Gas industry plays an important role in the global energy sector, and in the coming decades amountsof natural gas production will only increase. One of the fastest growing trends in gas industry is the production of liquefiednatural gas (LNG), which is associated with the necessity to organize flexible systems of gas supply to the regions,remote from gas extraction sites. Industrial structure of LNG production includes projects, belonging to several different groups depending to their scale, in particular, small-scale production (SSLNG), cumulative production capacityof which is approximately 10 % from the industry-wide one. Economic aspects of implementing such projects remainunderexplored, which does not allow to draw objective conclusions regarding the prospects of their implementationin particular regions.This paper contains a review of publications, devoted to SSLNG project studies, aimed at identifying specifics oftheir organization compared to projects of greater scale. The results demonstrate that the majority of internationalcompanies classify projects as SSLNG, if their annual production capacity is below 0.5 million tonnes per annum.Specific capital costs, as well as implementation timelines of such projects, are several times lower than those of projects with greater production capacity, which reduces their risks and minimizes barriers to market entry. Furthermore,SSLNG is the most decentralized subsector in gas industry, aiming to cover the market due to a growing numberof projects, not their specific production capacity. These specific features define significant prospects of SSLNGdevelopment in Russia, both in the context of energy supply to remote regions and diversification of export deliveries.
One of the major challenges of the modern world is the problem of global warming, the solution of which requires the implementation of a set of strategic projects in the field of transition of the energy sector to the path of environmentally balanced development. One of the ways to implement this transition is the development of technologies for capturing and storage of technogenic carbon dioxide, which is recognized as the main one of greenhouse gases. At the same time, in the Russian context, the most expedient is the implementation of technological chains for capturing and storing CO 2 which are aimed at enhanced oil recovery, the effectiveness of which has been proven by world practice. Implementation of these projects requires consolidation of efforts of many parties, including government agencies, enterprises-issuers (power generating facilities and energy-intensive industry), oil-producing enterprises, non-state environmental organizations, media and public. World practice has many examples when uncoordinated actions of one of the stakeholders led to the closure of such a project, and therefore it is necessary to develop a mechanism of interaction between them, taking into account the specifics of Russian conditions. One of the least studied and controversial aspects of this interaction is to involve the public in the implementation of national carbon intensity programs and the local population in the implementation of a specific project. Research in this field has been conducted in the world over the past 14 years, which allowed the current research base to be used to develop fundamental principles for the development and promotion of CO 2 capture and storage technologies in Russia. Key factors affecting the perception of such projects by public were also analyzed and systematized. The research identified the main arguments for and against the development of CO 2 capture and storage technologies. The analysis made it possible to formulate key principles that should be considered when developing a strategy for the development of these technologies in Russia.
Organization of efficient economic activity in the Arctic zone requires development of human potential, transport infrastructure, exploitation of natural resources under the conditions of greatest possible environmental safety. In order to choose preferable trends of economic development and to provide efficiency of operations in the Arctic zone it is crucial to perform research in the areas of industrial efficiency upgrading and rational use of fuel, energy, mineral, chemical and biological resources of the Ocean and littoral areas of Russian Arctic. The paper analyzes major trends in the research on increasing economic efficiency of operations aimed at territory development in the Arctic zone. The authors justify the need to examine economic problems of rational resource use in the Arctic zone of Russia based on the proposed system of resource-estimation indicators and their application in establishing a mechanism of rational resource use with a due regard to protection of the marine environment. The paper also focuses on methodological problems of the target programme approach to complex development of the Arctic zone, creation of target programmes, industrial development and rational use of natural resources. The authors give rationale for the key task in this area – development of methodological principles of forming federal and regional target programmes, aimed at exploration, exploitation and rational use of natural resources in the Arctic zone of Russian Federation. An analysis is provided that focuses on the problems of creating a scientifically justified hierarchical system of programmes and regional regulations, creation of a scientific information data bank and other methodological issues.
At present self-sufficiency in mineral feedstock of the Russian economy has dropped significantly, with some types of mineral feedstock becoming extremely scarce after the collapse of the USSR. Analysis of mineral resource base of the companies of titanium-magnesium, chemical, paint and varnish and other sectors of industry, producing titanium products, has shown that these sectors have almost no titanium feed- stock of their own production, even with account of titanium low consumption. The use of resource saving technologies instigates creation of new forward-looking methods for reproducing mineral resource base of the titanium industry by bringing new, unconventional types of extractable resources into the economic turnover and is one of main ways to increase the natural resource potential of the industry. A rational combination of modern highly productive machinery and resource saving technologies is the only possible way for the development of a number of valuable extractable resources, including titanium dioxide. The paper gives an overview of key aspects of the modern resource saving technologies for expansion of reproduction in the basic industries. An idea is put forward to recreate the titanium industry resource base in the Russian Federation based on the modern resource saving technologies. A classification of the modern resource saving technologies is proposed.
This article deals with theoretical and methodological bases of forming a program manage-ment system for integrated development of a region. The idea of a program-based management system based on a system of socio-economic transformation is presented. The given bases include monitoring emerging trends in the program management for integrated development of a region of the Russian Federation on basic parameters and involve control of the management process. The concept of forming the mechanism of program management as an integrated system is suggested.
Scientific and technical potential is the main part of the Russian economic potential. It will ensure the access to the world market, and consequently a total breakthrough in the economic development of the country. We give a special attention to the methods and procedures of the scientific and technical potential effectiveness.