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Vol 239

Geology
  • Date submitted
    2019-04-17
  • Date published
    2019-10-27

Composition Heterogeneity of Xenoliths of Mantle Peridotites from Alkaline Basalts of the Sverre Volcano, the Svalbard Archipelago

The article presents the results of a study of the composition of xenoliths of mantle peridotites (seven samples), collected from the Quaternary basalts of the Sverre volcano, the Svalbard archipelago. The presence of two big (more than 15 cm in diameter) xenoliths of spinel lherzolite allowed us to consider a change in their composition in the cen- tral, intermediate, and marginal parts of the samples. It is proposed to distinguish three types of xenoliths by the distribution of trace and rare earth elements. Enrich- ment of mantle peridotites with light rare earth elements, as well as high field strength (HFS)   and large-ion lithophile (LIL) elements, is presumably associated with mantle metasomatism.

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S. G. Skublov, D. S. Ashikhmin (2019) Composition Heterogeneity of Xenoliths of Mantle Peridotites from Alkaline Basalts of the Sverre Volcano, the Svalbard Archipelago. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 239. p. 483. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2019.5.483
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2019-05-06
  • Date published
    2019-10-27

The Nature of the Elongated Form of Diamond Crystals From Urals Placers

The article presents the results of a study of the internal structure of highly elongated diamond crystals from placers in the Krasnovishersky district of the Urals. Very elongated crystals are found within diamond-bearing placer with unrevealed primary sources. Determining the conditions of such crystals formation can help one to determine the primary deposits type. There are three hypotheses for the formation of the elongated shape of such crystals: 1) crys- tals initially elongated along the <100> (strongly distorted octahedra); 2) individual crystals of columnar aggregates; 3) elongated crystals fragments. To study the internal structure, we selected three most elongated individuals of the 155 crystals samples. The study of the internal structure of selected crystals with the usage of photoluminescent (PL) tomography, cathodoluminescence (CL), and optical microscopy has shown that these samples are fragments of lar- ger single crystals. CL imaging allowed to determine slip lines within the crystal's volume. The recorded PL spectra show the 912, 946, and 986 nm peaks, which are characteristic of crystals with plastic deformation. The revealed fea- tures are indicators of plastic deformation accompanying the destruction of the crystals. The significant dissolution following the destruction of the crystals led to the rounding of the vertices and edges of their fragments. Apparently, most of the very elongated crystals from placers with unknown sources are also highly dissolved isometric crystal fragments. The obtained results have shown that the deformation and dissolution of diamond crystals are related events characteristic of diamonds from hitherto undetected, but highly productive primary deposits.

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E. A. Vasilev, I. V. Klepikov, A. V. Kozlov, A. V. Antonov (2019) The Nature of the Elongated Form of Diamond Crystals From Urals Placers. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 239. p. 492. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2019.5.492
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2019-02-26
  • Date published
    2019-10-27

Ensuring Stability of Undermining Inclined Drainage Holes During Intensive Development of Multiple Gas-Bearing Coal Layers

At high rates of production face advance, requirements towards reliable operation of undermining drainage holes get raised. The issue of maintaining high intensity of gaseous seams development under naturally increasing gas content, mining depth and capacity of production equipment poses a problem. The greatest threat comes from the loss of hole stability in the bearing pressure affected zone (in front of the face) and in the intensive shift area of overhanging rock corbels (behind the face). Intensification of air leaks due to deformation of borehole channel leads to impoverishment of removed methane-air mixture and an increasing risk to disturb safe aerogas regime in the mining area. The paper describes a mechanism of how coal-face operations affect the state of underground holes and formation of overhanging rock corbels. A typification of basic kinds of borehole deformations is presented. Authors point out critical disadvantages of the most widely-used technological schemes of gaseous seams development under high load on the production face, which hinder normal operation of a gas drainage system. As a result of research, a dependency of shot hole number, as well as the distance between shot hole axes and the borehole, on the stress state of the borehole outline has been defined more precisely. Basing on that, a formula to calculate drilling parameters of the discharge hole system has been suggested. Implementation of these measures will allow to increase the efficiency of underground gas drainage and to maintain growing intensity of gaseous coal seam development.

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V. S. Brigida, V. I. Golik, Yu. V. Dmitrak, O. Z. Gabaraev (2019) Ensuring Stability of Undermining Inclined Drainage Holes During Intensive Development of Multiple Gas-Bearing Coal Layers. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 239. p. 497. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2019.5.497
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2019-05-07
  • Date published
    2019-10-27

Estimation of Rock Mass Strength in Open-Pit Mining

The paper presents results of an experimental study on strength characteristics of the rock mass as applied to   the assessment of open-pit slope stability. Formulas have been obtained that describe a correlation between ultimate and residual strength of rock samples and residual shear strength along the weakening surface. A new method has been developed to calculate residual interface strength of the rock mass basing on data from the examination of small-scale monolith samples with opposing spherical indentors. A method has been proposed to estimate strength characteristics (structural weakening coefficients and internal friction angles) of the fractured near-slope rock mass. The method relies on test data from shattering small-scale monolith samples with spherical indentors, taking into ac- count contact conditions along the weakening surface, and can be applied in the field conditions. It is acceptable to use irregular-shaped samples in thetests.

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A. A. Pavlovich, V. A. Korshunov, A. A. Bazhukov, N. Ya. Melnikov (2019) Estimation of Rock Mass Strength in Open-Pit Mining. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 239. p. 502. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2019.5.502
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2019-01-31
  • Date published
    2019-10-27

Salt Rock Deformation under Bulk Multiple-Stage Loading

The paper presents experimental justification of the possibility to use bulk multiple-stage loading to study the process of salt rock deformation in the laboratory conditions. Results of comparative tests between bulk multiple- stage and single-stage loading of salt rock samples are demonstrated. The paper contains results of research on the rate of lateral pressure and its impact on strength limit and residual strength limit of sylvinite, estimated using single- stage and multiple-stage methods. Research results demonstrate how the rate of lateral pressure impacts dilatancy boundary of salt rocks. Analysis of how the loading method influences certificate parameters of Mohr-Coulomb strength of sylvinite has been carried out. The dynamics of elastic modulus in the process of salt rock deformation is analyzed depending on the rate of lateralpressure. It is demonstrated how the method of multiple-stage loading adequately reflects the processes of salt rock de- formation and decomposition, and facilitates not only lowering impact of sample’s inner structure heterogeneities on the experimental results, but also significant reduction in the required amount of rock material.

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I. L. Pankov, I. A. Morozov (2019) Salt Rock Deformation under Bulk Multiple-Stage Loading. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 239. p. 510. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2019.5.510
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2019-07-22
  • Date published
    2019-10-27

A Modern View of Anomalies in the Metal Groups of the Periodic System of D.I.Mendeleev

The article is devoted to the 150 th anniversary of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements by D.I.Mendeleev. The fundamental law of nature, discovered by D.I.Mendeleev has anomalies and paradoxes associated with certain groups of metals. When studying the physical and chemical properties of complex metal compounds, many discrepancies can be found, namely, the location of elements in groups, which primarily relate to metals with different valences. By studying the approaches and methods for predicting the arrangement of chemical elements, it can be established that D.I.Men deleev eliminated many differences for some metals during the formation of the Periodic system of chemical elements. D.I.Mendeleev developed a principle that excludes such errors when finding and discovering new elements. Analytical studies conducted by a Russian scientist helped to calculate the atomic masses and describe the properties of three ele ments not known at that time – «eka-boron», «eka-silicon», «eka-aluminum», the existence of which was proved and confirmed by subsequent discoveries of scandium, germanium, boron, and gallium. The paper provides a significant as sessment of the forecasting of metals in various groups of the periodic system. Changes in the properties of some metals significantly influenced their location in the table of D.I.Mendeleev.

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V. Yu. Bazhin, T. A. Aleksandrova, E. L. Kotova, A. P. Suslov (2019) A Modern View of Anomalies in the Metal Groups of the Periodic System of D.I.Mendeleev. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 239. p. 520. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2019.5.520
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2019-04-14
  • Date published
    2019-10-27

Intensification of Bacterial-Chemical Leaching of Nickel, Copper and Cobalt from Sulfide Ores Using Microwave Radiation

Currently, Russia and other countries display a steady tendency to decrease the amount of high grade and free- milling ore reserves. In this regard, the attention is being paid to the technology of bacterial-chemical leaching (BCL), which, unlike traditional pyrometallurgical enrichment methods, is well applicable for processing low-grade mineral raw materials. However, this technology has a significant drawback, which is the inability of microorganisms to create sufficiently aggressive conditions for the effective destruction of mineral complexes, which negatively affects the duration of the processes. The article presents the results of an experiment, the purpose of which was to study the multiple short-term effects of microwave radiation on the efficiency of extraction of nickel, copper, and cobalt in the process of bacterial-chemical leaching of sulfide ore. A microwave oven with a power of 900 W and a radiation frequency of 2.45 GHz was used as a source of microwave radiation. Irradiation was carried out every day throughout the experiment. The exposure time was 5 and 10 s; the flux density was 0.7 W/cm 2 . It was found that for all the studied microwave irradiation modes, a significant increase in the efficiency of biomass accumulation and the oxidizing ability of the medium was observed in comparison with the control that was not exposed to microwave radiation. Irradiation for 5 s twice a day increased the reduction of nickel by 16 %, cobalt by 15 % and copper by 6 %. The results of the study allow us to assess the prospects for the application of new biotechnology methods in the industrial practice of ore processing with an improvement in qualityindicators.

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A. V. Kioresku (2019) Intensification of Bacterial-Chemical Leaching of Nickel, Copper and Cobalt from Sulfide Ores Using Microwave Radiation. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 239. p. 528. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2019.5.528
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2019-01-21
  • Date published
    2019-10-27

Development of Manufacturing Technology for High-Strength Hull Steel Reducing Production Cycle and Providing High-Quality Sheets

The article presents the results of scientific research and industrial experiments aimed at the development of technology to reduce the production cycle of high-strength hull steel. The technology includes an improved reduced heat treatment of ingots made using rare-earth metals and uphill teeming of large sheet ingots. The proposed technology for the preliminary heat treatment of ingots eliminates the high-temperature phase re- crystallization operation, which is unnecessary, according to the authors, since it does not allow partial crushing (grinding) of the metal dendritic structure and homogenization. When using the proposed technology of reduced pre- treatment, phase and structural stresses are sharply reduced. Experiments have shown that the modification of steel with rare-earth metals has a positive effect on the crystallization of ingots, changing the macro- and microstructure of alloy steel. The developed manufacturing technology of high-strength hull steel provides a high level of sheet quality and a reduction in the production cycle time by 10-12 %.

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V. G. Milyuts, V. V. Tsukanov, E. I. Pryakhin, L. B. Nikitina (2019) Development of Manufacturing Technology for High-Strength Hull Steel Reducing Production Cycle and Providing High-Quality Sheets. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 239. p. 536. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2019.5.536
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2019-03-18
  • Date published
    2019-10-27

Determination of Optimal Fluorine Leaching Parameters from the Coal Part of the Waste Lining of Dismantled Electrolytic Cells for Aluminum Production

When aluminum is obtained by electrolysis of cryolite-alumina melts when the baths are sent for   capital repairs, a solid technogenic product is formed – waste lining of electrolytic cells (WLEC). The volume of formation of WLEC is 30-50 kg per 1 ton of aluminum. Currently, it is mainly stored at landfills near industrial enterprises, causing harm to the environment. However, this technogenic raw material contains valuable components (fluorine, aluminum, sodium) that can be extracted to produce fluoride salts, which are in demand during the electrolytic production of aluminum. The objects of research were samples of the coal part of the waste lining of dismantled S-8BM (E) type electrolytic cells of «RUSAL Krasnoyarsk» JSC (Krasnoyarsk) of RUSAL company. According to the X-ray experiment diffraction analysis (using a Bruker D8 ADVANCE diffractometer) of the phase composition of the samples, it was found that the main fluorine-containing compounds are cryolite, chiolite, sodium and calcium fluorides. The total fluorine   content   in   the   studied   samples   averaged   13.1   %.   We   conducted   studies   on   the   leaching   of fluorine from WLEC with a solution of caustic alkali (NaOH concentration – 17.5 g/dm 3 ). The process was   carried out in a mechanically agitated reactor using a BIOSAN MM-1000 top drive laboratory stirrer with a two-blade nozzle. By the method of mathematical planning of a three-factor experiment, the mutual influence of three leaching conditions on the optimization parameter was established – the extraction of fluorine in solution (in percent). The maximum recovery of fluorine from WLEC to the leach solution averaged 86.4 % and was achieved with the following indicators: process temperature –95 ° C, the ratio of liquid to solid phase– 9:1, duration – 210 min.

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N. V. Nemchinova, A. A. Tyutrin, V. V. Somov (2019) Determination of Optimal Fluorine Leaching Parameters from the Coal Part of the Waste Lining of Dismantled Electrolytic Cells for Aluminum Production. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 239. p. 544. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2019.5.544
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2019-06-05
  • Date published
    2019-10-27

Effect of Temperature on Solid-state Hydride Metal Synthesis According to Thermodynamic Modeling

Thermodynamic modeling of the reduction of copper dichloride in the media of various gaseous hydrides (ammonia, monosilane, methane) in the temperature range 273-1000 K was carried out. Calculations show that in narrower temperature ranges corresponding to the reactions of solid-state hydride synthesis (SHS) of metal sub- stances metal formation is usually supported by theoretical propositions. As a result of thermodynamic modeling, a principal result was obtained on the suppression of   competing processes of nitriding, siliconizing and carbonization   of metal under SHS conditions, which is important for metallurgical production. This additionally substantiates the correctness of previous experimental studies of SHS metals with modified surface and improved properties. By mod- eling, it was found that the reduction of solid copper dichloride to metal in ammonia or methane occurs stepwise (se- quentially, according to the Baykov rule) through the intermediate stages of the formation of a compound of low- valent copper – copper (I) chloride.

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A. A. Slobodov, A. G. Syrkov, L. A. Yachmenova, A. N. Kushchenko, N. R. Prokopchuk, V. S. Kavun (2019) Effect of Temperature on Solid-state Hydride Metal Synthesis According to Thermodynamic Modeling. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 239. p. 550. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2019.5.550
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2019-01-23
  • Date published
    2019-10-27

Effective Power and Speed of Mining Dump Trucks in Fuel Economy Mode

Existing methods for determining the effective power, based on the calculation of the average indicator operation of the engine during the piston stroke, do not take into account the change in thermodynamic parameters and the polytropic operation of the engine, the value of which depends on the polytropic efficiency of the duty cycle. This is the reason that the calculation of the effective power leads to some error – the margin of the engine features. The identification of this stock allows us to review the entire line of dump trucks in the direction of increasing their pass- port effective capacity, which will lead to a reduction in capital purchase costs due to the choice of a previously un- derestimated and cheaper option, as well as a reduction in current operating costs due to a decrease in the specific fuel consumption rate. Taking into account the stochastic nature of the transport process and assessing the influence of all external and internal factors when calculating the rational mode of operation of a mining truck can further reduce specific fuel consumption by choosing the rational speed of its movement in loaded and empty directions.

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V. I. Alexandrov, M. A. Vasileva, V. Y. Koptev (2019) Effective Power and Speed of Mining Dump Trucks in Fuel Economy Mode. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 239. p. 556. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2019.5.556
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2019-01-23
  • Date published
    2019-10-27

Operation of a Single-phase Autonomous Inverter as a Part of a Low-power Wind Complex

The article discusses the experience of operating a wind power complex with a low-power wind power installa- tion (5 kW), the use of which is promising for powering remote oil production facilities, exploration and other types of mining operations. The structure of the studied complex and its characteristics, technical problems that have arisen during operation for 6 years are given. The elements of the wind energy complex – the battery charge regulator and the inverter-converter are considered. The consequences of the mechanical regulator failure of battery charge are con- sidered and recommendations for its replacement are presented. The issues of diagnostics and repair of one of the main elements of the complex – the inverter-converter, its component – DC link are highlighted in detail. Oscil- lograms of the output voltage of the inverter-converter are presented for different capacities of the DC link and the images of the repaired inverter-converter are given. Recommendations are given on choosing an inverter-converter and setting up the operating modes of the wind energycomplex .

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A. A. Belsky, V. S. Dobush, Sh. F. Haikal (2019) Operation of a Single-phase Autonomous Inverter as a Part of a Low-power Wind Complex. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 239. p. 564. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2019.5.564
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2018-12-20
  • Date published
    2019-10-27

Scraper Face Conveyors Dynamic Load Control

The task of controlling the dynamic loading of scraper face conveyors (SC) is considered and the unsatisfactory state of loading of mechanical and electrical components of the SC is recorded. The possibility of the appearance of a self-oscillatory nature of the entire system load due to the peculiarities of the movement of the traction chain along   the lattice frame of the SC is indicated. The property of the system is noted – the cyclic nature of the loading of the circuit during movement, which causes energy exchange processes between the mechanical and electromotive components of the conveyor (when using the head and tail electric drives) through the common cable network of the   power supply system of the SC. A high level of dynamic loading of the electromechanical system causes the problem of eliminating the self-oscillating operating mode of the SC that generates it which is proposed to be solved by changing the angular rotation speeds of the SC drive sprockets. Angular speeds can be changed by applying frequency control of asynchronous electric motors. The efficiency of setting the frequency of electric motor stator currents of the head and tail drives of the conveyor is established in proportion to the frequency of rotors rotation to eliminate self- oscillating modes of operation in the main operating mode. The possibility of reducing the starting shock values of   the electromagnetic moments of electric motors is considered. The results of the calculation of the start-up and liquidation of the self-oscillating operating mode are presented on the example of the scraper face conveyor Anzhera-34. The results of calculations of the start-up modes and the main operational transportation of coal in an uncontrolled mode of operation and after the introduction of control are compared, based on which it is concluded that it is advisable to use active control of the dynamic loading of SC.

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E. K. Eshchin (2019) Scraper Face Conveyors Dynamic Load Control. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 239. p. 570. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2019.5.570
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2019-01-15
  • Date published
    2019-10-27

Improving the Energy Efficiency of the Electromechanical Transmission of an Open-pit Dump Truck

The article analyzes the existing systems of electromechanical transmission of mining trucks BelAZ. The influence of the load nature created by the uncontrolled rectifier on the power factor and mass-dimensional indicators of the electromechanical transmission isassessed. Variants of modernization of the AC-electromechanical transmission system are proposed, which provide power factor correction. The influence of the proposed options on the overall dimensions of the electromechanical transmission is considered. Based on the assessment, a modernization option was chosen that provides the required power factor with minimal impact on the overall dimensions of the electromechanical transmission. The results of modeling the operation of the existing electromechanical transmission and the modernized electromechanical transmission system using the most promising modernization option are presented.

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A. E. Kozyaruk, A. M. Kamyshyan (2019) Improving the Energy Efficiency of the Electromechanical Transmission of an Open-pit Dump Truck. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 239. p. 576. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2019.5.576
Geoecology and occupational health and safety
  • Date submitted
    2018-01-29
  • Date published
    2019-10-27

Ensuring the Safety of Construction Works During the Erection of Buildings and Structures

When constructing buildings and structures for industrial and civil purposes, it is important to ensure safe working conditions for the tower crane operator and contractors of construction and installation works on the construction site, since these conditions largely determine the performance of the tower crane and the pace of construction in general. Accidents associated with the use of lifting equipment in construction often lead not only to injuries and death within the construction industry, but also affect passers-by who find themselves in the danger zone due to the non- compliance of the construction organization project with the requirements of existing codes of rules containing requirements for labor protection and industrial safety in construction. The article analyzes the causes of accidents in construction that result from the operation of tower cranes, as well as ways to ensure their reliable and safeoperation. The theoretical substantiation and engineering and technical solutions of safety during construction and installation works during the construction of objects due to the improvement of the design of the tower crane cabin and its equipment are offered. The results of theoretical and experimental studies of sensorimotor activity of the operator of the construction machine, which are the basis for engineering solutions developed at the level of inventions of tower cranes cabins of increased visibility and their equipment, are presented.

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L. A. Goldobina, P. A. Demenkov, O. V. Trushko (2019) Ensuring the Safety of Construction Works During the Erection of Buildings and Structures. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 239. p. 583. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2019.5.583
Geoecology and occupational health and safety
  • Date submitted
    2019-06-04
  • Date published
    2019-10-27

Investigation of the Possibility of Immobilization of Mobile Forms of Arsenic in Technogenic Soils

Levels of contamination of three mining industrial zones in Irkutsk Oblast and Zabaykalsky Krai were revealed by means of geoecological and geochemical monitoring. Bulk contents and mobile forms of As in soils, stubs, bricks, and dumps of the mining and processing industry were defined. This allowed revealing features of chemical composition of technogenic substrates for the purpose of a choice of a way of their neutralization. The possibility of chemical immobilization of mobile ionic forms of As in natural and man-made objects by treatment with alkaline reagents was studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed pharmacolite CaHAsO 4 ·2H 2 O, calcium arsenate Ca 3 (AsO 4 ) 2 , and segnititePb(Fe 3+ ) 3 AsO 4 (AsO 3 OH)(OH) 6 that are formed in the obtained solid insoluble precipitates. Formation of new solid insoluble compounds indicates the chemical binding (immobilization) of arsenic-containing compounds and the irreversibility of the process. This allows us to offer an effective way of fixing toxic agents to reduce migration in the environment by stabilizing immobilized forms. Experiments with the use of lignin sludge ash (accumulated waste of the closed Baikal pulp and paper mill) for the neutralization of arsenic-containing waste of mining and metallurgical industries were carried out. Application of modified coal sorbing agents for the sorption of residual mobile forms of As (after treating with an alkaline reagent) allows achieving a decrease in its concentrations to the TLV standard for a hazardous substance. NoritRO 3520 is the most effective sorbing agent. The results are of high applied importance   for the implementation of the method of chemical immobilization of mobile ion forms of As in technogenesiszones.

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O. L. Kachor, G. I. Sarapulova, A. V. Bogdanov (2019) Investigation of the Possibility of Immobilization of Mobile Forms of Arsenic in Technogenic Soils. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 239. p. 596. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2019.5.596
Geoecology and occupational health and safety
  • Date submitted
    2018-10-08
  • Date published
    2019-10-27

Study of the Anthropogenic Impact on the Change of Geoecological Conditions of the Khojahasan Lake, Azerbaijan

The   paper   considers   the   results   of   geoecological   and   geophysical   studies   conducted    in    the    Khojahasan Lake basin in the Western part of Baku. The main purpose of the work was to study the anthropogenic impact on geoecological conditions of the lake. To assess the development of exogenous geological processes in the coastal zone of the lake and their impact on the environment, geophysical studies were carried out by the vertical electric sounding (VES). From 1990 to 2014, the physical and chemical characteristics of water and sediments were studied in a representative section of the lake. Metal concentrations, including such toxic elements as Cu, Zn, Cd, Sr, Ba, Pb, Cr, and Ni, were determined in the trace element composition of bottom sediments. It was revealed that since the mid-XIX century and especially since the second half of the XX century the high rate of population growth and urbanization in the territory of the Absheron Peninsula (in the Republic of Azerbaijan the name Apsheron was changed to Absheron) led to intensive use of natural resources and increased anthropogenic load on the environment. Technogenesis actively violates the natural cycle of matter and energy in lakes (limnogenesis), along with other natu- ral media, as lake basins are located in lowlands and often accumulate industrial, municipal, agricultural, and other discharges. Pollutants accumulated in the lake basin affect hydrobiochemical conditions, transform quantitative and qualitative indicators of the aquatic environment and bottom sediments. Factors affecting the lake landscape are ge- netically different, unequal in the degree and nature of the impact, as well as induration.

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A. M. Salamov, V. A. Mammadov, H. Kh. Khalilova (2019) Study of the Anthropogenic Impact on the Change of Geoecological Conditions of the Khojahasan Lake, Azerbaijan. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 239. p. 603. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2019.5.603