There are the results of a study of the factors determining the formation and changes in the filtration properties of a heap leaching stack formed from pelletized poor sandy-clay ores. An analysis of methods of investigation of filtration properties of ore material for different stages of heap leaching plots functioning is carried out. Influence of segregation process during stack dumping on formation of zones with very different permeability parameters of ore has been established by experimental and filtration works. The construction and application of a numerical model of filtration processes in pelletized ores based on laboratory experiments is shown. By means of solution percolation simulation at different irrigation intensities the justification of optimal stack parameters is provided in terms of the geomechanical stability and prevention of solution level rise above the drainage layer.
Problems of reclamation the grounds broken as a result of development of deposits of minerals, borrow priority position in modern researches on rational use of natural resources. In clause the approach to the decision of the given problem from a position of engineering geology is considered.
The new innovative program of the Saint-Petersburg State Mining Institute provides the organization of all-the-year-round operating range in Kavgolovo of the Leningrad region. There are new buildings for training and residing of students will be construct. Hydrogeology and engineering geology department of Mining Institute together with the prospecting organization «SU-299» were carried out the researchers for the construction of the buildings. The archival and literature data, results of the researches of engineering-geological conditions and a hydrogeological structure of Kavgolovo range were analyzed. The parameters of mechanical-and-physic properties of sandy-argillaceous rocks of the buildings rafts were obtained. The materials will be used during the field training with students of a specialty «Underground waters exploration and engineering-geological researches».
Requirements for construction and mining works have always been taken into account in engineering geology. At present moment the most complicated tasks in mining practice are connected with reclamation of mined-out space. Operation of over two hundred coal mines and coal pits was stopped during the restructuring period in the Russian coal industry and they are currently go through different stages of the mine abandonment process. Land reclamation is a topical issue in open-cast mining, where the main task is to maintain stability during the recultivation period and subsequent use of the worked-out pits. Reliability of geomechanical calculation depends on the quality of geological data. Efficiency of activities to eliminate impact from mining works on surrounding environment is significantly decreasing when such data is incomplete or unavailable.
The problem to create the scientific view of the world is analyzed. Basing on the importance of science in life of each person, urgency of the given issue for modern society is revealed. The value of scientific approach, which basic principles are based on natural-science notions, is shown for apprehension of complex processes in modern science. On the example of geology it is shown, that currently established facts and laws forming modern conceptions of processes determining the origin and development of the Earth, its structure and composition including those of the Earth’s outer spheres (atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere), are truly an integral part of the scientific view of the world.
The relationship between the needs of human society and the development of applied geological research is shown. The ecological aspect of the development of geological sciences nowadays is emphasized. The human factor in the emergence of dangerous geological processes is assessed. Examples of interaction between human activity and the environment are given.
The role and types of engineering and geological research for quality reclamation work on land disturbed by field development are reviewed.
Engineering and geological surveys were carried out on the slopes of the Slavyanka river valley as part of the reconstruction of the Pavlovsk state museum-reserve. The purpose of the works was to detect areas of gravitation processes, determine their extent and the degree of threat to the historical appearance of the park territory and architectural monuments. Peculiarities of the geological structure, terrain landscape and man-made influence predetermined the development on the slopes of the Slavyanka River of such gravitational processes as talus, mudslides, landslides, and, most likely, processes of surface and secular creep in the Cambrian clays. With further development, the gravitational slope processes on the territory of the park and in the immediate vicinity of the monuments can radically change the appearance of the park area and create a threat to the stability of many park structures.