The paper demonstrates the role of mineral tax in the overall sum of tax revenues in the budget. Problems of tax computation and payment have been reviewed; taxpayers and taxation basis of the amount of extracted minerals have been clearly defined. Issues of rental content of natural resource taxes are reviewed, as well as problems of right definition of the rental component in the process of mineral tax calculation for liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. One of important problems in mineral tax calculation is a conflict between two laws – the Subsoil Law and the Tax Code of Russian Federation (26 th chapter). There is an ambiguity in the mechanism of calculating amounts of extracted mineral resources – from the positions of the Tax Code and the Subsoil Law. The second problem is in the necessity to amend the mineral tax for oil extraction the same way as it has been done for gas extraction, when characteristics of each field are taken into account. This will provide a basis for correct computation of the natural resource rent for liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. The paper offers recommendations for Russian authorities on this issue.
This article is devoted to the analysis of a situation and tendencies of development in the European natural gas market. The evolution of «energetic doctrine» models – from domination of great state monopolies to a competitive energetic doctrine – has been happening for the last 60 years. «The new global energetic doctrine» which includes state and interstate regulation strengthening is being formed now. An aggravation of contradictions in the natural gas market is a manifestation of a new stage in the mixed economy formation – the national state capitalism.
The detailed analysis of quantitative methods of innovation projects’ risk assessment is made, the advantages and limits of several methods are shown. The possibilities of usage of the most modern methods of risk assessment, including real options method and method of multivariate fuzzy analysis, are characterized.
The classifications of risks based on different parameters are considered; the specific risks of innovative projects are sorted out and structured. The approaches to the quantitative assessment of risks are analyzed, their features, contents, advantages and limits are determined. The conditions of appropriate usage of these approaches are considered. The possibilities of hierarchical process analysis method are shown.