Strengthening the environmental security of any country is directly linked to how the results of scientific and technological progress (STP) are used in the sectors of the national economy and, above all, in the extractive industries and knowledge-intensive production sectors. All this requires a significant increase in both public and private investment. In world practice, there is a positive experience of using the results of STI, which in modern conditions not only determines the level of competitiveness of the national economy, but also contributes to the strengthening of environmental security. Similar experience should be fully used by the Russian state. A comparative analysis of the economies of the fifteen largest world trading powers has shown that innovation and innovation are one of the main sources of competitive power on the world stage. Insensitivity of the Russian economy to innovation is one of the causes of technological and economic lag. In recent years the ecological factor has become important in ensuring the international competitiveness of goods. The combination of stricter environmental standards and fiercer competition on the global market makes it necessary to use the principles of pollution prevention in conjunction with environmental self-monitoring in the development of new products.