Ensuring dust and explosion safety during underground coal mining is one of the most important tasks of industrial safety and labor protection departments. The main method of preventing explosions of coal dust settled in mine workings is to process them with stone dust (rock dusting). The traditional methods of quality control of rock dusting include radioisotope, optical and chemical methods. To implement them, the devices are equipped with environmentally harmful radioactive elements, expensive optical sensors, desiccants and replaceable flasks with chemical reagents, which increases the cost of analysis and its duration. The measurement error of these devices is 10 % or more. The main purpose of the study is to develop and substantiate a new method for monitoring the dust and explosion safety of mine workings, which will be devoid of the disadvantages of the methods mentioned above. It is proposed to evaluate the quality of rock-dust distribution by a fundamentally new way – thermogravimetric. The method was tested on the dust of coal mines in Kuzbass and the Vorkuta basin, including dust samples taken in mines with actual explosions. The article presents the results of experimental studies of the processes of thermal destruction of coal and stone dust mixtures. The non-overlapping intervals of the thermogravimetric reaction are identified: moisture yield (35-132 °С); volatile matter yield from coal (380-580 °С); thermal degradation of limestone with carbon dioxide yield (650-850 °С). Methods and mathematical dependencies for processing significant and qualitative identification characteristics of thermogravimetric curves in determining the content of non-combustible components in a sample of mine dust are considered.