On the example of the Alardinskaya mine, the problem of underground mining of seams prone to spontaneous combustion and rock bumps in the conditions of the Kondomsky geological and economic region of the Kuznetsk coal basin is considered. The contradictions in the requirements of regulatory documents for the width of the inter-panel coal pillars in the mining of seams with longwalls in conditions of endogenous fire hazard and in the mining of seams that are dangerous due to geodynamical phenomena are discussed. These contradictions impede the safe mining of seams using traditionally used layouts with the danger of spontaneous combustion of coal and rock bumps. A mining-geomechanical model is presented, which is used for numerical three-dimensional simulation of the stress-strain state of a rock mass with various layouts for longwall panels using the finite element method. The results of the numerical analysis of the stress state of the rock mass immediately before the rock bump are presented, and the main factors that contributed to its occurrence during the mining of the seam are established. A dangerous degree of stress concentration in the coal seam near the leading diagonal entries is shown, especially in conditions of application of abutment pressure from the edge of panels’ gob. The analysis of the features of stress distribution in the inter-panel pillar at different widths is carried out. Recommendations for improving the layout for the development and mining of coal seams that are prone to spontaneous combustion and dangerous in terms of rock bumps in the conditions of Alardiskaya mine have been developed. The need for further studies of the influence of pillars for various purposes, formed during the mining of adjacent seams, on the stress-strain state of previously overmined and undermined seams is shown.