The main methods for assessing the environmental and economic impact of mining enterprises on the environment are considered. The classification of the currently existing methods is given. The disadvantages of the existing typical methods of assessment of environmental damage are analyzed and recommendations on the use of various methods as a combined method are given. An example of assessment of ecological and economic damage of the impact of the Krasny Bor toxic waste landfill is offered. A combined method was used in calculations, which made it possible to determine the annual environmental damage in the amount of 151 million rubles. Based on the calculations it is recommended to implement measures to reduce the impact of the landfill on the environment.
The issues of organization of exploration in the world are considered. The features of their financing in developed and developing countries are shown. For developed countries, conducting geological exploration at their own expense, the composition of the subjects of subsoil use, engaged in these works, as well as the structure of the state geological service is analyzed. Attention is paid to the methods of stimulation used by the state to attract private capital. Developing countries, seeking to strengthen their positions in the structure of the world's mining business, have begun to reform the legislation, which aims to attract foreign investors to the mining sector of the economy of these countries. Recommendations on the use of accumulated world experience for improvement of Russian legislation are given.