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Vol 247

Mining
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-19
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-02
  • Date published
    2021-05-21

Results of Comprehensive Geophysical Studies on the Search for Crypts on the Territory of Suburban Necropolis of Tauric Chersonese in the Karantinnaya Balka

The article presents the results of comprehensive studies carried out by the research team of Saint Petersburg Mining University in cooperation with the specialists from the State Museum-Preserve "Tauric Chersonese" in 2019. The purpose of the work was to discover and map antique and medieval crypts (ancient burial structures) on the territory of suburban necropolis of Tauric Chersonese in the Karantinnaya balka. The complex of geophysical methods included continuous ground penetrating radar sounding at two center frequencies of 350 and 500 MHz and contactless electrical tomography. To minimize spatial errors in the process of studies, topographic and geodetic works were carried out. For the first time wave electromagnetic effects were identified, which indicated the positions of hidden underground crypts. Geological factors were established that are favorable for cutting crypts in the layered thickness of Sarmatian limestones. The obtained results allowed to justify the feasibility of continuing geophysical works at the necropolis in order to study interior space of the discovered crypts and to determine the boundaries of archaeological heritage.

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Vladimir V. Glazunov, Alexey S. Ageev, Gleb D. Gorelik, Tatyana V. Sarapulkina (2021) Results of Comprehensive Geophysical Studies on the Search for Crypts on the Territory of Suburban Necropolis of Tauric Chersonese in the Karantinnaya Balka. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 247. p. 1-9. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.1.2
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2021-01-21
  • Date accepted
    2021-02-24
  • Date published
    2021-05-21

Forecasting of mining and geological processes based on the analysis of the underground space of the Kupol deposit as a multicomponent system (Chukotka Autonomous Region, Anadyr district)

The underground space of the Kupol deposit is analyzed as a multicomponent system – rocks, underground water, microbiota, gases (including the mine atmosphere) and supporting structures – metal support and shotcrete (as an additional type of barring) and also stowing materials. The complex of host rocks is highly disintegrated due to active tectonic and volcanic activity in the Cretaceous period. The thickness of sub-permafrost reaches 250-300 m. In 2014, they were found to contain cryopegs with abnormal mineralization and pH, which led to the destruction of metal supports and the caving formation. The underground waters of the sub-permafrost aquifer are chemically chloride-sulfate sodium-calcium with a mineralization of 3-5 g/dm 3 . According to microbiological analysis, they contain anaerobic and aerobic forms of microorganisms, including micromycetes, bacteria and actinomycetes. The activity of microorganisms is accompanied by the generation of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The main types of corrosion – chemical (sulfate and carbon dioxide), electrochemical and biocorrosion are considered. The most hazardous is the biocorrosion associated with the active functioning of the microbiota. Forecasting and systematization of mining and geological processes are carried out taking into account the presence of two zones in depth – sub-permafrost and below the bottom of the sub-permafrost, where mining operations are currently underdone. The importance of assessing the underground space as a multicomponent environment in predicting mining and geological processes is shown, which can serve as the basis for creating and developing specialized monitoring complex in difficult engineering and geological conditions of the deposit under consideration.

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Regina E. Dashko, Ivan S. Romanov (2021) Forecasting of mining and geological processes based on the analysis of the underground space of the Kupol deposit as a multicomponent system (Chukotka Autonomous Region, Anadyr district). Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 247. p. 20-32. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.1.3
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2020-11-16
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-02
  • Date published
    2021-05-21

Determination and verification of the calculated model parameters of salt rocks taking into account softening and plastic flow

The article suggests using a combination of the modified Burgers model and the Mohr – Coulomb model with the degradation of the adhesion coefficient and the increase in the friction coefficient to determine the parameters of salt rocks. A comparative analysis of long-term laboratory tests and field observations in underground mine workings with the results obtained using a calculated model with certain parameters is carried out. The parameters of the Mohr – Coulomb model with the degradation of the adhesion coefficient and the increase in the friction coefficient were obtained from the statistically processed data of laboratory tests, and the parameters of the modified Burgers model were determined. Using numerical methods, virtual (computer) axisymmetric triaxial tests, both instantaneous and long-term, were performed on the basis of the proposed model with selected parameters. A model problem is solved for comparing the behavior of the model with the data of observation stations in underground mine workings obtained from borehole rod extensometers and contour deformation marks. The analytically obtained coefficients of the nonlinear viscous element of the modified Burgers model for all the analyzed salt rocks did not need to be corrected based on the monitoring results. At the same time, optimization was required for the viscoelastic element coefficients for all the considered rocks. The analysis of the model studies showed a satisfactory convergence with the data on the observation stations. The comparative analysis carried out on the models based on laboratory tests and observations in the workings indicates the correct determination of the parameters for salt rocks and the verification of the model in general.

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Evgenii Ya. Kozlovskiy, Mikhail A. Zhuravkov (2021) Determination and verification of the calculated model parameters of salt rocks taking into account softening and plastic flow. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 247. p. 1-7. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.1.4
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2021-01-21
  • Date accepted
    2021-04-19
  • Date published
    2021-05-21

Justification of the use of a vegetal additive to diesel fuel as a method of protecting underground personnel of coal mines from the impact of harmful emissions of diesel-hydraulic locomotives

Equipment with diesel engines is used in all mining enterprises. Monorail diesel transport is of great importance in coal mines, as it facilitates the heavy labor of workers when transporting materials and people, fixing mining workings, refueling and repairing equipment, which leads to an increase in the speed of tunneling operations. Reducing the concentration of harmful gases from diesel-hydraulic locomotives at the workplaces of coal mine locomotive drivers can be ensured by the use of additives to diesel fuel that reduce the volume of harmful gas emissions during the operation of diesel-hydraulic locomotives. Additive ester-based on vegetal oil in the amount of 5 mass % in a mixture with hydrotreated diesel fuel reduces the concentration of carbon monoxide by 19-60 %, nitrogen oxides by 17-98 %, depending on the operating mode of the engine, the smoke content of the exhaust gases is reduced to 71 %. There is an improvement in working conditions at the workplace of the driver of a diesel-hydraulic locomotive by the chemical factor due to the reduction of the class of working conditions from 3.1. to 2.

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G. I. Korshunov, Anzhelika M. Eremeeva, Carsten Drebenstedt (2021) Justification of the use of a vegetal additive to diesel fuel as a method of protecting underground personnel of coal mines from the impact of harmful emissions of diesel-hydraulic locomotives. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 247. p. 39-47. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.1.5
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2021-01-25
  • Date accepted
    2021-02-22
  • Date published
    2021-05-21

Conducting industrial explosions near gas pipelines

The problem to ensure the safety of objects which are in the area of blasting operations, ensuring the destruction of hard rocks, remains relevant. The article presents the results of a large-scale experiment to determine the safe conditions for conducting drilling and blasting operations near the active gas pipeline. The simplest and most reliable way to ensure the safety of the protected object from seismic impact is to reduce the intensity of the seismic wave, which is achieved by changing the parameters of drilling and blasting operations. This requires research to determine the impact of blasting operations on the parameters of seismic waves and the development of methods for measuring these parameters. The paper presents a detailed analysis of the seismic blast wave impact on the displacement of the ground and the model gas pipeline. The features of seismic monitoring during blasting operations near the active gas pipeline are shown. The seismic coefficients and attenuation coefficient of seismic waves are determined. It is proved that the readings of the seismic receivers on the surface and in the depth of the massive differ by two or more times.

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Sergei V. khokhlov, Semen T. Sokolov, Yurii I. Vinogradov, Ilia B. Frenkel (2021) Conducting industrial explosions near gas pipelines. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 247. p. 48-56. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.1.6
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2020-07-30
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-02
  • Date published
    2021-05-21

Experimental study of thermomechanical effects in water-saturated limestones during their deformation

Stability control of elements of stone constructions of various structures is a prerequisite for their safe operation. The use of modern methods of non-destructive diagnostics of the stress-strain state of such constructions is an effective, and in many cases the only way to control it. Studies of thermal radiation accompanying the processes of solid bodies deformation allowed to justify and develop a method that allows to obtain non-contact information about changes in the stress-strain state in various types of geomaterials, including limestones. However, studies of the water saturation influence of rocks on the thermal radiation parameters recorded in this way are currently superficial. Taking into account the water saturation degree of rocks is necessary when monitoring the mechanical condition of stone structures that are in direct contact with water. The main purpose of this work is to study the dependences of changes in the intensity of thermal radiation from the surface of limestone samples with different humidity under conditions of uniaxial compression. The obtained results showed the expected significant decrease in the mechanical properties (uniaxial compressive strength and elastic modulus) of water-saturated samples in comparison with dry ones. At the same time, a significant increase in the intensity of thermal radiation of limestone samples subjected to compression with an increase in their water saturation was recorded, which makes it necessary to take into account the revealed regularity when identifying changes in the stress state of stone structures established according to non-contact IR diagnostics in real conditions.

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Dmitry I. Blokhin, Pavel N. Ivanov, Oleg L. Dudchenko (2021) Experimental study of thermomechanical effects in water-saturated limestones during their deformation. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 247. p. 1-10. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.1.1
Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2020-07-02
  • Date accepted
    2021-02-16
  • Date published
    2021-05-21

Development of viscoelastic systems and technologies for isolating water-bearing horizons with abnormal formation pressures during oil and gas wells drilling

Article provides a brief overview of the complications arising during the construction of oil and gas wells in conditions of abnormally high and abnormally low formation pressures. Technological properties of the solutions used to eliminate emergency situations when drilling wells in the intervals of catastrophic absorption and influx of formation fluid have been investigated. A technology for isolating water influx in intervals of excess formation pressure has been developed. The technology is based on the use of a special device that provides control of the hydrodynamic pressure in the annular space of the well. An experiment was carried out to determine the injection time of a viscoelastic system depending on its rheology, rock properties and technological parameters of the isolation process. A mathematical model based on the use of a special device is presented. The model allows determining the penetration depth of a viscoelastic system to block water-bearing horizons to prevent interformation crossflows and water breakthrough into production wells.

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Mikhail V. Dvoynikov, Vyacheslav N. Kuchin, Magomed Sh. Mintzaev (2021) Development of viscoelastic systems and technologies for isolating water-bearing horizons with abnormal formation pressures during oil and gas wells drilling. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 247. p. 1-9. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.1.7
Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2020-11-11
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-02
  • Date published
    2021-05-21

Oil and gas content of the understudied part in the northwest of the Timan-Pechora oil and gas province according to the results of basin modeling

Comprehensive interpretation of the results for regional seismic operations and reinterpretation of archived seismic data, their correlation with the drilling data of more than 30 deep wells, including Severo-Novoborsk parametric well, made it possible to clarify the structural maps and thickness maps of all seismic facies structures developed in the territory and water area in the junction of the north of Izhma-Pechora depression and Malozemelsko-Kolguevsk monocline of Timan-Pechora oil and gas province. Data obtained were used at basin modeling in TemisFlow software in order to reconstruct the conditions of submersion and transformation of organic substance in potential oil and gas bearing formations. Modeling made it possible to get an idea of ​​the time and conditions for the formation of large zones of possible hydrocarbons accumulation, to establish space-time connections with possible sources of generation, to identify the directions of migration and on the basis of comparison with periods of intense generation, both from directly located within the operation area and outside them (taking into account possible migration), to identify zones of paleoaccumulation of oil and gas. Work performed made it possible to outline promising oil and gas accumulation zones and identify target objects for further exploration within the site with an ambiguous forecast and lack of industrial oil and gas potential.

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Oleg M. Prishchepa, Ivan S. Borovikov, Evgenii I. Grokhotov (2021) Oil and gas content of the understudied part in the northwest of the Timan-Pechora oil and gas province according to the results of basin modeling. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 247. p. 66-81. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.1.8
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2020-06-23
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-02
  • Date published
    2021-05-21

Automated digitization of radial charts

Radial charts were commonly used in the industry to allow retrospective assessment of technological parameters. Today it is relevant to digitize the obtained data in order to simplify the automation of technological processes. Digitization of radial charts by means of standard methods is carried out with the help of human labor at significant time costs. The article proposes an automated method for digitizing radial charts using software, developed in the LabVIEW programming environment. The results of processing radial charts are displayed on the screen in numerical and graphical form, and can also be exported to a file (for example, to Notepad or MS Excel). The presented technique can be applied to images obtained on a color or black-and-white scanner, which minimizes geometric distortions, associated with the conversion of a paper document into electronic form, and ensures recognition quality of the clear plot line with an average relative error of up to 3 %. In case of ink fading or perspective photos of the diagram, the value of relative error can reach 8 %, as a result of which additional manual correction of the data will be required.

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Nataliya V. Vasilyeva, Aleksei V. Boikov, Olga O. Erokhina, Andrei Yu. Trifonov (2021) Automated digitization of radial charts. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 247. p. 82-87. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.1.9
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2020-10-22
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-02
  • Date published
    2021-05-21

Dynamic simulation of industrial-scale gibbsite crystallization circuit

Population balance model is crucial for improving the method of aluminum hydroxide massive crystallization and enhancing the quality of control over industrial precipitation trains. This paper presents the updated population balance model, which can be used for simulation of industrial-scale precipitation. Processes of birth-and-spread and particle breakage are considered integral parts of the precipitation process along with secondary nucleation, growth and agglomeration of particles. The conceptual difference of the proposed system of equations is its ability to reproduce the oscillatory process that occurs in precipitation circuits as a result of cyclic changes in the quality of the seed surface. It is demonstrated that self-oscillations can occur in the system without any external influence. The updated model is adjusted and verified using historical industrial data. The simulation of seed-recycle precipitation circuit showed an exact correspondence between the calculated dynamic pattern of changes in particle size distribution of aluminum hydroxide and the actual data.

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Vladimir O. Golubev, Tatyana E. Litvinova (2021) Dynamic simulation of industrial-scale gibbsite crystallization circuit. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 247. p. 88-101. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.1.10
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2020-06-10
  • Date accepted
    2020-11-19
  • Date published
    2021-05-21

Influence of jarosite precipitation on iron balance in heap bioleaching at Monywa copper mine

Ferric iron is an important oxidant in sulfide ore bioleaching. However, recirculating leach liquors leads to excess iron accumulation, which interferes with leaching kinetics and downstream metal recovery. We developed a method for controlling iron precipitation as jarosite to reduce excess iron in heap bioleaching at Monywa copper mine. Jarosite precipitation was first simulated and then confirmed using batch column tests. From the simulations, the minimum pH values for precipitation of potassium jarosite, hydronium jarosite, and natrojarosite at 25 °C are 1.4, 1.6, and 2.7, respectively; the minimum concentrations of potassium, sulfate, ferric, and sodium ions are 1 mM, 0.54, 1.1, and 3.2 M, respectively, at 25 °C and pH 1.23. Column tests indicate that potassium jarosite precipitation is preferential over natrojarosite. Moreover, decreased acidity (from 12 to 8 g/L), increased temperature (from 30 to 60 °C), and increased potassium ion concentration (from 0 to 5 g/L) increase jarosite precipitation efficiency by 10, 5, and 6 times, respectively. Jarosite precipitation is optimized by increasing the irrigating solution pH to 1.6. This approach is expected to reduce the operating cost of heap bioleaching by minimizing the chemicals needed for neutralization, avoiding the need for tailing pond construction, and increasing copper recovery.

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Kyaw M. Soe, Renman Ruan, Yan Jia, Qiaoyi Tan, Zhentang Wang, Jianfeng Shi, Chuangang Zhong, Heyun Sun (2021) Influence of jarosite precipitation on iron balance in heap bioleaching at Monywa copper mine. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 247. p. 1-12. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2020.1.11
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-18
  • Date accepted
    2020-06-16
  • Date published
    2021-05-21

Traction asynchronous electric drive of mine electric locomotivesimulation model structure improvement

The article discusses the solution to the problem of underground railway transport slipping in dynamic modes, which occurs when there is a significant difference in the speeds of the driving and driven pairs of wheels. The state of the rail surfaces largely determines the coefficient of adhesion, therefore, using a mathematical model, the condition for the dependence of the magnitude of slipping and tractive effort is selected. For effective acceleration and deceleration of an electric locomotive, it is necessary to control the coefficient of adhesion at a certain level. A simulation model of rolling stock has been created, which for the first time takes into account a mechanical system with distributed parameters. In the structural diagram of the automatic control system of traction electric drives with frequency regulation, such factors as the volume of goods being moved, rolling friction, slope (rise) levels and the state of the rail track are taken into account. The simulation results show the features of the movement and stops of the freight train not only by the diagrams of speed and forces in the modes of acceleration-deceleration and uniform movement, but also the positions of the plungers and tractive forces on the couplings of the electric locomotive and all trolleys involved in the movement of goods. The practical application of the proposed method lies in the possibility of starting a heavily laden train from its place on the ascent section in conditions of insufficient adhesion coefficient with contaminated roads.

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Stanislav V. Borisov, Ekaterina A. Koltunova, Sergei N. Kladiev (2021) Traction asynchronous electric drive of mine electric locomotivesimulation model structure improvement. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 247. p. 1-8. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.1.12
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2020-05-16
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-02
  • Date published
    2021-05-21

Study of drive currents for lifting bridge cranes of metallurgical enterprises for early diagnosis of load excess weight

The article discusses an approach based on the analysis of the drive motor currents to create an additional means of protection against emergency situations during the operation of bridge cranes associated with lifting a load with a mass exceeding the permissible one . A mathematical model of an overhead crane drive is described, as well as the results of computer simulation. It is shown that in the process of lifting up, before the stage of lifting the load, the stator current of the drive electric motor does not depend of the load mass, but when the load is detached, already for several periods of the mains voltage after the rope is pulled, when the mass of the load is exceeded, a measurable excess of the amplitude value of the current is recorded. This pattern has been confirmed for a number of cranes of various lifting capacities used at metallurgical enterprises. The possibility of diagnosing excess weight of the lifted load with a higher speed than existing mechanical methods of overload control is demonstrated, at the same time it is not required to make changes to the structural elements of overhead cranes.

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Irina Yu. Semykina, Mikhail V. Kipervasser, Alexander V. Gerasimuk (2021) Study of drive currents for lifting bridge cranes of metallurgical enterprises for early diagnosis of load excess weight. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 247. p. 1-10. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.1.13
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2021-01-20
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-15
  • Date published
    2021-05-21

Improving the quality of electricity in the power supply systems of the mineral resource complex with hybrid filter-compensating devices

The urgency and necessity of choosing and justifying the structures of hybrid filter-compensating devices based on series and parallel active filters to improve the quality of electricity in the power supply systems of enterprises of the mineral resource complex is shown. Mathematical models of hybrid filter compensating devices based on parallel and series active filters have been developed. Based on these mathematical models, computer simulation models of the indicated hybrid structures have been developed. The results of simulation showed the effectiveness of the correction of power quality indicators in terms of reducing the level of higher harmonics of current and voltage, as well as voltage deviations. The degree of influence of filter-compensating devices on the power quality indicators, which determine the continuity and stability of the technological process at the enterprises of the mineral resource complex, have been revealed. It has been established that a hybrid filter-compensating device based on a parallel active filter can reduce the level of higher harmonics of current and voltage by more than 90 and 70 %, respectively, and based on a series active filter, it can reduce the level of higher harmonics of voltage by more than 80 %. Based on the simulation results, the possibility of compensating for the reactive power of a hybrid structure based on parallel active and passive filters has been revealed. The possibility of integrating hybrid filter-compensating devices into more complex multifunctional electrical systems for the automated improvement of the quality of electricity is substantiated, as well as the expediency and prospects of their use in combined power supply systems based on the parallel operation of centralized and autonomous sources of distributed generation.

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Yurii A. Sychev, Roman Yu. Zimin (2021) Improving the quality of electricity in the power supply systems of the mineral resource complex with hybrid filter-compensating devices. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 247. p. 132-140. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.1.14
Geoecology and occupational health and safety
  • Date submitted
    2020-10-13
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-02
  • Date published
    2021-05-21

Trace element accumulation by soils and plants in the North Caucasian geochemical province

Long-term studies of the North Caucasian geochemical province allowed to establish regional abundances and calculate accumulation (dispersion) factors for chemical elements in rocks, soils, and plants. Certain natural regional patterns characterize the province. Associations of elements in high and low concentrations are often determined by the predominant composition of rocks: carbonate-terrigenous, terrigenous, and igneous. The study of the average contents of several chemical elements in the soils of the province showed that the association of accumulated elements includes metals with different migration characteristics. Thus, despite the rather close values of the ionic radii, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Li (judging by the ionic potential) are characterized by the formation of cations, while Mn, Mo, and Zr form complex ions. Such elements as Zn, Cu, and Pb are mainly accumulated on hydrosulfuric barriers, while Mo, Co, and Mn are stopped by oxygenous barriers. For Cu, Zn, Mo, and Co, biogenic accumulation plays a significant role, while for Pb and Ni it is practically absent. The absolute dispersion of the elements did not reach environmentally hazardous values, although it indicates a fairly intensive migration. In woody plants, Ba, Nb, Sc, Sr, and Zn are accumulated most intensively.

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Vladimir A. Alekseenko, Natalya V. Shvydkaya, Jaume Bech, Alexander V. Puzanov, Aleksey V. Nastavkin (2021) Trace element accumulation by soils and plants in the North Caucasian geochemical province. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 247. p. 1-13. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.1.15
Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2021-02-05
  • Date accepted
    2021-03-30
  • Date published
    2021-05-21

Assessment of negative infrastructural externalities when determining the land value

The work forms and substantiates the concept of land value, based on a new institutional theory. The infrastructural component of the cost of land in the presented concept determines, on the one hand, the efficiency of the use of natural resources, properties, demand for land on the market, on the other hand, the costs, which are determined not only by capital investments in construction of engineering infrastructure, but also by losses associated with restrictions on activities within zones with special conditions for territory use, creation of unfavorable conditions for economic activity, small contours, irregularities and others on a specific land plot, which are external negative infrastructural externalities that create losses of rights holders of land plots that are not compensated by the market, falling within the boundaries of these zones. Methods for assessing the impact of such negative infrastructural externalities on the cost of land encumbered by zones in different conditions of land market activity have been developed and tested, based on an expert-analytical approach (depressed market); the ratio of market values of land plots encumbered and unencumbered by a specific zone, and qualimetric modeling (inactive market); modeling by introducing into the model the factor of presence of zones with special conditions for territory use, based on the grouping of zones according to similar regulations for use, or by introducing the parameters of this factor (active market). Methods for taking into account spatial deficiencies and compensating for restrictions and prohibitions on activities on the territory of land plots with an individual market assessment are proposed.

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Elena N. Bykova (2021) Assessment of negative infrastructural externalities when determining the land value. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 247. p. 154-170. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.1.16