infrastructure of lands of the forest fund is considered and an algorithm for assessing such infrastructure by means of geoinformation modeling is shown. A method for calculating a complex integral indicator (coefficient of infrastructure development) is presented, which is applicable to differentiate lands covered and not covered with tree vegetation, for their effective and rational management. The complex integral indicator determines the availability of forest plots, as it takes into account location of the forest fund infrastructure in relation to assessment plots, which makes it possible to obtain information about the time spent on covering the required distance. This methodology can be applied to assess the quality and condition of the existing infrastructure of the forestry sector in implementation of measures within the framework of the Strategy for the development of the forestry complex, providing for support and construction of infrastructure facilities on the forest fund lands. The method was tested in the Baltiysky district forestry of the Baltiysko-Belozersky taiga region. The results were as follows: the map of the forest fund infrastructure development within the boundaries of differentiation assessment according to the calculated integral indicator of infrastructure development was obtained; the regression model for calculating the rent rate taking into account the taxation value and integral indicator infrastructure development was received: the cadastral value of forest lands taking into account the developed model was calculated.
Forest lands are the main means of production in the forest sector. For the most territories in the Russian Federation there are established methods of cadastral appraisal, but not for the forest regions taking up 2/3 of the country’s area. In 2002 Russian Government made an attempt to solve this problem and recommended a method of cadastral appraisal for the lands of the forestry fund. However, the method did not find practical application and was dismissed in 2010, and no substitution followed. In each subject of the Russian Federation private appraisers offer their own options of forest land valuation, but their results differ significantly even for the lands with comparable species of wood, productivity, site quality and age composition of the stand. Moreover, valuation organizations do not take into account forest infrastructure. Authors propose a universal method suitable for the entire territory of the country, which will allow to calculate specific cadastral value of the forest lands taking into account taxation indices of the wood stands growing there. The method is suitable not only for the objective cadastral valuation of the forest lands – reasonable rental payments will provide an opportunity to develop transport infrastructure in the forestry fund, especially forest roads and bridges, and to make timely arrangements for plant maintenance, forest protection and reproduction, which will have a significant influence on social and economic development of forest regions in Russia.
For several decades, Russian scientists cannot solve the problem of cadastral valuation of forest lands, which occupy two thirds of the country area. This evaluation is especially important in the terms of market relations for the calculation of charges for use of forest resources, a significant part of which is leased. Originally, cadastral valuation of forestland was planned to be conducted according to Faustmann’s formula, proposed by German economist in the mid-nineteenth century, but it has not found practical application due to the lack of certain data. In the modern period the issue of forestland valuation is escalated and scientists have proposed their own versions of the cadastral value of forestlands. We investigated a number of forestland cadastral evaluation reports from various regions of Russia. Different researchers propose to use a specific indicator of cadastral cost (UPCS), but the methods of calculation of this indicator are different for all the evaluators. Respectively, the UPCS values for each region are significantly different too. Years of research into this problem allowed us to propose a method of forestland cadastral evaluation. In the calculations, the shortcomings of previous research are taken into account and the value of income from harvested timber, its current growth in plantings under the age of ripeness as well as the income from the collection of food resources (mushrooms and berries) are included in the evaluation. In the calculations, lands should be differentiated between coniferous and deciduous forests, as the cost of timber and the yield of food resources are significantly different. The proposed method has allowed establishing the ratio of income of forestland from timber and food resources. Food resources can give more income to the society than the wood itself.
Currently there are no methods of cadastral valuation of forest land although the area covers 2/3 of the territory of the Russian Federation. In 2002, the Federal Land Inventory Service of Russia proposed a method but it failed to find practical use due to the complicated calculation of the cadastral value according to the Faustmann formula and lack of open access to some information about the forest fund and was totally abolished seven years later. There were several reasons for abolishing the method and the main reason was lack of methods to predict a supply of wood to the age of maturity when the cadastral assessment was carried out in the plantations under the age of main felling. The author proposes to take into account the current growth rate of the growing stock per year on one hectare of land in the cadastral evaluation of forest fund lands. Based on the increment of the growing stock it is possible to construct a mathematical model of changes in the forest reserve to the age of maturity. The author suggests using the existing forest inventory materials to build the model. By updating existing data you can obtain any inventory indices including the growing stock in different age plantations. The resulting inventory of plantations at the age of maturity is recommended for cadastral valuation of the forest fund lands. The calculation of the cadastral value of forest land for one taxation quarter with and without current increment of the growing stock is given and the difference is 37 %.
The ecological role of forest soils is disclosed and a cadastre assessment of forest land is given. For cadastral assessment of forest land should pay special attention to the soil fertility forest plantings.
The article raises issues of automation of architecture and urban-planning authority in municipalities and regions of the Russian Federation, the creation and maintenance of information system of urban-planning activities, indicates the problems and principles of their solutions from the standpoint of effective management of the information space of the territories on the basis of urban-planning documents of different levels.
See Chronology of land relations in the Vyborg district, Leningrad region administration. Inventory figures given land in urban and rural settlements, information on the areas of agricultural land and peasant farms. Found that land tenure in the Vyborg district administration improved.
A basic list of land measuring in primary and reafforestation work is given in the paper. The detailed description of the land measuring at all stages: preliminary work, the organization of the forest resources, inventory of forests, allotment of logging sites under timber are presented.
The model of efficiency of the earths of forest land allows to calculate a forest stand stock on a forest plot, characterized by certain natural factors (agroclimatic and geomorphological areas, an amount of precipitation, height above sea level, a kind of quaternary adjournment). Stock-taking of communications between natural factors and efficiency of the earths of wood fund is executed, the equation of regress is constructed and its statistical estimation is executed.
The article is devoted to economic valuation of green plantings of Saint-Petersburg and contains results of the field and methodical researches spent in territory of area Vasileostrovskogo per 2005-2007. Calculations of cost of reconstruction of trees, bushes, lawns and flower-beds through methods of home-municipal and integrated indicators of cost of reconstruction are cited. Close result, which allow using any of shown methods in Saint-Petersburg, have been got.
The results of the study of forest biogeocenoses undergoing thinning are presented. Six main factors affecting the stand during thinning are identified. The methodology, formulas and examples of calculation of the ecological and economic consequences of thinning with regard to each factor are presented. Based on the results of the research, a scale for evaluating mechanized operations using the integral index of anthropogenic impact was developed.
When compiling the cadaster of the city, two years of observations on the green spaces of St. Petersburg were carried out. The main attention of the authors was paid to the English oak (summer oak) as a species with a point habitat, but widely used in the park construction of the northern capital. Suburban parks, created in the 18th century by the Russian tsars, were chosen as objects of research. These are the Pavlovsk Museum-Reserve, Babolovsky and Separate Parks in Pushkin, and the Dubki Park in Sestroretsk. The history and technology of creation of plantations, groups and solitaries are established, growth dynamics and modern successions of oak by other species are shown. Proposed measures for the care of green spaces, which will be taken into account in the future maintenance of the inventory.
In 2002, we conducted additional surveys of tree species in order to identify the condition of green spaces in Pushkin. Recommendations of past surveys allowed us to reduce the rate of desiccation of native species. At the request of the gardening and park enterprise, tree species in the rest of the city were surveyed.
The results of the autumn survey of the sanitary condition of green spaces in Pushkin are given. We studied pathogens of the main tree species on the main roads of the city: near the administration building (spruce), on Sofia Boulevard (European larch), Parkovaya Street (small-leaved lime), Moskovskaya Street (common ash) and Orangereynaya Street (European spruce, prickly spruce, lop birch, smooth elm, brittle willow, maple, small-leaved lime and common ash). No trunk pests or infections were found. All trees were found to be exposed to anthropogenic effects with age, causing stagheadedness, dryness, obvious signs of rot, and the appearance of galls. Trees growing near the carriageway have pronounced abnormality of crown development (lopsidedness) due to close location of asphalt pavement borders, there are mechanical damages formed in conditions of intensive vehicular traffic. The causative agents of the diseases are Swissia trutovica, false and sulfur-yellow. Measures to improve the condition of urban green spaces have been proposed: exclusion of car parking near trees, prohibition of snow dumping in the zone of tree growth, watering plantings in the dry season, treatment of mechanical damage, loosening the soil around trees with signs of crown desiccation, the introduction of organic fertilizers, removal of trees with sloping trunks and signs of trunk rot.