This article presents the results of drilling, experimental filtration work and laboratory studies aimed at assessing the resources and quality of groundwater in the licensed area of Vysotsky Island located in the Leningrad region, in the Gulf of Finland in accordance with the requirements of regulatory documents. Analysis of the results of hydrochemical studies and their comparison with data on water intakes in adjacent areas gives the right to conclude that it is possible to classify a hydrogeological unit as a different type of resource formation than those located in the surrounding areas. Groundwater in this area is confined to an unexplored deep fractured regional high-pressure zone. According to the received data, the explored water intake can be attributed to a unique groundwater deposit, which has an uncharacteristic composition of groundwater in the north of the Leningrad region, which may be due to the mixing of modern sediments and relict waters of the Baltic glacial lake. The stability of groundwater characteristics is confirmed by long-term monitoring.
During development of drilling projects, a whole array of data is needed considering the properties of rocks and the conditions of their bedding. Accounting for geomechanical processes occurring in the near-wellbore zone allows avoiding many complications associated with the violation of the wellbore walls stability at all stages of its construction and operation. Technological and technical factors such as vibration and rotation of the drilling string, formation of launders during the descent and ascent of the assembly, pressure pulsation during the start and stop of pumps, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressure of the drilling fluid, its composition and properties, have a great influence on the stress-strain state of the medium opened by the well. The washing fluid circulating in the well should provide backpressure to the reservoir, not interact with the rocks chemically, colmatage channels in porous and fractured rocks, preventing penetration of the mud into the medium, by creating an impermeable barrier at drilling clay seams that are prone to swelling, cracking, etc. The article discusses the method for determining the stability of the directed well walls, taking into account the penetration of drilling mud into the pores and fractures of rocks. The technique will allow adjusting the zenith angle of the well during the workout of an unstable interval at the design stage, or selecting a drilling fluid composition to ensure fail-safe drilling.
When drilling exploration wells in weakly cohesive and uncohesive rocks, represented by sands, boulder and pebble and moraine sediments, by traditional methods, narrowing and collapse of the borehole occurs, which leads to sticking of drilling tools, redrilling of already passed intervals and causes complication of borehole designs (i.e., requires the placement of additional casing). All this implies additional expenditures of time and materials. At present this problem is solved by development of special flushing fluid compositions capable of keeping wellbore in steady state due to their anchoring properties. In order to determine the effect of flushing fluid on wellbore stability it is necessary to investigate the strength characteristics of rocks treated with drilling mud. An "express-methodology" of such research is offered.