Directional drilling technology can be used in glacier boreholes to obtain additional ice cores and to pass over sticking drills. Experimental sidetracking of 5G-2 hole in the deep borehole at Vostok station, Antarctica, showed the high efficiency of the directional drilling without using of special whip-stocks to deviate the hole.
One of the main factors of environment contamination on the gas industry ventures is waste water. To improve the ecological situation at gas fields the joint purification, treatment and flooding of associated liquid, industrial and domestic waste water into lost circulation horizons is proposed.
Russian Federation can solve problems of local power and ecology, increasing of soil quality, rising of peat export by the developing of peat industry. To change over the peat plants to the year-round production cycle the auger machine is proposed.
In spite of the certain success in ice drilling technology, there are enough accident examples of the deep coring in so-called warm ice, which is characterized by the increasing of ice crystals and has temperatures closed to the pressure melting point. The generally accepted recommendations for choosing of rational drilling parameters in such ice don’t exist. The low reliability of the drilling process as often as not resulted to the one of the most severe accident in the hole – sticking of the core drills. The effective accident elimination is possible due to the ice dissolving in the sticking zone by the delivery in this zone of the solvent active to ice, for example, ethylene glycol or its aqueous solution.
The cylindrical stone blocks of large diameters (300-800 mm) are used as shafts of papermaking machines, which set up exclusive standards to fissuring of stone. The present paper describes a special device for separation of cylindrical stone blocks from the bottom without destruction of the surrounding rock mass shutting out appearance of fissuring in the stone.
The peculiarities of design of technical means intended for drilling wells in glaciers are considered. Polar and high-mountain regions of the Earth are characterized by a unique combination of unfavorable conditions for practical activity, therefore, besides general requirements for design of technical means, special requirements for weight and dimensions, power consumption and operational characteristics of used materials are made. Specific technical solutions of drilling room constructions, means of lowering and lifting and auxiliary operations, as well as measures aimed at reduction of material and energy intensity of drilling operations on glaciers are presented.
In recent years, mechanical rotary ice drilling has become the main type of construction of deep boreholes in the ice of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Work continues in these regions to study the paleoclimate of the Earth, the dynamics and composition of ice sheets, the influence of anthropogenic pollution on climate change and other natural scientific problems. As a result of various national and international projects, deep boreholes were drilled in Antarctica at Dome F (2503 m, 1996), Vostok Station (3623 m, 1998), Dome C (1458 m, 2001) and in Greenland at NGRIP (1371 m, 1997; 2931 m, 2000).
The primary results of the research and engineering work of the Department of Technology and Technique of Well Drilling, carried out and completed in 2000, are presented. The main result of drilling long wells in the ice of Antarctica is the development of the project of environmentally safe opening of the subglacial Lake Vostok, a unique natural phenomenon, the complex study of which is of the greatest interest to the world scientific community. A 505 m long well with full core recovery was drilled on the Academy of Sciences glacier (Severnaya Zemlya archipelago) in the framework of the international environmental program PEGAIS. Geophysical measurements were carried out in the well. A new method of tubeless casing and sealing of anomalous intervals using a fusible binding material and a thermal plugging penetrator was developed. Basic theoretical and technological principles of liquidation plugging of hydrogeological wells with the use of economical and environmentally safe cementing mortar based on cheap mineral waste were developed. Effectively conducted research and experimental developments on the combined heat and hydrodynamic effects on low-productive sands to increase oil and gas production wells, clarified the laws of the hydro and foam core. New applied programs for PC were formed, allowing to increase adequacy of data and to expand the field of application in evaluation of regulation and stabilization of circulation and heat exchange processes during well sinking and development.
Важнейшим и наиболее эффективным способом изучения ледников является: бурение скважин с полным отбором керна, однако процессы разрушения льда при вращательном бурении являются недостаточно изученными ...
Большую роль при исследованиях ледниковых покровов в полярных областях и высокогорных районах играет бурение скважин, проводимое в основном при помощи тепловых и электромеханических буровых снарядов на грузонесу щем кабеле ...