When constructing buildings and structures for industrial and civil purposes, it is important to ensure safe working conditions for the tower crane operator and contractors of construction and installation works on the construction site, since these conditions largely determine the performance of the tower crane and the pace of construction in general. Accidents associated with the use of lifting equipment in construction often lead not only to injuries and death within the construction industry, but also affect passers-by who find themselves in the danger zone due to the non- compliance of the construction organization project with the requirements of existing codes of rules containing requirements for labor protection and industrial safety in construction. The article analyzes the causes of accidents in construction that result from the operation of tower cranes, as well as ways to ensure their reliable and safeoperation. The theoretical substantiation and engineering and technical solutions of safety during construction and installation works during the construction of objects due to the improvement of the design of the tower crane cabin and its equipment are offered. The results of theoretical and experimental studies of sensorimotor activity of the operator of the construction machine, which are the basis for engineering solutions developed at the level of inventions of tower cranes cabins of increased visibility and their equipment, are presented.
The article suggests the method for forecast of surface deformation during excavation operations in restraint urban conditions using the slurry trench technique based on FEM simulation. The results of numerical simulation of the construction of a semi-underground structure with slurry trench technique are given. The regularities of the change in the stress-strain state are determined depending on the trench parameters and the physical-mechanical properties of the soils. The work presents the troughs of surface subsidence during the construction of an excavation using the slurry trench technique, the diagrams of bending moments, transverse and longitudinal forces arising in the trench. Numerical experiments in Plaxis 2D and 3D were performed to estimate the discrepancy between modeling results in a plane and volumetric formulation of the problem.
The article deals with issues of necessity of training and development of working staff for construction industry of Russian Federation for creation of competitive construction industry, meeting the high quality and efficiency standards, working in basis of modern financial and economic, technical and management mechanisms. One of the ways to solve this task of innovative development is modernization of architectural and building design, in particular implementation of BIM technology enabling making efficient decisions at all stages of building and structures life cycle – from investment concept till operation and even demolition. In relation to this the industry demands highly qualified workers and engineers (bachelor students) being able not only to get new knowledge but to use them for solving practical tasks of modern construction industry and market. The article present a concept of designing educational programme for training students with major 08.03.01 «Construction» (bachelor degree) focusing on systematized knowledge, skills and tools for training, in particular, through interconnection and continuity during course and diploma papers based on BIM technology.
This article deals with the issues concerning the accidents relevant to the underground pipelines operation. These pipelines transport gas, oil and its derivatives. The statistical analysis results of accidents in underground pipelines operated in Russia, as well as the analysis of the explosion causes in underground pipelines and primarily gasified objects are provided. It is shown that stress corrosion arising as a result of the phenomenon of hydrogenation is the most dangerous for large-diameter gas pipelines. The author proposes the justified and protected by RF patents new engineering solutions for consideration. They are aimed at improving resistance of steel structures against corrosion. Also a method of increasing the hardness, strength and wear resistance of steel parts surfaces by rapid cementation due to saturation of the carbon steel surfaces; a steel alloying method using aluminum to obtain diffusion coatings; and a method of applying a corrosion resistant and stable to acids and alkalis coating on the steel surface are presented. Proposed new technologies are accompanied by an explanation of the physical and chemical processes occurring in steel. The experimental results confirmed the validity of those decisions.
Nondestructive optical methods for measuring of the «thick» films thickness of the order of 0,001-1,00 mm are analyzed. It is shown that using the laser beam radiation and modern optical and electronic schemes possible to decrease the time of single measurement to 1ms and less at the measuring frequency of 10-50 hz. The possibility of measuring thickness and spreading coefficient and evaporation kinetics of liquid films is demonstrated. A new computer method of the data processing aimed to determine the film thickness from the angle dependence of the laser beam reflection coefficient by the film is offered. The offered procedure and the experimental technique realizing it permits to decrease the thickness determination uncertainty to the order of ten.