One way to reduce the amount of harmful emissions from diesel fuel could be the replacement of part of the fuel with biofuel. Research is related to the production of biodiesel fuel in three ways: transesterification of vegetable oils; esterification of fat acids extracted from vegetable oil; and hydroprocessing of vegetable oils using catalysts in the diesel hydrotreatment process. Food and non-food oils, monatomic and diatomic alcohols were used to produce biodiesel fuel. Optimal parameters of vegetable oil transesterification have been determined: temperature; raw material ratio (oil/alcohol); mixing speed; time; type of process catalyst. The characteristics of the obtained biodiesel fuel samples were studied and compared with each other as well as with the requirements of EN 14214 “Automotive fuels. Fat acid methyl ethers for diesel engines. General technical requirements” and EN 590:2009 “EURO diesel fuel. Technical specifications”. With regard to the physical and chemical characteristics of biodiesel fuel, the best way to produce it is by transesterification of vegetable oils. However, all fuels can be used as components of a blended environmentally friendly diesel fuel.
Dust control in summer and winter periods is a topical problem associated with conducting open pit mining operations; however, at negative temperatures the additional requirements are imposed on dust suppressants. Preventive compositions are proposed, in which light and heavy gas oils, obtained from catalytic cracking and delayed coking, are used as base components. Involvement of heavy fractions allows to increase the flash point, thereby reducing the flammability of dust suppressant, improve its adhesion properties by increasing the content of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and reduce the cost of the final product. In order to improve low-temperature and adsorption properties of developed dust suppressants, heavy oil residues (cracking residue and tar) are included in their composition in various concentrations: 2-10 wt.%. Alternative compositions of dust suppressants, obtained by water emulsification of vinylated alkyd oligomer, are developed; the ability of this dispersion to form strong films on dusty surfaces is examined. The efficiency of using aqueous solution of vinylated alkyd oligomer as a summer dust suppressant is demonstrated. The results of this study include the development of new preventive compositions with improved low-temperature properties and confirmation of the theoretical part of the study by the results of performance tests on a laboratory facility.Alternative compositions of dust suppressors have been developed, which were obtained by emulsifying a vinyl alkyd oligomer (VAO) in water; the ability of this dispersion to form strong films on dusty surfaces has been studied. The efficiency of using an aqueous solution of vinyl alkyd oligomer in the summer period as a dust suppressant is shown. The results of this study are the development of new prophylactic formulations with improved low-temperature properties and confirmation of the theoretical part of the study by the results of tests of operational characteristics in a laboratory facility.
Paper studies the effect of excess pressure during delayed coking of asphalt, obtained by propane deasphaltization of tar, on yield and physical and chemical properties of hydrocarbon fuels' components and solid-phase product – petroleum coke. Asphalt was coked at a temperature of 500 °C and excess pressure of 0.15-0.35 MPa in a laboratory unit for delayed coking of periodic action. Physical and chemical properties of raw materials and components of light (gasoline), medium (light gasoil), and heavy (heavy gasoil) distillates obtained during experimental study were determined: density, viscosity, coking ability, sulfur content, iodine number, pour points, flash points, fluidity loss and fractional composition. Quantitative group hydrocarbon and microelement compositions and properties of obtained samples of petroleum coke (humidity, ash content, volatiles' yield, sulfur content, etc.) were also studied. Comparative assessment of their quality is given in accordance with requirements of GOST 22898-78 “Low-sulfur petroleum coke. Specifications”. In addition, patterns of changes in excess coking pressure on yield and quality indicators of distillate products and petroleum coke were revealed. With an increase in excess pressure of coking process from 0.15 to 0.35 MPa, content of paraffin-naphthenic hydrocarbons in light and heavy gasoils of delayed coking decreases. Common pattern in asphalt coking is an increase in yield of coke and hydrocarbon gas with an increase in excess pressure from 0.15 to 0.35 MPa.
The article offers a definition of the stability of marine high-viscosity fuel from the point of view of the colloid-chemical concept of oil dispersed systems. The necessity and importance of the inclusion in the current regulatory requirements of this quality parameter of high-viscosity marine fuel is indicated. The objects of the research are high-viscosity marine fuels, the basic components of which are heavy oil residues: fuel oil that is the atmospheric residue of oil refining and viscosity breaking residue that is the product of light thermal cracking of fuel oil. As a thinning agent or distillate component, a light gas oil was taken from the catalytic cracking unit. The stability of the obtained samples was determined through the xylene equivalent index, which characterizes the stability of marine high-viscosity fuel to lamination during storage, transportation and operation processes. To improve performance, the resulting base compositions of high-viscosity marine fuels were modified by introducing small concentrations (0.05 % by weight) of stabilizing additives based on oxyethylated amines of domestic origin and alkyl naphthalenes of foreign origin.
The physicochemical properties of heavy oils of Yaregskoe and Usinskoe deposits and the residues of atmospheric distillation of petroleum (fuel oil) recovered from them are presented. The group composition of oil and the residues of its atmospheric distillation (fuel oil) is determined. When using X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive spectrometer, the content of metals in the products is determined. A conclusion is drawn about the distribution of metals in the initial oil and fuel oil. On the basis of rheological characteristics, the type of liquids is determined in accordance with Newton's law, as well as the presence of an anomaly in the viscosity of the studied media at different temperatures. The energy values of the thixotropy of heavy oils of Usinskoe and Yaregskoe deposits, as well as the activation energy of the viscous flow of all media studied, are obtained. The phase transition of atmospheric residues at 60 °C is discovered. Dependences of the enthalpy and entropy of the viscous flow of the studied hydrocarbon media are obtained with an increase in temperature from 10 to 140 °C. The dependences of the oil molecules and atmospheric residues jumping frequency on viscosity are obtained for the first time.
The paper explores physical and chemical properties and composition of heavy oil from Yarega field and its vacuum residue, i.e. the tar. The capillary chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to identify specific group hydrocarbon composition of heavy Yarega oil and components extracted therefrom, which has proven its belonging to highly resinous sulfurous naphthenic and aromatic oils. Based on the comparative analysis of composition and quality of feedstock a possibility has been assessed to produce a high-quality needle coke with low content of sulphur and metals from the heavy oil of Yarega field and its vacuum residue. An integrated process flow diagram for heavy Yarega oil refinement has been proposed, including preliminary deasphalting and demetallization, hydrotreatment, delayed coking and thermodestructive processes or gasification.
Today energy consumption is constantly growing while explored reserves of easily accessible oil are depleting, which is a reason why most countries tend to diversify their energy mix, develop non-hydrocarbon energy sources and use domestic types of fuel, including the low grade ones. Thereby interest is raised to such a source of hydrocarbons as combustible shales. Combustible shales appear to be one of the highest-potential types of organic raw materials, which may offset and in future even substitute oil products and gas. The paper is investigating behavior and structure of combustible shales during heat treatment in order to identify their possible industrial applications. A synchronous thermal analysis has been held, chemical composition of combustible shales’ mineral fraction and optimal conditions for shale fines briquetting have been determined.
The reserves of combustible slates of Russia in shale oil and gas equivalent are more than the reserves of oil and natural gas. The formation of a large volume of ash is a major problem connected to the processing and the usage of the combustible slates. It is possible to look at this problem from a different angle of vision if a mineral part of slates is considered as a complex organo-mineral raw material where a mineral substance of the slates is the same raw material as the organic one. For this purpose, it is required to study in detail the physicochemical characteristics of the combustible slates and the behavior of the organic and the mineral parts of the slates during the heat treatment. This research focuses on the phase composition of Leningrad fuel shale and its changes on pyrolysis. They were studying the phase composition, the gas phase outlet, pyrolysis mass balance of combustible slates in the nitrogen atmosphere in the temperature range of 200-1000 °С, the porosity changes of combustible slate in the nitrogen atmosphere in the temperature range of 25-900 °С. It is determined that the main minerals of combustible slates are calcite (28 %), quartz (25 %), illite (17 %), and microcline (11 %). The temperature dependence of the shale porosity is studied in a nitrogen atmosphere and in air. The porosity changes in four stages: (I) 25-200 °C; (II) 200-400 °C; (III) 400-600 °C; (IV) 600-900 °C. The mass balance pyrolysis of combustible slates in a PTK_1.2_40 tube furnace is made up, in the nitrogen atmosphere of 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 °C.
When transporting overburden rocks in a cold season, the lower layer of materials freezes to working surfaces of transport equipment, and at long transportations – congeals under its own weight. As a result, up to 50 % of rock remains in the vehicle, while the unloaded part represents indiscreete frozen mass. It considerably complicates the process of unloading transport and leads to increased labor and financial expenses. A rational and effective remedy for these problems is transport equipment and bulk material processing with chemical agents of oil and petrochemical origin – mixtures of distillate and bottom frations obtained as a result of thermodestructive processes during petroleum feedstock manufacturing. The article presents data on the quality of distillates and residual products of oil recycling, which are used as initial components for producing preventive drugs, which are used to prevent sticking and freezing of overburden rocks during transportation and storage in the cold time of year, as well as drugs used for pit roads treatment in surface mining operations. Optimal component compositions of new petrochemicals are developed, and the physical and chemical properties of the received test samples have been studied.
Oil supplied for primary processing always undergoes preliminary preparation, the purpose of which is to eliminate the harmful effect of water and salt contained in the oil. It is thought that corrosion of the equipment is connected mainly with chlorides of magnesium and calcium, which are subjected to hydrolysis with the formation of hydrochloric acid. Under the influence of hydrochloric acid the destruction (corrosion) of metal equipment at technological plants occurs (especially refrigerating-condensing and heatexchange equipment, furnaces of rectification units etc.). The authors of the article, on the basis of thermodynamic calculations, provide their point of view on this process and give a methodology by which the process of preliminary oil dehydration and desalting can be controlled. The thermodynamic calculations executed for standard conditions on the basis of refer-enced data confirm a high probability of chemical interaction of iron with hydrogen ions, hy-drogen sulphide and especially with carbonic acid. This testifies to high activity of the carbon dioxide dissolved in water and the impossibility of hydrolysis of ions of magnesium, calcium and iron. The calculations show that only the hydrolysis of magnesium chloride is possible tak-ing into account the ionic composition of the water phase in the oil. It should be noted that the presence of ions of chlorine shifts the iron potential in a nega-tive direction and increases the speed of corrosion of petrochemical equipment. The solution of this problem is in the development of modern methods of crude oil dehydration and desalting. It is also, however, in an intensification of the processes of mixing water-oil emulsions with wash-ing water by using various physical fields (for example, ultrasound) and creating new effective mixing devices on the basis of them.
This work presents results of research and development of technology for producing effective emulsifiers of inverse water-in-oil emulsions (EN-1) from distillates and residues of deep oil refining processes. The distillate cracking residue from a thermal cracking plant is chosen as the active component of the emulsifiers together with the highly aromatized heavy gasoil (as the solvent) from catalytic and thermal cracking plants.
The paper deals with field and laboratory studies of the effect of a magnetic field on the rate of corrosion of metal tubing, and rheological studies to establish the dependence of properties of well production of the magnetic field. The laboratory results showed an increase in the rate of corrosion of the metal with the growth of its residual magnetization with and without inhibition by different amounts. The dependence of the magnetic field effect on the rheological properties of well products Urmanskoye field.