The Russian economy has a pronounced resource specialization; in many regions, subsoil use is a backbone or one of the main areas of the economy. In these conditions, the improvement of the methodology for the economic evaluation of lands on which mining enterprises are located is of particular relevance. On the basis of the existing experience in assessing industrial land, the authors present a developed methodology for determining the cadastral value of land plots where mining enterprises are located, taking into account their industry characteristics and the specifics of production and commercial activities. At the same time, cadastral valuation is considered as a specific form of economic valuation. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of taking into account the cost factors that have the greatest impact on the formation of the cost of land for the extraction and processing of solid minerals, and the method of assessment depending on the characteristics of the object. To carry out theoretical research, the methods of analysis and synthesis of legal and scientific and technical literature in the field of cadastral and market valuation of land were used in the work. The practical part is based on the application of expert methods, including the method of analysis of hierarchies, system and logical analysis. The method of M.A.Svitelskaya was chosen as the basis, which presents a combination of modified methods of statistical (regression) modeling and modeling based on specific indicators of cadastral value. The use of this technique in economic practice contributes to increasing the efficiency of cadastral valuation and the objectivity of its results.
The work forms and substantiates the concept of land value, based on a new institutional theory. The infrastructural component of the cost of land in the presented concept determines, on the one hand, the efficiency of the use of natural resources, properties, demand for land on the market, on the other hand, the costs, which are determined not only by capital investments in construction of engineering infrastructure, but also by losses associated with restrictions on activities within zones with special conditions for territory use, creation of unfavorable conditions for economic activity, small contours, irregularities and others on a specific land plot, which are external negative infrastructural externalities that create losses of rights holders of land plots that are not compensated by the market, falling within the boundaries of these zones. Methods for assessing the impact of such negative infrastructural externalities on the cost of land encumbered by zones in different conditions of land market activity have been developed and tested, based on an expert-analytical approach (depressed market); the ratio of market values of land plots encumbered and unencumbered by a specific zone, and qualimetric modeling (inactive market); modeling by introducing into the model the factor of presence of zones with special conditions for territory use, based on the grouping of zones according to similar regulations for use, or by introducing the parameters of this factor (active market). Methods for taking into account spatial deficiencies and compensating for restrictions and prohibitions on activities on the territory of land plots with an individual market assessment are proposed.
The urgency and need of the accounting of encumbrances of lands of agricultural purpose with the subsequent decrease in cadastral cost of such lands is proved. The sequence and results of a conclusion of formulas of the factor lowering cadastral cost of lands is presented.
The article includes an analysis of the legal and technical framework of land assessment in Germany. Work of the Committee of peer review of their goals, objectives, methods of evaluation of land are presented. Practical experience of mass land valuation in Bochum, Essen, Reck-linghausen District studied. The use of different assessment methods in the German cities promotes intensive development of the scientific and technical basis for individual and mass valuation of land for residential construction.
In article results of the analysis of the is standard-legal literature on a question restrictions and carrying out of their classification, also creations by means of software product MapInfo of a cartographical database on restrictions on territory of the Kirovsky district of St.-Petersburg are presented.
The analysis of experience of the process of areas allocation for coal-mining industry, as well as analyze the design procedure for land use such facilities. The whole process of removal by the example of the sand pit K-3s, which is located in the East field in Tarkosalinskoye Purov district of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District. Based on the analysis of the regulatory framework and practical experience suggest improvements of the procedure.
Have done the analysis of foreign experience of integrating environmental factors on the basis of which marked ecological groups of factors in the context of European Valuation Standards. Analysis of evaluation methods of land in the Russian Federation and techniques of the state cadastral valuation of land settlements showed the lack of descriptions of the accounting several ecological factors. In addition, validated the set of the above-mentioned factors that may affect on the market price of land for individual housing construction.
In article the substantiation of a variant of the best and most an effective use (MMEU) the ground area located in territory of the Vasileostrovsky region of Saint Petersburg, within coastal and water security zones of the Smolenka river is given. This point in question has a special urgency in such big megacities as Saint Petersburg, as, despite increasing population and increasing capacities of a city, its territorial resources are limited so to use them it is necessary as more as possible economically, that is according to variant MMEU. Proceeding from a principle of the maximum profitableness in work it is offered to use the considered ground area under building of seven-story hotel on 400 numbers.
Recently, due to the development of computing capabilities of personal computers and the creation of digital topographic basis, GIS-technologies are increasingly used in solving problems of land management, land assessment and cadastre. The article proposes a model for assessing the spatial state of territories with the use of GIS-technologies on the example of Tosnensky district of the Leningrad region. On the basis of this model the provision of the territory with roads, railroads, power grids, as well as the assessment of agricultural production losses are analyzed.
Proposals on improvement of assessment of spatial conditions of land use are developed. For this purpose classification of spatial conditions was carried out, their influence on the results of production activity was determined and realization of advantages related to the best location, availability of real estate, energy supply, etc., by the main directions of activity of enterprises was shown.
The analysis of the state of land legislation and the land market, which at this period of time is quite unstable and requires significant changes in management, was carried out. While studying the structure of transactions and operations with land plots, the land market was structured into three segments, differing by the objects of purchase and sale and the motives of buyers and sellers. Also, the work highlighted the significant shortcomings of the land market and proposed a variant of its more effective functioning, and the conditions necessary for the preparation stage of the land market were developed.
Land relations are undergoing radical changes at the present stage, which is connected with the land reform. Particular attention in this area should be paid to the system of payment for the use of land, which proceeds from the need to evaluate land. The evaluation system has so far been dominated by the evaluation of land quality, i.e. its fertility and economic efficiency. With the transition to a multistructure land use the need to assess the spatial conditions of individual land uses and land plots arose. In work the retrospective analysis of a complex estimation of agricultural land use in Russia is executed, and also development of land relations at the modern stage is estimated. The spatial conditions of land use, influencing the transport factor of production, and conditions on which it depends, are allocated.