The article presents a theoretical and experimental substantiation of the method of directional unloading of the reservoir in fields with low-permeability reservoirs. The relevance of the article is due to the reduction of hydrocarbon resources in modern conditions and the need to create new efficient environmentally friendly technologies to develop hydrocarbon deposits with hard-to-recover reserves, primarily with low-permeability reservoirs. The results of a theoretical study of the stress-strain state in the vicinity of a well, both cased and open, are presented. They are necessary to develop programs for laboratory testing of core specimens from the studied fields. A technique for physical modelling of deformation processes in the bottomhole zone with a decrease in pressure at the well bottom in a true triaxial loading unit is described in order to determine the parameters of the process impact on the formation reservoir, leading to an increase in well productivity. The method was applied to the conditions of the low-permeability reservoir at the Verkhneviluchanskoye oil and gas condensate field in the southwest of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Expe-rimental studies were carried out on a unique scientific unit for true triaxial loading, created at the IPMech RAS, the Triaxial Independent Loading Test System. The directional unloading method was adapted for the studied field, the process parameters of successful application of the method were determined: the bottomhole design, the drawdown values necessary to increase the permeability of the bottomhole formation zone.
Compaction in sedimentary basins has been traditionally regarded as a one-dimensional process that ignores inelastic deformation in directions orthogonal to the active load. This study presents new experiments with sandstone demonstrating the role of three-dimensional inelastic compaction in cyclic true triaxial compression. The experiments were carried out on the basis of a triaxial independent loading test system in the Laboratory of Geomechanics of the Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Science. The elastic moduli of the material were estimated from the stress-strain curves and the elastic deformations of the sample in each of the three directions were determined. Subtracting the elastic component from the total deformation allowed to show that inelastic compaction of the sandstone is observed in the direction of active loading, whereas in the orthogonal directions there is a expansion of the material. To describe the three-dimensional nature of the compaction, a generalization of Athy law to the tensor case is proposed, taking into account the role of the stress deviator. The compaction tensor and the kinetic equation to describe the evolution of inelastic deformation, starting from the moment of the load application are introduced. On the basis of experiments on cyclic multiaxial compression of sandstone, the identification and verification of the constructed model of tensor compaction were carried out. The possibility of not only qualitative, but also quantitative description of changes in inelastic deformation under complex cyclic triaxial compression is shown.