Minimizing the discharge of blasted rock mass into the developed space of the pit is a very relevant area for study, as it allows to increase the processability of work and reduce the cost of mining. The article presents the results of experimental industrial explosions, during which the study of this issue was conducted. The main purpose of the work was to establish the key factors affecting the volume of rock mass discharge to the pit haulage berm. During the analysis of the world experience of research on this topic, the key factors affecting the formation of collapse and discharge – natural and technological – are identified. The method of conducting experiments and collecting data for analyzing the influence of technological parameters of location, charging and initiation of wells on the volume of rock mass discharge is described. It is established that the main discharge to the pit haulage berm is formed by the volume of rock mass limited by the prism of the slope angle. With a sufficient rock mass displacement from the edge of the bench crest towards the center of the block, only the wells of the 1st and 2nd rows participate in the discharge formation. Empirical dependences of the total volume of rock mass discharge on the length of the block along the bench crest, the specific consumption of explosives, the size of a rock piece P 50 and the rate of rock breaking are obtained. The obtained results can be used to design the parameters of the drilling and blasting operations (DBO), as well as to predict and evaluate the possible consequences of a mass explosion in similar mining and geological conditions.
Measurement of ore movements by blast is one of the key components of the quality control system at any mining enterprise, which allows to obtain the accuracy necessary for determining the location of ore contours. About 15 years ago, a monitoring system was developed in Australia that allows mine personnel to make three-dimensional measurements of ore blocks movement at each blast. Studies have shown that ore blocks movement is extremely variable, and it characterized by a complete absence of a deterministic component. The consequence is that modeling ore contour movements during the blast will be inaccurate, and the best results for the mining enterprise can only be achieved by directly measuring the movement. The technology of measuring ore contours movements considered in the article is based on three-dimensional movement vectors obtained in different parts of the blasted block, characterized by different movements. It is obvious that the accuracy of determining the ore contours position after the blast is proportional to the number of measurements made on the block. Currently, the movement control technology based on the BMM system is actively used by global mining companies, its use reduces losses and dilution of ore. In 2017, the pilot implementation of the BMM system was started at the Olympiadinsky GOK, and the system is being implemented in several Russian mining companies.