The author studied different technogenic massifs of various geneses containing sulphide sulphur and the research results have shown that under the influence of natural and man-caused factors mineral waste is subjected to weathering processes and transformation into new crystalchemical phases, which facilitates dispersion of toxic elements and their migration with ground waters. Studies help to establish that acid rock drainage formation and migration of pollutants is determined by physical and chemical metamorphization processes in infiltration waters. Ecological hazards from sulphide-bearing rock massifs are most adequately estimated with application of the acid indexing express-method.
The study presented in this article was conducted in the area of Monchegorsk and was aimed at determining the mechanisms and assessing the degree of environmental disturbance and pollution in the process of production activities of the Severonickel Plant. The results of the study of the degree of transformation and the probability of migration of polluting components from waste at the open solid waste storage site due to hypergenic processes are presented. The high acid potential of solid waste is proved, which at relatively small volumes of infiltration water causes significant damage to surface waters due to the global problem. Damaged waters are the only source of drinking water supply in the area of Monchegorsk. The paper also proposes a system of monitoring and assessment of the state of soil and vegetation cover in forest ecosystems impacted by the Severonickel Plant.
The results of the analysis of the environmental situation in coal-mining regions based on the assessment of the environmental capacity of the natural environment and its exhaustiveness are presented. The limiting level of coal mining within a typical administrative district in terms of area and population, providing environmental stability under the current normative indicators and applied methods and means of engineering environmental protection, is determined. A set of tasks, the solution of which at the level of the federal center by executive and legislative authorities of a particular sub-unit of the federation, or directly by the economic entities themselves will lead to a reduction in the negative impact of the coal mining industry on the environment and the health of the population of the region, is proposed.
The conducted studies prove the necessity to increase the hazard class of waste from the pyrometallurgical processing of Severonickel enterprise due to erosion and hypergenic processes, which cause water pollution with toxic metals and sharp decrease in pH level. Formation of acidic waters leads to transformation of the composition of cover sediments, surface and ground waters, as well as to increase of migration ability of polluting elements. Criterion dependences of transformation of mineral and chemical composition of mining and metallurgical wastes are established. The ways to reduce the technogenic load on the soil and vegetation cover and natural waters in the acidification zones are proposed: construction of a geochemical barrier for old, already stockpiled waste and change of the enterprise technology at the stage of slag formation and transportation.
The main sources of acidic water formation are industrial effluents, slag dump effluents and gas emissions containing nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide. Taking into account hypergenic and erosion processes, it is necessary to increase the hazard class of these wastes. The results of laboratory analyses of waste samples causing negative acid impact are presented.
The technogenic load of the mining and processing industry enterprise causing pollution of water resources is assessed. The analysis of samples taken at the technogenic massif on a scanning electron microscope, as well as laboratory analysis according to the European standard using an atomic absorption spectrometer, which allowed to determine the processes of formation of halos and flows of pollution, the intensity of the technogenic load in the area of sulfide waste storage was carried out. A methodology for assessing the environmental hazard of technogenic massifs was created and a method of economically feasible and safe waste storage was developed.
The technogenic load of enterprises of mining and mining and processing industries causing pollution of land and water resources and atmospheric air is assessed. Mining enterprises account for up to 80 percent of the volume of stockpiled wastes of all production complexes. Development of methods to assess the risk of impact of technogenic arrays on the environment is a very urgent problem, since it allows preventing or reducing the negative impact of technogenic arrays by targeted selection of the type and design of storage facilities for projected and existing enterprises, development of a set of measures to improve and rehabilitate disturbed lands. The analysis of landscape-geochemical situation formed under the influence of intensive technogenic load in the areas of waste storing was carried out, the processes of formation of halos and pollution flows were studied; the method of ecological hazard assessment of technogenic massifs was created, the method of economically expedient and safe storing of waste was developed.