The paper investigates present-day challenges related to accumulation, processing and disposal of the coal combustion wastes. The analysis of technogenic materials beneficiation practices using gravitation, magnetic and flotation beneficiation methods has been carried out. Quantitative and qualitative microscopic analysis of materials has been conducted. The study target were ash and slag wastes (ASW) from thermal power plant and coal combustion ash. Most metals are contained in coals and coal ashes in fine-dispersed (1-10 μm) mineral form. Various native metals and intermetallic compounds, sulfides, carbonates, sulfates, tungstates, silicates, rare earths phosphates and niobates have been discovered. Each metal may occur in several mineral phases, for instance tungsten may be in the form of wolframite, stolzite, ferberite, scheelite and represented by impurities. Not only composition of compounds is diversified, but also morphology of grains: well-defined and skeleton crystals, aggregates and polycrystalline structures, crystal twins and fragments; druses, globules and microspherules; porous shapes, flocculous and splintery clusters, lumpy aggregations, etc. Based on chemical silicate analysis of main ASW components the petrochemical properties of material have been assessed. Preliminary analyses have shown that concentration of ferrum-bearing components in ASW is around 5-11 %. The magnetic method of technogenic waste beneficiation with the help of high-gradient magnetic separation has been studied. The obtained evidences show that fine ASW are most efficiently separated in separators with high-gradient magnetic system. The studies provided justification of a process flow for complex treatment of technogenic carbon-containing material, including flotation, gravitation separation, magnetic heteroflocculation enrichment and high-gradient magnetic separation. The determined complex utilization ratio has proven the efficiency of complex processing.
The study considers a comprehensive technology (designed and patented by the authors) of developing coal and methane deposits which combines in situ gasification of lower coalbeds in the suite of rock bump hazardous gassy beds, extraction of coal methane and mechanized mining of coal. The first stage of the technology consists in mining gaseous fuel that enables one to extract up to 15-20 % of total energy from the suite of coalbeds. Geodynamic zoning is used to select positions for boring wells. Using the suggested technology makes it possible to solve a number of tasks simultaneously. First of all that is extracting gaseous fuel from the suite of coalbeds without running any mining works while retaining principal coalbeds in the suite and preparing them for future processing (unloading and degassing). During the first phase the methane-coal deposit works as a gas deposit only, the gas having two sources – extracted methane (which includes its locked forms, absorbed and adsorbed) and the products of partial incineration of thin coalbeds, riders and seams from thee suite. The second stage consists in deep degassing and unloading of coal beds which sharply reduces the hazards of methane explosion and rock bumps, thus increasing the productivity of mechanized coal mining. During the second stage coal is mined in long poles with the account of degassing and unloading of coal beds, plus the data on gas dynamic structure of coal rock massif.
Data on use of information on block structure, geodynamic and geomechanical condition of the massif of rocks are given in article at design of development of layers of coal fields. It is recommended to carry out geodynamic division into districts and to consider results of researches in the course of design of mountain works at different stages of development of a field with allocation of three large-scale levels.
Problems are generalized for the purpose of providing safety in coal deposits mining at the Kuzbass. It was shown that the basis for providing safety should be a complex of safety measures in corporating a repeat geodynamic zooming of the overall Kuzbass, individual deposits and mine fields, multiphase degassing at all stages of mining , and also the gaseous, seismic, hydrogeomechanical and electromagnetic monitoring at productive mines. It was suggested to work out safety regulations for providing safety during intensive coal mining not for each individual holding, but for the whole Kuzbass.
The Article contains the scheme for realization of monitoring observations for changes in geodynamic state of rock mass and variants of application of active methods for control of stress-strain state in hazardous zones being formed during mining operations.
For the first time in practice of providing the safety in mining work consideration is given to the method of due account of the dynamics factors of rock masses of the cosmic genesis. The values of coefficient of rock mass dynamics in the 24-hours, monthly, annual, 11-year and 70- year cycles of geodynamic activity are given.
Consideration is given to the geological, mining and operating conditions of the Norilsk industrial district. The analysis is made of the present-day state of mining production of the subarctic branch of MMK «Norilsk Nickel». The principal trends in the safe and efficient exploration of the raw material resources base have been stated within the Norilsk industrial district .
Features of the stress field in the ore-bearing intrusions of the October and Talnakhskiy deposits, with taking into account the depth of the ore deposits and the formation of tectonic disturbances are considered. Analysis of tension underworked and overworked intrusion. The dependencies of stress field formation in the intrusion in the joint working out of intrusion ore deposits are obtained. Recommendations on joint working out of intrusion ore deposits Oktyabrskiy and Talnakhskiy deposits are given.
There was fulfilled a brief review an scientific works domestic scientists and specialists in the engineering-geodynamics area, which served the scientific principles for forecasting and warning of dangerous geological processes in the mining mineral deposit. The general conception the scientific-methods complex for safety of mining works in water-inundated solid mass was discerned, developed at the Scientific Center of Mining Geomechanics and mining issues University.
In article the possible approach to an assessment of production acceptable risk at level of mining branch or the large enterprise is presented (mine, mine), specifics of which production activity is objectively connected with ineradicable today dangers.
Article represents a historical sketch how there was a formation of principles of safety since the most ancient times up to now. In it is told about formation of legal and social norms in the work sphere for ensuring the right and freedoms working.
In article the main marks of history of social insurance from operational injuries since the Russian Empire and are stated up to now.
Let us consider a system of the organization of surveying and hydro-geological researches on the Anzhero Sudzhensk providing ground, and also the main results of long-term supervision in flooding of mines which allowed to study regularities of development of hydrogeomechanical processes in the technogenic broken massifs of the mine fields defining size, an orientation and nature of strain distribution of deformation above ground.
Estimation of earthquakes seismic effect for slope stability of coal strip mine «Chernigovets» in Kemerovo region by means of pseudo-static analysis and physical modeling is conducted. Relevancy to take into account not only maximum accelerations but also continuance of oscillations is showed.
It is shown that major emergencies in mineral deposits mining and in exploitation of buried and surface engineer constructions are attributed to active faults. Classification of hazardous zones has been developed. The mechanisms of influence of geodynamic hazard in coal mines and pipeline exploitation were determined. The technology of reduction of geodynamic risk was suggested.
Consideration is given to the geological, mining and operating conditions of the Norilsk industrial district. The analysis is made of the present-day state of mining production of the Zapoliarny branch of the Norilsk Nickel Co. The principal trends in the safe and efficient exploration of the raw material resources base have been stated within the Norilsk industrial district .
The authors relate to the geodynamically active faults those faults with continuous up to present time low-amplitude movements which lead to the destructurization both of bedding rocks and of Quarternary deposits. The electrogeochemical processes proceeding in the zones of such faults, promote the metal corrosion that basically is the cause of increasing a few tens of times of specific accident rate at sites of active faults crossing with pipelines.
The paper contains the substantiation of the determinable role of the cosmos in rhythms of natural and technogenic phenomena at coal- and ore mines. The latent and explicit periods of up-to-date phase of attenuation of the solar constant in the cycle since 1982 to 2070 are shown, as well as the geodynamic consequences of this depression. This paper seeks to give rise to discussion of this problem for working out of coordinated actions in the decrease of geodynamic risks.