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Vol 249

Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2021-01-20
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-29
  • Date published
    2021-09-20

Analysis of the causes of engineering structures deformations at gas industry facilities in the permafrost zone

Construction of oil and gas infrastructure facilities on permafrost soils is the most important task of increasing the raw material base of the entire fuel and energy industry in Russia. Permafrost soil is a complex, multicomponent system, state of which depends on many factors. Buildings and structures built under such conditions, on the one hand, have a complex thermal effect on permafrost soils, and on the other hand, they perceive the consequences of changes in the characteristics of such soils. This situation leads to the fact that buildings and structures on permafrost soil during their life cycle are subject to complex and poorly predictable deformations. Article presents the results of a study for various degradation processes of permafrost soils that can be implemented at construction sites of industrial facilities. Analysis of the deformations causes for engineering structures at the gas industry in the permafrost zone is carried out. Series of reasons causing such deformations have been investigated. Comprehensive criterion for assessing changes in permafrost-geological conditions of industrial sites is proposed. It is suggested to apply the method of calculating the individual characteristics for the temperature regime of the territory to monitor and assess the conditions of heat exchange and predict changes in the geocryological conditions of permafrost soil.

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Gennadii G. Vasiliev, Anton A. Dzhaljabov, Igor A. Leonovich (2021) Analysis of the causes of engineering structures deformations at gas industry facilities in the permafrost zone. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 249. p. 377-385. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.3.6
Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2020-09-09
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-29
  • Date published
    2021-09-20

Developing features of the near-bottomhole zones in productive formations at fields with high gas saturation of formation oil

The article studies the formation features of the bottomhole zones in productive formations during operation of production wells in the north of the Perm Territory. Their distinctive feature is the high gas saturation of formation oil. The most widely used parameter in Russian and world practice – the skin factor was used as a criterion characterizing the state of the bottomhole zone. Analysis of scientific publications has shown that one of the main problems of applying the skin factor to assess the state of bottomhole zones is the ambiguity of interpretations of its physical meaning and the impossibility of identifying the prevailing factors that form its value. The paper proposes an approach to identifying such factors in the conditions of the fields under consideration, based on multivariate correlation-regression analysis. Choice of this tool is due to the complexity of the processes occurring in the “formation – bottomhole zone – well” system. When describing complex multifactorial processes, the chosen method demonstrates a high degree of reliability. For a large number of wells in the region, significant material was collected and summarized, including the results of determining the skin factor (1102 values) during hydrodynamic investigations, as well as data on the values ​​of various geological and technological indicators, which can probably be statistically related to the value of the skin factor. A series of multidimensional mathematical models has been built; the skin factor was used as a predicted parameter, and data on the values ​​of geological and technological indicators were used as independent indicators. Analysis of the constructed models is a key stage of this study. Set of parameters included in the multidimensional models, sequence of their inclusion and contribution to the total value of the achieved determination coefficient as the main indicator for the performance of the constructed models were studied. It has been established that the main factor influencing the state of the bottomhole zone is oil degassing. Significant differences in the formation features of the skin factor in the terrigenous and carbonate sediments at the fields under consideration have been determined.

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Vladislav I. Galkin, Dmitry A. Martyushev, Inna N. Ponomareva, Irina A. Chernykh (2021) Developing features of the near-bottomhole zones in productive formations at fields with high gas saturation of formation oil. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 249. p. 386-392. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.3.7
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2020-07-04
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-29
  • Date published
    2021-09-20

Transition between relieved and unrelieved modes when cutting rocks with conical picks

In the modern theory of rock cutting in production conditions, it is customary to distinguish two large classes of achievable cutting modes – relieved and unrelieved. The kinematics of rock-breaking machines in most cases determines the operation of the cutting tool in both modes in one cycle of the cutting tool. The currently available calculation methods have been developed for a stable, usually unrelieved cutting mode. In this article, the task is set to determine the conditions for the transition between cutting modes and the modernization of the calculation method for determining the forces on the cutting tool. The problem is solved by applying methods of algebraic analysis based on the search for the extremum of the force function on the cutter, depending on the ratio of the real cut spacing to the optimal spacing for the current chip thickness. As a result of solving the problem, an expression is obtained for determining the chip thickness, for which, at the specified parameters, the transition between the relieved and unrelieved cutting modes is provided. The obtained result made it possible to improve the method of calculating the forces on the cutting tool in the areas of the cutter movement with relieved cutting.

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Evgenii A. Averin, Aleksandr B. Zhabin, Andrey V. Polyakov, Yurii N. Linnik, Vladimir Yu. Linnik (2021) Transition between relieved and unrelieved modes when cutting rocks with conical picks. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 249. p. 329-333. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.3.1
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2020-06-16
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-29
  • Date published
    2021-09-20

Empirical regularities investigation of rock mass discharge by explosion on the free surface of a pit bench

Minimizing the discharge of blasted rock mass into the developed space of the pit is a very relevant area for study, as it allows to increase the processability of work and reduce the cost of mining. The article presents the results of experimental industrial explosions, during which the study of this issue was conducted. The main purpose of the work was to establish the key factors affecting the volume of rock mass discharge to the pit haulage berm. During the analysis of the world experience of research on this topic, the key factors affecting the formation of collapse and discharge – natural and technological – are identified. The method of conducting experiments and collecting data for analyzing the influence of technological parameters of location, charging and initiation of wells on the volume of rock mass discharge is described. It is established that the main discharge to the pit haulage berm is formed by the volume of rock mass limited by the prism of the slope angle. With a sufficient rock mass displacement from the edge of the bench crest towards the center of the block, only the wells of the 1st and 2nd rows participate in the discharge formation. Empirical dependences of the total volume of rock mass discharge on the length of the block along the bench crest, the specific consumption of explosives, the size of a rock piece P 50 and the rate of rock breaking are obtained. The obtained results can be used to design the parameters of the drilling and blasting operations (DBO), as well as to predict and evaluate the possible consequences of a mass explosion in similar mining and geological conditions.

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Igor A. Alenichev, Ruslan A. Rakhmanov (2021) Empirical regularities investigation of rock mass discharge by explosion on the free surface of a pit bench. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 249. p. 334-341. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.3.2
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2021-01-18
  • Date accepted
    2021-05-21
  • Date published
    2021-09-20

Improving the efficiency of the technology and organization of the longwall face move during the intensive flat-lying coal seams mining at the Kuzbass mines

The reasons for the lag of the indicators of the leading Russian coal mines engaged in the longwall mining of the flat-lying coal seams from similar foreign mines are considered. The analysis of the efficiency of the longwall face move operations at the JSC SUEK-Kuzbass mines was carried out. A significant excess of the planned deadlines for the longwall face move during the thick flat-lying seams mining, the reasons for the low efficiency of disassembling operations and the main directions for improving the technology of disassembling operations are revealed. The directions of ensuring the operational condition of the recovery room formed by the longwall face are considered. The recommended scheme of converged coal seams mining and a three-dimensional model of a rock mass to justify its parameters are presented. Numerical studies using the finite element method are performed. The results of modeling the stress-strain state of a rock mass in the vicinity of a recovery room formed under conditions of increased stresses from the boundary part of a previously mined overlying seam are shown. The main factors determining the possibility of ensuring the operational condition of the recovery rooms are established. It is shown that it is necessary to take into account the influence of the increased stresses zone when choosing timbering standards and organizing disassembling operations at a interbed thickness of 60 m or less. A sufficient distance from the gob of above- or undermined seams was determined to ensure the operational condition of the recovery room of 50 m, for the set-up room – 30 m. Recommendations are given for improving technology and organization of the longwall face move operations at the mines applied longwall mining of flat-lying coal seams with the formation of a recovery room by the longwall face.

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Аndrey A. Meshkov, Oleg I. Kazanin, Andrey A. Sidorenko (2021) Improving the efficiency of the technology and organization of the longwall face move during the intensive flat-lying coal seams mining at the Kuzbass mines. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 249. p. 342-350. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.3.3
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2021-02-20
  • Date accepted
    2021-05-21
  • Date published
    2021-09-20

Analysis of the screw press mouthpiece parameters for 3D extrusion of peat pieces of tubular type

The results of theoretical and experimental studies on the creation of a screw press composite mouthpiece screw press for 3D-forming of peat pieces of a tubular type in the field for intensifying the process of field drying of material in a complex mechanized pit are presented. The main purpose of the study was to substantiate the geometric and design parameters of the screw press composite mouthpiece of the spread machine for the production of peat-agglomerated products of the tubular type. The parameters of the mouthpiece are selected based on the geometric characteristics of the peat pieces. An increase in moisture loss during drying of peat-agglomerated products is provided by forming a peat piece in the form of a thick-walled pipe made of a peat raw materials composed of low and high decomposition degrees in a ratio of 1:3. Additive production of polymer-fiber peat composites by extrusion allows to produce products with improved mechanical properties in comparison with non-reinforced raw materials. The vertical arrangement of the peat tubular piece on the drying field allows to increase the loading of the field area by 10 %, increase the convective heat supply to the piece and reduce the contact coefficient of the piece with the field by three times in comparison with the peat spreading of the pieces in the form of a horizontal tape. Based on the analysis of the shape and size of the agglomerated products, the design of a screw press composite mouthpiece consisting of two conditional molding zones of various configurations has been developed. The article presents a parametric analysis of the volumetric productivity of a screw press with a composite mouthpiece of a tubular type, the energy intensity of mechanical processing is determined, the degree of mechanical processing of peat raw materials is estimated with the optimization of the screw parameters for the production of agglomerated products of a tubular type.

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Aleksandr V. Mikhailov, Aleksandr S. Fedorov (2021) Analysis of the screw press mouthpiece parameters for 3D extrusion of peat pieces of tubular type. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 249. p. 351-365. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.3.4
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2020-06-02
  • Date accepted
    2021-05-21
  • Date published
    2021-09-20

Analysis of technological schemes for creating a geodetic control at the industrial site

The article highlights the issues of creating with the necessary accuracy a planned control on the industrial site of the engineering structures under construction using satellite technologies and total stations. Depending on the design features of the engineering structures under construction, as well as the technological scheme for the installation of building constructions and industrial equipment, various schemes for creating such control are considered, based on the application of the inverse linear-angular notch. Errors in the source data are one of the main errors that affect the accuracy of geodetic constructions, including the solution of the inverse linear-angular notch. When creating a geodetic network in several stages, the errors of the initial data of the first stage affect the values of the root-mean-square errors (RMS) of determining the position of the second stage points, the errors of which affect the value of the RMS of the position of the third stage points, etc. The reason for their occurrence is the errors of geodetic measurements that occur at each stage of control creating, as well as the stability violation of the points during the production of excavation, construction and installation works. When determining the coordinates of a separate project point at the stage of its removal in-situ by a total station, the entire network is not equalized in the vast majority of cases, and the coordinates of the starting points to which the total station is oriented are considered error-free. As a result, the RMS determination of the points coordinates of the control network or the removal of the design points of the elements of building structures and equipment will also be considered satisfying the requirements, i.e. the measurement accuracy will be artificially overestimated and will not correspond to the actual one obtained. This is due to the fact that the accumulation of errors in the initial data is not taken into account when the number of steps (stages) of control creating increases. The purpose of this work is to analyze the influence of measurement errors and initial data when creating a geodetic control on an industrial site by several stages of its construction based on inverse linear-angular notches and a priori estimation of the accuracy of the determined points position.

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Georgii A. Ustavich, Anatolii G. Nevolin, Vladimir A. Padve, Valerii G. Salnikov, Anton V. Nikonov (2021) Analysis of technological schemes for creating a geodetic control at the industrial site. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 249. p. 366-376. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.3.5
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2021-03-10
  • Date accepted
    2021-05-21
  • Date published
    2021-09-20

Influence of heat treatment on the microstructure of steel coils of a heating tube furnace

Transportation and refining of heavy metal-bearing oil are associated with the problems of localized destruction of metal structures and elements due to corrosion. In the process of equipment operation, it was revealed that premature failure of steel coils of heating tube furnaces at oil refineries and petrochemical plants was associated with insufficient strength and corrosion resistance of the steelwork. The study of the effect that structure and phase composition of 15KH5M-alloy steel elements of heating furnaces at oil refineries have on the corrosion properties, associated with mass loss and localized destructions in the process of heat treatment, allows to develop protective measures and determine heating modes with a rate-limiting step of oxidation. The rate of various corrosion types of 15KH5M steel is used as an indicator to assess the effectiveness of the applied modes of coil heat treatment in order to increase their corrosion resistance and improve their operational characteristics. Conducted experiments on heat treatment of certain steel coil sections allowed to determine rational heating modes for the studied coils, which made it possible to reduce their mass loss and increase corrosion resistance of working surfaces in the process of operation. Proposed heat treatment of steel coils at specified intervals of their operation in the tube furnaces creates conditions for their stable performance and affects the degree of industrial and environmental safety, as well as reduces material costs associated with the repair and replacement of individual assemblies and parts of tube furnaces.

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Vladimir Yu. Bazhin, Bashar Issa (2021) Influence of heat treatment on the microstructure of steel coils of a heating tube furnace. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 249. p. 393-400. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.3.8
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2020-06-29
  • Date accepted
    2021-05-21
  • Date published
    2021-09-20

Transformation of grains of technological raw materials in the process of obtaining fine powders

Crushing and grinding of materials are the most common processes of sample preparation for subsequent analysis and industrial application. Recently, grinding has become one of the most popular methods for producing nano-sized powders. This study investigates certain features of grain transformation in the process of grinding ores with finely dispersed valuable components in order to liberate them, as well as specifics of grinding metallurgical raw materials, metals and their mixtures for using them as initial components in metallurgical and other technological processes. We identified and examined structural and morphological changes of various powders after ultrafine grinding using the methods of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. It was proved that in order to take into account sample preparation artifacts during analytic studies of solid samples and development of technological processes, fine grinding of heterogeneous materials, especially if they contain metals, requires monitoring of the ground product by methods of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis.

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Irina M. Gembitskaya, Maria V. Gvozdetskaya (2021) Transformation of grains of technological raw materials in the process of obtaining fine powders. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 249. p. 401-407. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.3.9
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2021-03-30
  • Date accepted
    2021-05-26
  • Date published
    2021-09-20

Improving the efficiency of autonomous electrical complexes of oil and gas enterprises

In accordance with the Energy Strategy until 2035, the possibility of increasing the efficiency of energy use of secondary energy resources in the form of associated oil and waste gases has been substantiated by increasing the energy efficiency of the primary energy carrier to 90-95 % by means of cogeneration plants with a binary cycle of electricity generation and trigeneration systems with using the energy of the waste gas to cool the air flow at the inlet of gas turbine plants. The conditions for maintaining the rated power of the main generator with variations in the ambient temperature are shown. An effective topology of electrical complexes in a multi-connected power supply system of oil and gas enterprises according to the reliability condition is presented, which allows increasing the availability factor by 0.6 %, mean time between failures by 33 %, the probability of failure-free operation by 15 % and reducing the mean time of system recovery by 40 %. The article considers the use of parallel active filters to improve the quality of electricity and reduce voltage drops to 0.1 s when used in autonomous electrical complexes of oil and gas enterprises. The possibility of providing uninterrupted power supply when using thyristor systems for automatic reserve input has been proven. A comparative analysis was carried out to assess the effect of parallel active filters and thyristor systems of automatic transfer of reserve on the main indicators of the reliability of power supply systems of oil and gas enterprises.

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Boris N. Abramovich, Ivan A. Bogdanov (2021) Improving the efficiency of autonomous electrical complexes of oil and gas enterprises. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 249. p. 408-416. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.3.10
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-13
  • Date accepted
    2021-05-21
  • Date published
    2021-09-20

Increasing the efficiency of technological preparation for the production of the manufacture components equipment for the mineral resource complex

An increase of components production for the equipment intended for oil and gas production is a key factor for analyzing existing technological processes and searching for new technological solutions to improve the efficiency of the production process and the quality of components. The article presents a simulation model designed to determine the rational technological processing parameters for the production of the “Centralizer shell” part. The basis for optimizing the working cycle of a production line is synchronization based on the principle of proportionality, which involves equalizing the duration of all technological operations with the rhythm of the production line. Synchronization of technological operations on the production line is carried out by choosing rational cutting parameters for each technological transition (cutting speed, feedrate, number of working passes). The “Centralizer shell” part is made of titanium alloy VT16, which has high strength, corrosion resistance and ductility. For the part under consideration, the permissible values ​​of the cutting parameters were determined based on the calculation of the total processing error, as well as the frequency of replacement of the worn cutting tool. The simulation model described in the article made it possible to increase the efficiency of the production process due to the synchronization of technological operations and the search for rational technological parameters, as well as to improve the manufacturing quality of the “Centralizer shell” part by analyzing the processing error at various parameters of the technological process.

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Irina N. Khrustaleva, Sergei A. Lyubomudrov, Tatyana A. Larionova, Yana Y. Brovkina (2021) Increasing the efficiency of technological preparation for the production of the manufacture components equipment for the mineral resource complex. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 249. p. 417-426. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.3.11
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2021-03-11
  • Date accepted
    2021-05-21
  • Date published
    2021-09-20

The influence of solar energy on the development of the mining industry in the Republic of Cuba

Cuba is traditionally considered a country with an underdeveloped industry. The share of the mining and metallurgical industries in the gross industrial production of the republic is small – about 3 % of GDP. The development of deposits and the extraction of nickel ores is an important sector of the economy of the Republic of Cuba, since the largest reserves of nickel and cobalt on the North American continent are located on the territory of the country. The development of the country energy system can serve as a growth factor in this sector of the economy. Due to climatic features and impossibility of integrating new capacities into the energy system through the construction of hydroelectric power plants, solar energy is a promising direction. Determining the feasibility of using solar tracking systems to increase the generation of electricity from solar power plants is one of the main challenges faced by engineers and renewable energy specialists. Currently, there are no solar tracking systems in Cuba that can provide information to assess the effectiveness of this technology in the country. The lack of the necessary technologies, as well as the high cost of developing solar power plants with tracking systems, limit the widespread introduction of such complexes. Hence follows the task of creating an inexpensive experimental model that allows assessing the effectiveness of tracking systems in specific weather conditions of the Republic of Cuba. This model will allow in future to increase the efficiency of electrical complexes with solar power plants, which provide power supply to the objects of the mineral resource complex and other regions.

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Yaroslav E. Shklyarskiy, Daniel Díaz Guerra, Emiliia V. Iakovleva, Anton Rassõlkin (2021) The influence of solar energy on the development of the mining industry in the Republic of Cuba. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 249. p. 427-440. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.3.12
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2021-03-05
  • Date accepted
    2021-04-28
  • Date published
    2021-09-20

Rational design justification of the tunnel boring shield executive body for the conditions of the mines of Saint Petersburg Metrostroy

The article discusses the features of running tunnels in difficult mining and geological conditions of the Saint Petersburg Metrostroy using modern tunnel boring shields of Herrenknecht company with hybrid executive bodies equipped with a incisors and rock cutters. The work of a hybrid executive body is analyzed when driving along a heterogeneous bottomhole massif consisting of Cambrian clay with limestone interlayers. Theoretical and experimental studies of vibroactive cones, a graphical representation of the dependence of the depth of their penetration on the axial force and axial force together with the applied shock load (the dependences of the penetration depth are interpreted as a linear dependence) have been carried out. An increase in the intensity of destruction of a heterogeneous bottomhole massif consisting of Cambrian clay and limestone interlayers using vibroactive rock-cutting tools (spiked roller) was theoretically and experimentally confirmed, while the growth of the penetration rate is determined depending on the number of their parameters. The design is considered, the principle of operation and the method of power calculation of a rotary executive body equipped with vibroactive cutters are described, on the basis of which a nomogram of the dependence of the torque and performance of the tunnel boring shield on the feed rate of the executive body to the bottom is built.

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Dmitrii A. Yungmeister, Aleksei I. Yacheykin (2021) Rational design justification of the tunnel boring shield executive body for the conditions of the mines of Saint Petersburg Metrostroy. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 249. p. 441-448. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.3.13
Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2021-03-13
  • Date accepted
    2021-05-21
  • Date published
    2021-09-20

Cadastral valuation of forest lands, taking into account the degree of development of their infrastructure

The article substantiates the need to improve methodology for cadastral valuation of forest lands and change the principles for calculating the rental rate of forest lands, on the basis of which the rent for the use of these lands will be determined in future. The methodology for determining the cadastral value of forest lands, taking into account the degree of development of their infrastructure, is presented. The infrastructure of lands of the forest fund is considered and an algorithm for assessing such infrastructure by means of geoinformation modeling is shown. A method for calculating a complex integral indicator (coefficient of infrastructure development) is presented, which is applicable to differentiate lands covered and not covered with tree vegetation, for their effective and rational management. The complex integral indicator determines the availability of forest plots, as it takes into account location of the forest fund infrastructure in relation to assessment plots, which makes it possible to obtain information about the time spent on covering the required distance. This methodology can be applied to assess the quality and condition of the existing infrastructure of the forestry sector in implementation of measures within the framework of the Strategy for the development of the forestry complex, providing for support and construction of infrastructure facilities on the forest fund lands. The method was tested in the Baltiysky district forestry of the Baltiysko-Belozersky taiga region. The results were as follows: the map of the forest fund infrastructure development within the boundaries of differentiation assessment according to the calculated integral indicator of infrastructure development was obtained; the regression model for calculating the rent rate taking into account the taxation value and integral indicator infrastructure development was received: the cadastral value of forest lands taking into account the developed model was calculated.

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Vasily F. Kovyazin, Anastasia A. Kitcenko, Seyed Omid Reza Shobairi (2021) Cadastral valuation of forest lands, taking into account the degree of development of their infrastructure. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 249. p. 449-462. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.3.14
Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2020-07-29
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-29
  • Date published
    2021-09-20

Critical analysis of methodological approaches to assessing sustainability of arctic oil and gas projects

Development of hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic is one of the priority tasks for the economy of the Russian Federation; however, such projects are associated with significant risks for the environment of nearby regions. Large-scale development of hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic should be based on the principles of sustainable development, which imply a balance between socio-economic benefits and environmental risks. The purpose of this study is to analyze the gaps in scientific knowledge on the issues of assessing sustainability of Arctic oil and gas projects (OGPs) and systematize the key problematic elements of such assessments. The analysis was carried out in terms of four key elements that determine the feasibility of implementing Arctic OGPs in the context of sustainable development: economic efficiency, social effects, environmental safety and technological availability. The methodology for conducting bibliometric analysis, which included more than 15.227 sources from the Scopus database over the period of 2005-2020, was based on PRISMA recommendations for compiling systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Methodological problems of assessing sustainability of Arctic OGPs were mapped and divided into four key sectors: consideration of factors that determine sustainability; sustainability assessment; interpretation of assessment results; sustainability management. This map can serve as a basis for conducting a series of point studies, aimed at eliminating existing methodological shortcomings of the sustainable development concept with respect to Arctic OGPs.

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Aleksei E. Cherepovitsyn, Pavel S. Tcvetkov, Olga O. Evseeva (2021) Critical analysis of methodological approaches to assessing sustainability of arctic oil and gas projects. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 249. p. 463-479. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.3.15