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Vol 250

Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-06-10
  • Date accepted
    2021-07-27
  • Date published
    2021-09-29

Defects of diamond crystal structure as an indicator of crystallogenesis

Based on the study of a representative collections of diamonds from diamondiferous formations of the Urals and deposits of the Arkhangelsk and Yakutian diamond provinces, we established patterns of zonal and sectoral distribution of crystal structure defects in crystals of different morphological types, identified the specifics of crystals formed at different stages of crystallogenesis and performed a comprehensive analysis of constitutional and population diversity of diamonds in different formations. We identified three stages in the crystallogenesis cycle, which correspond to normal and tangential mechanisms of growth and the stage of changing crystal habit shape. At the stage of changing crystal habit shape, insufficient carbon supersaturation obstructs normal growth mechanism, and the facets develop from existing surfaces. Due to the absent stage of growth layer nucleation, formation of new {111} surfaces occurs much faster compared to tangential growth mechanism. This effect allows to explain the absence of cuboids with highly transformed nitrogen defects at the A-B 1 stage: they have all been refaceted by a regenerative mechanism. Based on the revealed patterns, a model of diamond crystallogenesis was developed, which takes into account the regularities of growth evolution, thermal history and morphological diversity of the crystals. The model implies the possibility of a multiply repetitive crystallization cycle and the existence of an intermediate chamber; it allows to explain the sequence of changes in morphology and defect-impurity composition of crystals, as well as a combination of constitutional and population diversity of diamonds from different geological formations.

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Evgeny A. Vasilev (2021) Defects of diamond crystal structure as an indicator of crystallogenesis. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 250. p. 481-491. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.4.1
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-28
  • Date accepted
    2021-07-27
  • Date published
    2021-09-29

On the applicability of electromagnetic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing

The purpose of this work is to assess the possibilities of using electromagnetic monitoring to study the development of a fracture system generated by hydraulic fracturing (HF) with a specified position of the controlled source. The option with the source (a vertical electric dipole) located in the interval of the oil-bearing formation and ground-based measurements was chosen as the most promising monitoring plan. We have built a geoelectric model equivalent to the system of hydraulic fractures, divided into 11 zones corresponding to HF stages. For the selected model, mathematical simulation was performed by solving the direct problem considering the impact of the steel casing, the presence of which reduced the effect. Despite this fact, no strong distortion of electromagnetic field anomaly was observed above the HF zone. Analysis of the simulation results at different HF stages showed that as new hydraulic fractures appeared and were filled with electrically conductive proppant, the total effect increased. The data on electric field anomaly demonstrated maximum deviation from the background level of more than 2 %. Provided that the studied formation is characterized by sufficient electrical conductivity, its magnetic field also becomes informative.

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Gleb S. Grigorev, Mikhail V. Salishchev, Natalia P. Senchina (2021) On the applicability of electromagnetic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 250. p. 492-500. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.4.2
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-03-16
  • Date accepted
    2021-07-27
  • Date published
    2021-09-29

Allocation of a deep-lying brine aquifer in the rocks of a chemogenic section based on the data of geophysical well logging and 2D seismic exploration

Advancement in the production of potassium fertilizers is an important strategic task of Russian agricultural industry. Given annually growing production rates, the reserves of discovered potassium-magnesium salt deposits are noticeably decreasing, which creates the need to ensure stable replenishment of the resource base through both the discovery of new deposits and the exploitation of deep-lying production horizons of the deposits that are already under development. In most cases, deposits of potassium-magnesium salts are developed by underground mining. The main problem for any salt deposit is water. Dry salt workings do not require any additional reinforcement and can easily withstand rock pressure, but with an inflow of water they begin to collapse intensively – hence, special attention is paid to mine waterproofing. Determination of spatial location, physical and mechanical properties of the aquifer and water-blocking stratum in the geological section represent an important stage in the exploration of a salt deposit. The results of these studies allow to validate an optimal system of deposit development that will minimize environmental and economic risks. On the territory of Russia, there is a deposit of potassium-magnesium salts with a unique geological structure – its production horizon lies at a considerable depth and is capped by a regional aquifer, which imposes significant limitations on the development process. To estimate parameters of the studied object, we analyzed the data from CDP seismic reflection survey and a suite of methods of radioactive and acoustic well logging, supplemented with high-frequency induction logging isoparametric sounding (VIKIZ) data. As a result of performed analysis, we identified location of the water-bearing stratum, estimated average thickness of the aquifers and possible water-blocking strata. Based on research results, we proposed methods for increasing operational reliability of the main shaft in the designed mine that will minimize the risks of water breakthrough into the mine shaft.

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Natalia A. Danileva, Sergei M. Danilev, Natalia V. Bolshakova (2021) Allocation of a deep-lying brine aquifer in the rocks of a chemogenic section based on the data of geophysical well logging and 2D seismic exploration. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 250. p. 501-511. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.4.3
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2021-01-19
  • Date accepted
    2021-07-27
  • Date published
    2021-09-29

Geological and structural characteristics of deep-level rock mass of the Udachnaya pipe deposit

For hard rock massifs, structural disturbance is a key indicator of mining structure stability. The presence of intersecting structural elements in the massif reduces rock strength and leads to formation of potential collapse structures. In addition to that, disjunctive deformations that penetrate rock strata serve as channels for fluid migration and connect aquifers into a single system. It was established that the largest of them –faults of east-northeastern, northeastern and northwestern directions – form the kimberlite-bearing junction of the Udachnaya pipe. These faults represent zones of increased fracturing, brecciation and tectonic foliation, distinguished from adjacent areas by increased destruction of the rock mass. Specifics of tectonic fracture distribution within structural and lithological domains are determined by the presence of multidirectional prevailing systems of tectonic fracturing, as well as by differences in their quantitative characteristics. With some exceptions, the main systems form a diagonal network of fractures (northeastern – northwestern orientation), which is typical for larger structural forms – faults. Despite the differences in dip orientation of the systems, most of them correspond to identified directions, which is typical for both kimberlites and sedimentary strata. Overall disturbance of the massif, expressed in terms of elementary block volume, reaches its peak in the western ore body. For such type of deposits, friction properties of fracture structures have average values. Consideration of geological and structural data in the design and development of new levels of the deposit will allow to maintain the necessary balance between efficiency and safety of performed operations.

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Evgenii V. Serebryakov, Andrei S. Gladkov (2021) Geological and structural characteristics of deep-level rock mass of the Udachnaya pipe deposit. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 250. p. 512-525. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.4.4
Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2021-04-15
  • Date accepted
    2021-07-27
  • Date published
    2021-09-29

Analysis of the application and impact of carbon dioxide media on the corrosion state of oil and gas facilities

Products of several currently operated production facilities (Bovanenkovskoye, Urengoyskoye oil and gas condensate fields, etc.) contain an increased amount of corrosive CO 2 . Effect of CO 2 on the corrosion of steel infrastructure facilities is determined by the conditions of its use. Carbon dioxide has a potentially wide range of applications at oil and gas facilities for solving technological problems (during production, transportation, storage, etc.). Each of the aggregate states of CO 2 (gas, liquid and supercritical) is used and affects the corrosion state of oil and gas facilities. Article analyzes the results of simulation tests and evaluates the corrosion effect of CO 2 on typical steels (carbon, low-alloy and alloyed) used at field facilities. The main factors influencing the intensity of carbonic acid corrosion processes in the main conditions of hydrocarbon production with CO 2 , storage and its use for various technological purposes are revealed. Development of carbon dioxide corrosion is accompanied and characterized by the localization of corrosion and the formation of defects (pitting, pits, etc.). Even alloyed steels are not always resistant in the presence of moisture and increased partial pressures of CO 2 , especially in the presence of additional factors of corrosive influence (temperature, aggressive impurities in gas, etc.).

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Rafael R. Kantyukov, Dmitry N. Zapevalov, Ruslan K. Vagapov (2021) Analysis of the application and impact of carbon dioxide media on the corrosion state of oil and gas facilities. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 250. p. 578-856. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.4.11
Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2021-02-09
  • Date accepted
    2021-07-27
  • Date published
    2021-09-29

Development of an algorithm for determining the technological parameters of acid composition injection during treatment of the near-bottomhole zone, taking into account economic efficiency

Relevance of the research is due to the low proportion of successful hydrochloric acid treatments of near-bottomhole zones of carbonate reservoirs in the Perm region caused by insufficiently careful design and implementation of measures to stimulate oil production. Within the framework of this article, the development of a program is presented, which is based on an algorithm that allows determining the volume and rate of injection for an acid composition into a productive formation corresponding to the maximum economic efficiency during hydrochloric acid treatment. Essence of the proposed algorithm is to find the greatest profit from measures to increase oil recovery, depending on the cost of its implementation and income from additionally produced oil. Operation of the algorithm is carried out on the principle of enumerating the values ​​of the volume and rate of injection for the acid composition and their fixation when the maximum difference between income and costs, corresponding to the given technological parameters of injection, is reached. The methodology is based on Dupuis's investigations on the filtration of fluids in the formation and the results of the experiments by Duckord and Lenormand on the study of changes in the additional filtration resistance in the near-well zone of the formation when it is treated with an acid composition. When analyzing and including these investigations into the algorithm, it is noted that the developed technique takes into account a large number of factors, including the lithological and mineralogical composition of rocks, technological parameters of the injection of a working agent and its properties, well design, filtration properties of the formation, properties of well products. The article provides an algorithm that can be implemented without difficulty using any programming language, for example, Pascal. Selection of the optimal values ​​for the volume and rate of injection is presented in this paper, using the example of a production well at the Chaikinskoye oil field, located within the Perm region. Introduction of the developed algorithm into the practice of petroleum engineering will allow competent and effective approach to the design of hydrochloric acid treatments in carbonate reservoirs without a significant investment of time and additional funds.

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Sergey N. Krivoshchekov, Aleksander A. Kochnev, Kirill A. Ravelev (2021) Development of an algorithm for determining the technological parameters of acid composition injection during treatment of the near-bottomhole zone, taking into account economic efficiency. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 250. p. 587-595. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.4.12
Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2021-03-11
  • Date accepted
    2021-07-27
  • Date published
    2021-09-29

Justification of a comprehensive technology for preventing the formation of asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits during the production of highlyparaffinic oil by electric submersible pumps from multiformation deposits

Severe problems accompany the production of abnormal oils with high pour point (with a paraffin content of over 30% by weight) in Kraynego Severa, Russia, due to the intensive formation of asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits (ARPD) in the bottom hole zone of the productive formation and downhole equipment. Possessing many advantages, the existing methods and technologies for coping with ARPD cannot fully solve this problem. As a result, complications arising from the production of high-wax oils lead to a significant decrease in oil production, a reduction in the production wells' maintenance and intertreatment periods, and an increase in dewaxing unit operating costs. The obtained results of theoretical and laboratory studies show that one of the promising approaches to improve the efficiency of wells equipped with electric submersible pumps when exploitation of abnormal oils with high pour point from multilayer deposits of the Timan-Pechora oil and gas province is the use of the new integrated technology based on the joint production of abnormal oil with high pour point with the oil, characterized by a lower wax content and the manifestation of structural and mechanical properties, in conjunction with regulating the parameters of the electric submersible pump. In this paper, the authors also describe a promising scheme of downhole equipment for the simultaneous-separate production of high-wax oil from multilayer deposits. The proposed downhole equipment allows us to separate the perforation zones of two productive formations using a packer-anchor system during simultaneous-separate exploitation of the formations by a double electric submersible pump installation.

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Mikhail K. Rogachev, Aleksandr N. Aleksandrov (2021) Justification of a comprehensive technology for preventing the formation of asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits during the production of highlyparaffinic oil by electric submersible pumps from multiformation deposits. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 250. p. 596-605. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.4.13
Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2021-04-26
  • Date accepted
    2021-07-27
  • Date published
    2021-09-29

Study of the dynamics for gas accumulation in the annulus of production wells

Accumulation of associated petroleum gas in the annulus is one of the negative factors that impede the intensification of mechanized oil production. An increase in annular gas pressure causes growth of bottomhole pressure, a decrease in back pressure to the formation and the inflow of formation fluid. In addition, accumulation of gas in the annulus leads to displacement and a decrease in the liquid level above the submersible pump. Insufficient level of the pump submersion (rod or electric submersible) causes a number of complications in the operation of mechanized production units associated with overheating of the elements in pumping units. Therefore, the development of technologies for optimizing the gas pressure in the annulus is relevant. Method for calculating the intensity of gas pressure increase in the annulus of production wells operated by submersible pumps has been developed. Analytical dependence for calculating the time interval of gas accumulation in the annulus, during which the dynamic level decreases to the pump intake, is obtained. This value can be used to estimate the frequency of gas withdrawal from the annulus using compressors. It has been found that the rate of increase in annular gas pressure in time increases non-linearly with a rise in the gas-oil ratio and a decrease in water cut, and also linearly increases with a rise in liquid flow rate. Influence of the operating (gas-oil ratio) and technological (value of the gas pressure maintained in the annulus) factors on the flow rate of the suspended reciprocating compressor driven by the beam engine, designed for forced withdrawal and redirection of the annular gas into the flow line of the well is analyzed.

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Kamil R. Urazakov, Viktor V. Belozerov, Bulat M. Latypov (2021) Study of the dynamics for gas accumulation in the annulus of production wells. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 250. p. 606-614. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.4.14
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2020-10-26
  • Date accepted
    2021-07-28
  • Date published
    2021-09-29

Investigation of the influence of the geodynamic position of coal-bearing dumps on their endogenous fire hazard

The paper investigates the hypothesis according to which one of the factors influencing the spontaneous combustion of coal-bearing dumps is its geodynamic position, i.e. its location in the geodynamically dangerous zone (GDZ) at the boundary of the Earth crust blocks. This hypothesis is put forward on the basis of scientific ideas about the block structure of the Earth crust and the available statistical data on the location of burning dumps and is studied using computer modeling. A dump located in the area of Eastern Donbass was chosen as the object of research. The simulation results show that the penetration of air into the dump body from the mine through the GDZ, which crosses the mining zone, is possible at an excess pressure of 1000 Pa created by the main ventilation fans. The fire source appearance in the dump body causes an increase in the temperature of the dump mass and becomes a kind of trigger that "turns on" the aerodynamic connection between the dump and the environment, carried out through the GDZ. It is concluded that the establishment of an aerodynamic connection between the mine workings and the dump through the GDZ can be an important factor contributing to the endogenous fire hazard of coal-bearing dumps. The simulation results can be used in the development of projects for monitoring coal-bearing dumps and measures to combat their spontaneous combustion.

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Andrian S. Batugin, Aleksandr S. Kobylkin, Valerija R. Musina (2021) Investigation of the influence of the geodynamic position of coal-bearing dumps on their endogenous fire hazard. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 250. p. 526-533. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.4.5
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2021-06-15
  • Date accepted
    2021-08-27
  • Date published
    2021-09-29

Prospects for the use of modern technological solutions in the flat-lying coal seams development, taking into account the danger of the formation of the places of its spontaneous combustion

Spontaneous combustion of coal remains an important problem for coal mines, which can lead to an explosion of methane and coal dust. Accidents associated with spontaneous combustion of coal can cause significant economic losses to coal mining companies, as well as entail social damage – injuries and loss of life. Accidents are known at the Kuzbass mines, which occurred as a result of negligent attitude to the danger of spontaneous combustion of coal, the victims of which were dozens of people. The analysis of emergency situations associated with spontaneous combustion of coal shows that the existing wide range of means of preventing endogenous fires does not provide complete safety when working out coal seams prone to spontaneous combustion, therefore, spontaneous combustion places continue to occur in mines. The consequences that may arise as a result of a methane explosion initiated by a self-ignition place indicate the need to improve the used technologies. The purpose of the work is to determine the impact of modern technological solutions used in functioning mines during underground mining of flat-lying coal seams prone to spontaneous combustion, and to develop new solutions that reduce endogenous fire hazard. Conclusions on the influence of leaving coal pillars in the developed space, isolated air removal from the stoping face through the developed space, the length of the stoping face and the excavation pillar, and other factors on the danger of the formation of spontaneous combustion places are presented. Conclusions about the possibility of using modern technological solutions in future are also drawn.

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Vladimir P. Zubov; Dmitrii D. Golubev (2021) Prospects for the use of modern technological solutions in the flat-lying coal seams development, taking into account the danger of the formation of the places of its spontaneous combustion. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 250. p. 534-541. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.4.6
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2021-03-31
  • Date accepted
    2021-09-29
  • Date published
    2021-09-29

Methodology of modeling nonlinear geomechanical processes in blocky and layered rock masses on models made of equivalent materials

The research purpose is to develop a methodology that increases the reliability of reproduction and research on models made of equivalent materials of complex nonlinear processes of deformation and destruction of structured rock masses under the influence of underground mining operations to provide a more accurate prediction of the occurrence of dangerous phenomena and assessment of their consequences. New approaches to similarity criterion based on the fundamental laws of thermodynamics; new types of equivalent materials that meet these criteria; systems for the formation of various initial and boundary conditions regulated by specially developed computer programs; new technical means for more reliable determination of stresses in models; new methods for solving inverse geomechanical problems in the absence of the necessary initial field data have been developed. Using the developed methodology, a number of complex nonlinear problems have been solved related to estimates of the oscillatory nature of changes in the bearing pressure during dynamic roof collapse processes; ranges of changes in the frequency of processes during deformation and destruction of rock mass elements, ranges of changes in their accelerations; parameters of shifts with a violation of the continuity of the rock mass under the influence of mining: secant cracks, delaminations, gaping voids, accounting for which is necessary to assess the danger of the formation of continuous water supply canals in the water-protection layer.

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Boris Yu. Zuev (2021) Methodology of modeling nonlinear geomechanical processes in blocky and layered rock masses on models made of equivalent materials. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 250. p. 542-552. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.4.7
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2021-06-01
  • Date accepted
    2021-07-27
  • Date published
    2021-09-29

Indicator assessment of the reliability of mine ventilation and degassing systems functioning

The gas emission control in the mines is operated by ventilation and degassing systems that ensure the aerological safety of the mines or minimize the aerological risks. The ventilation system of the mine and its individual sites includes a significant number of technical devices and equipment, and the air tubes are mainly mining workings, the condition of which determines the quality of the ventilation network (its capacity) and depends on a number of mining factors. Similarly, one of the most important elements of the degassing system, which includes its own chain of technological equipment, are wells, and in some cases, mining workings. Thus, mine ventilation and degassing systems cannot be attributed to purely technical systems, since they include mining elements characterized by high variability of the determining parameters. To assess their reliability, it is necessary to use various combined methods that include additional characteristics in relation to the mining component. At the same time, the reliability of technical devices that ensure the functioning of mine ventilation and degassing systems largely determines the efficiency (stability and reliability) of these systems and, consequently, affects the level of aerological risks. The described approach to assessing the reliability of ventilation and degassing systems of coal mines when analyzing aerological risks is based on the developed system of risk indicators for the methane factor and will allow determining the risk dynamics in automatic mode based on monitoring the parameters of the ventilation and degassing system state.

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Nina O. Kaledina, Valentina A. Malashkina (2021) Indicator assessment of the reliability of mine ventilation and degassing systems functioning. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 250. p. 553-561. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.4.8
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2020-12-16
  • Date accepted
    2021-07-27
  • Date published
    2021-09-29

Features of the thermal regime formation in the downcast shafts in the cold period of the year

In the cold period of the year, to ensure the required thermal regime in underground mine workings, the air supplied to the mine is heated using air handling systems. In future, the thermodynamic state of the prepared air flow when it is lowered along the mine shaft changes due to the influence of a number of factors. At the same time, the processes of heat and mass exchange between the incoming air and its environment are of particular interest. These processes directly depend on the initial parameters of the heated air, the downcast shaft depth and the presence of water flows into the mine shaft. Based on the obtained experimental data and theoretical studies, the analysis of the influence of various heat and mass transfer factors on the formation of microclimatic parameters of air in the downcast shafts of the Norilsk industrial district mines is carried out. It is shown that in the presence of external water flows from the flooded rocks behind the shaft lining, the microclimatic parameters of the air in the shaft are determined by the heat transfer from the incoming air flow to the underground water flowing down the downcast shaft lining. The research results made it possible to describe and explain the effect of lowering the air temperature entering the underground workings of deep mines

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Artem V. Zaitsev, Mikhail A. Semin, Oleg S. Parshakov (2021) Features of the thermal regime formation in the downcast shafts in the cold period of the year. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 250. p. 562-568. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.4.9
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2021-03-30
  • Date accepted
    2021-07-27
  • Date published
    2021-09-29

Integrated development of iron ore deposits based on competitive underground geotechnologies

The article presents an analytical review of the current state of the iron ore base of the ferrous metallurgy of Russia and the world, identifies the largest iron ore provinces and iron ore producers. The promising directions of development and improvement of the quality of the iron ore base of Russia and the features of the development of new deposits of rich iron ores are identified. Effective technologies for the development of rich iron ores deposits that ensure an increase in production volumes are proposed. The geomechanical justification of rational technological parameters that are easily adapted to changes in mining and geological conditions has been performed. Based on the results of field studies, the use of an elastic-plastic model with the Coulomb – Mohr strength criterion for modeling changes in the stress-strain state of an ore rock mass during mining operations is justified and recommendations for ensuring the stability of mine workings are developed. Effective engineering and technical solutions for the complex development and deep processing of rich iron ores with the production of fractionated sinter ore, which increases the efficiency of metallurgical processes, the production of high-grade iron oxide pigments and iron ore briquettes, which increase the competitiveness of iron ore companies and the full use of the resource potential of deposits, are presented.

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Vladimir L. Trushko, Olga V. Trushko (2021) Integrated development of iron ore deposits based on competitive underground geotechnologies. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 250. p. 569-577. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.4.10