As a result of the conducted research in assessing the possibility of using carbonaceous waste from the woodworking industry of the Leningrad region for heat energy production, harmonious compositions of energy raw materials and methods of their processing were determined. The most rational, as calculations have shown, is the use of large-tonnage woodworking waste for these purposes. At the same time, the most effective ways of processing raw materials and variants of rational location of woodworking enterprises in the Leningrad region depending on the distance to the consumer and prices for alternative energy carriers were proposed.
A model (algorithm) for constructing rational fuel and energy balances of Russian regions is developed. The research is aimed at ensuring the rational and efficient use of fuel and energy resources of Russia. When building the fuel and energy balance of the region the possibility of using the local fuels is taken into account. This model is built and pre-tested on the example of the Leningrad Region.
The Leningrad Region has very insignificant reserves of the main types of fuel and energy resources, represented mainly by wood, peat, oil shale and uranium, the development of deposits of which is not planned even in the long term for environmental reasons. However, the consistent introduction of new technologies for processing fuel and energy resources, the involvement of local resources in the fuel and energy balance, primarily wood, peat and shale fuels, and the creation on this basis of processing and energy-producing complexes of local type can ensure energy security and change both the economic and demographic situation in the Leningrad region.
The primary results of the research and engineering work of the Department of Technology and Technique of Well Drilling, carried out and completed in 2000, are presented. The main result of drilling long wells in the ice of Antarctica is the development of the project of environmentally safe opening of the subglacial Lake Vostok, a unique natural phenomenon, the complex study of which is of the greatest interest to the world scientific community. A 505 m long well with full core recovery was drilled on the Academy of Sciences glacier (Severnaya Zemlya archipelago) in the framework of the international environmental program PEGAIS. Geophysical measurements were carried out in the well. A new method of tubeless casing and sealing of anomalous intervals using a fusible binding material and a thermal plugging penetrator was developed. Basic theoretical and technological principles of liquidation plugging of hydrogeological wells with the use of economical and environmentally safe cementing mortar based on cheap mineral waste were developed. Effectively conducted research and experimental developments on the combined heat and hydrodynamic effects on low-productive sands to increase oil and gas production wells, clarified the laws of the hydro and foam core. New applied programs for PC were formed, allowing to increase adequacy of data and to expand the field of application in evaluation of regulation and stabilization of circulation and heat exchange processes during well sinking and development.
Permanent accumulation of carbonaceous waste at coal mining and forestry enterprises in volumes comparable to those of primary recovery has a great impact on the environment. Even an environmental disaster can be foreseen in the near future. Large volumes of accumulated carbonaceous waste represent a valuable source of energy. Their effective processing will save large amounts of energy resources - oil, natural gas, coal and shale oil, which are the basis of the fuel and energy balance of Russia, and bring a large income. It is estimated that the annual shortage of refined fuel in the amount of about 10 million tons for the public utilities for the period until 2005 can be closed by the production of briquette fuel using recycled carbonaceous waste - waste from sawing and lumbering and shale deposits in the Leningrad region. Processing of sawmill and logging waste, shale oil into briquette fuel is possible at the cost of modern technologies and equipment, as well as unconventional technological solutions (compression of briquette mixture using uniaxial compression in hydraulic presses or compression "endless wedge" in extrusion presses).