The article is devoted to the 150 th anniversary of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements by D.I.Mendeleev. The fundamental law of nature, discovered by D.I.Mendeleev has anomalies and paradoxes associated with certain groups of metals. When studying the physical and chemical properties of complex metal compounds, many discrepancies can be found, namely, the location of elements in groups, which primarily relate to metals with different valences. By studying the approaches and methods for predicting the arrangement of chemical elements, it can be established that D.I.Men deleev eliminated many differences for some metals during the formation of the Periodic system of chemical elements. D.I.Mendeleev developed a principle that excludes such errors when finding and discovering new elements. Analytical studies conducted by a Russian scientist helped to calculate the atomic masses and describe the properties of three ele ments not known at that time – «eka-boron», «eka-silicon», «eka-aluminum», the existence of which was proved and confirmed by subsequent discoveries of scandium, germanium, boron, and gallium. The paper provides a significant as sessment of the forecasting of metals in various groups of the periodic system. Changes in the properties of some metals significantly influenced their location in the table of D.I.Mendeleev.
Monetary industry combines several stages of metallurgical processes, which are continuously improved with the development of technology and the level of knowledge in the field of non-ferrous metals. The graduates of the Mining Institute, metallurgists of several generations, took part in establishment the Mint and development of technology to produce coins. Since January 24, 1718, when Peter the Great signed the decree «on production of small and large coins ...», the history of the monetary system of Russia and the coining of the first silver rubles began, which subsequently formed the basis of money relations. Twenty-four graduates of the mining and metallurgical departments of the Mining University worked as heads and münzmeister of the Mint. Silver rubles and work of Russian münzmeisters provided financial stability in Tsarist Russia from 1718 to 1917 and laid the foundation for further development of the monetary industry, taking into account new knowledge in the field of enrichment, preparation of polymetallic ores and their melting, and also stamping and processing of precious metals. This is the history of Russia and St. Petersburg, it combined the history of the Mining University, which this year will be 245 years old. It is of scientific interest to restore historical justice and update the methodological knowledge in the field of technology of monetary industry and metallurgical processes.
The existence of environmental and strategic need to process dumps and slagheaps of coal mining enterprises of Russia and foreign countries results in reviewing the potential of using fly ash as a technogenic mineral resource. Comprehensive studies of substance composition of fly ash from coal power plants make it possible to define rational further ways of utilizing that mineral resource substantiating the scheme of its technological secondary processing. In view of the numerous environmental problems stemming from the techniques of wet benefication and processing of that mineral resource, a technology is suggested of dry cleaning of fly ash from thermal coal power plants. Studies were carried out using a number of samples of fly ash from various power plants. The suggested criteria are used to discriminate the compounds of fly ash and quantitative and qualitative composition of particulate matter is assessed. Studies of substance composition of fly ash samples has demonstrated that the concentration of non-combusted carbon in them varies from 5 to 20 %. The principal technological procedure of cleansing in our studies was a combination of magnetic and electric separation of ash in the state of vibrational pseudo-liquefaction. It enables one to increase the throughput capacity and selectivity of the cleansing process significantly. In the result of such cleansing a stable mineral fraction is produced that contains 0.5-2.5 % of carbon, so that the purified mineral fraction can be used as a construction binding agent.
Coal fly ash is generated in the course of combustion of coal at thermal power plants. Environmental problems increase sharply without disposing that industrial waste. Technologies were tested of hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites from fly ash forming during combustion of coal at thermal power plants of the Pechora coal basin and dependences were identified of the experiment conditions on physical and chemical properties of the end product. It is demonstrated that synthesizing zeolites from fly ash is the first stage of forming ceramic materials (ceramic membranes), which defines the fundamental character (importance) of that area of studies. It was for the first time that sorption and structural characteristics and cation-exchange properties of fly ash from the Pechora basin coals were studied with respect to, Ba 2+ and Sr 2+ .
Stereometric analysis quartz rock fabric of the different genesis was realized. The purposes of research were to obtain anatomic and morphologic characteristics of quartzite aggregate, to compare with structural and textural parameters of aggregate of the quartz veins to acquire extra data to prove exploration of this massive with the perspective using quartzite as a raw material for melting and glass industry.
Comprehensive studying of vein quartz gives valuable information about quartz and quartz bodies formation conditions, which is very important for a forecast substantiation and exploration of new perspective deposits. For the purpose to receive qualitative and quantitative mineralogy-petrographic characteristics of vein quartz of different technological types (deposits of Southern Urals Mountains) four types of quartz grains are dedicated. For acknowledgement of correctness of the differentiation the full stereometric analysis with the help of Mineralogical Analyzer of structure MIU-5M is carried out. Parameters of a structure of mineral aggregate are received. Basis on these data, genetic and necessary for technologists conclusions are represented.