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Vol 231

Mining
  • Date submitted
    2017-04-20
  • Date accepted
  • Date published
    2018-06-25

Special features of a structure of technical operations for peat excavation with stage dewatering

A method of development of a technology of peat extraction for intensifying of dewatering which involves drying of peat raw materials in thick layers with a layer-by-layer harvesting into large-sized roll with further delivery to the field storage unit of the enlarged sizes is presented in the paper. Throughout the year storage raw materials may be transported to the customer or to the shopfloor for further processing. Considering dimension and mass characteristics, a crumbed peat of various moisture capacity is a major type of products to be of high demand. On the basis of the results of scientific studies regarding gravity dewatering of peat and its drying in field environment, the ways of intensifying of field dewatering of peat for extraction at shallow-peat lands and fine-limit fields are proposed. The presented results of the experimental performance of a technology of peat drying in thick layers with a layer-by-layer harvesting indicate an increase of seasonal harvesting and a decrease of the influence of unfavorable meteorological factors on the stability of the extraction process. Performed investigations allowed to develop a structure of technical operations for peat excavation with the stage dewatering in spreading and intermediate storage units providing rational state of the extraction process regarding a complex of technical factors. A suggested scheme of a process area for a primary and secondary period of deposit exploitation by a technology of peat excavation is considered.

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E. A. Kremcheev (2018) Special features of a structure of technical operations for peat excavation with stage dewatering. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 231. p. 225. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.3.225
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2017-07-26
  • Date accepted
  • Date published
    2018-06-25

Peculiarities of kinematics of rock mass shear during development of subseismic-scale faults

The article describes the mechanism of formation and development of subseismic-scale faults in sedimentary rock mass based on results of physical and mathematical simulation. Physical modelling of layered rock massif was carried out by using sand-gypsum mixture. The results of physical modeling made it possible to visually evaluate the process of formation and development of subseismic-scale faults, to establish the orientation and amplitude of the modeled faults. It was established that faults with higher amplitude had filler material formed because of friction of fault edges/walls. The volume of modelled formation after formation of faults depending on fault amplitudes changed from 2-3 to 10 %. To gain information on stress deformed condition of rock massif and identification of key peculiarities of fault propagation dynamics we used the mathematical modeling based on particle-flow algorithm. The results of mathematical modeling determined that during formation of low amplitude faults the shear field has several rock clusters. Due to interaction of clusters, which have coordinated movement and promote massif loosening, the rock mass accumulates voids, which are the prerequisite for formation of subseismic-scale faults. The gained results enable to specify the complex mechanism of irreversible shears and deformations of rock mass during formation and development of subseismic-scale faults. It contributes to the improvement of the methodology for predicting the SSF parameters, which is of practical importance in terms of reducing mining risks.

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A. V. Merzlikin, L. N. Zakharova (2018) Peculiarities of kinematics of rock mass shear during development of subseismic-scale faults. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 231. p. 235. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.3.235
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2018-06-27
  • Date accepted
  • Date published
    2018-06-25

Influence of mining-geological conditions and technogenic factors on blastholes stability during open mining of apatite-nepheline ores

The paper presents the results of borehole stability research and considers possible causes of emergencies. The features of the blast hole drilling process are analyzed taking into account the properties of the rock. Based on the distribution of speed of drill fines removal from the well, an algorithm for selecting drilling modes is proposed. The nature of change in the size of the holess over time has been analyzed. This paper investigates the influence of rock fracturing and its water content on borehole stability. Possible options for eliminating the man-made impact on the massif near holes and options for fixing the hole walls with soft shells are suggested. The experimental data on the installation of shells for the conditions of open mining of apatite-nepheline ores are given. The operability and effectiveness of the technology is proved.

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M. N. Overchenko, S. A. Tolstunov, S. P. Mozer (2018) Influence of mining-geological conditions and technogenic factors on blastholes stability during open mining of apatite-nepheline ores. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 231. p. 239. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.3.239
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2018-06-27
  • Date accepted
  • Date published
    2018-06-25

Evaluation of signal properties when searching for cavities in soil under concrete slabs by radio detection stations of subsurface investigation

A method of localization of concealed cavities on the basis of studying of the reflected electromagnetic impulses is considered in the paper. An issue of early detecting of concealed cavities in engineering facilities is a critical one due to a significant influence on further serviceability of a structure. Problems of localization of concealed cavities in the soil body under the concrete slabs of hydropower stations were studied; the results of ground radar detecting investigations of the cavities, physical simulation of a cavity as well as a mathematical modeling of a reflected signal are presented. Modern subsurface radar detection provides methods which allow to reliably detect concealed cavities in the soil. However, it is possible only in case of a clear boundary between the adjacent layers that conditions a jump of dielectric permeability. In the result of an abrupt change of dielectric permeability a reflected wave occurred; the existence of subsurface heterogeneity is conditioned by the properties of this wave. Moreover, the greater is the difference between the values of dielectric permeability in the adjacent layers, the larger amplitude the reflected wave will have. If the cavity is at the stage of forming, i.e. it is filled with the soil of reduced density, then there is no clear boundary at the border of the layers which will condition a gradual change of dielectric permeability with depth. In this case an amplitude of a reflected wave will be minimal and a formation signal will be masked out by jamming signals reflected from various heterogeneities. In such case to determine a cavity at the stage of forming seems to be impossible. To determine poor signals an analysis of a phase of a reflected signal may be used; phase alters in compliance with the reflection coefficient change pattern. The article contains information about signals reflected from the heterogeneities and a conclusion regarding a possibility of detecting cavities in the soil on the basis of a method of coherent processing of signals is made.

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G. V. Rudianov, E. I. Krapivskii, S. M. Danil'ev (2018) Evaluation of signal properties when searching for cavities in soil under concrete slabs by radio detection stations of subsurface investigation. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 231. p. 245. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.3.245
Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2017-07-19
  • Date accepted
  • Date published
    2018-06-25

Designing of well trajectory for efficient drilling by rotary controlled systems

The main directions of increasing the efficiency of drilling wells by improving methods for designing profiles of directional and horizontal wells are identified. The feasibility and necessity of using at drilling with rotary controlled systems the trajectories of directed wells' profiles with continuous curving, that do not contain conjugated sections, on the basis of plane transcendental curves are theoretically substantiated and experimentally confirmed. An algorithm and software are developed that allow optimal selection of a profile or a trajectory section, taking into account minimization of twisting, bending, compressive and tensile stresses that ensure the efficiency of technical and technological parameters of well drilling.

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M. V. Dvoinikov (2018) Designing of well trajectory for efficient drilling by rotary controlled systems. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 231. p. 254. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.3.254
Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2017-09-25
  • Date accepted
  • Date published
    2018-06-25

Methods to enhance oil recovery in the process of complex field development of the Yarega oil and titanium deposit

Yarega oil and titanium deposit is a unique facility due to a combination of two mineral resources – oil and titanium ore – in one geologic structure. The paper describes mining and geologic conditions of the field, as well as engineering solutions to enhance oil recovery and the efficiency of heat transfer. The author focuses on the issues of deposit opening and preparation for development, and provides recommendations regarding the exploitation procedure of the oil and titanium parts of the field, which take into account field data on the extraction rates of high viscosity oil and titanium ore from the start of deposit development. The paper contains analysis of existing technological schemes of high viscosity oil extraction and steam heating of the oil bed, as well as assessment of their feasibility. Issues of field preparation for development are reviewed from the position of accumulated practical experience, and recommendations on the feasibility of combined underground and open-pit mining are supported with evidence. The main advantages of the proposed system are explained; key technical and economic indicators are calculated.

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I. E. Dolgii (2018) Methods to enhance oil recovery in the process of complex field development of the Yarega oil and titanium deposit. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 231. p. 263. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.3.263
Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2017-09-28
  • Date accepted
  • Date published
    2018-06-25

Complex petrophysical correction in the adaptation of geological hydrodynamic models (on the example of Visean pool of Gondyrev oil field)

The authors review a method of combined porosity and volume density correction in the process of modeling the distribution of reservoir permeability. Basing on petrophysical investigations of core samples from Bashkir fold deposits, an association between rock porosity, density and permeability has been analyzed. Significant correlation has been observed for the above mentioned parameters in porous collectors in contrast to reduced correlation for dense rocks and intervals of anomalously high poroperm characteristics. For terrigene porous collectors the authors propose a model of permeability assessment based on combined porosity and density correction. A modified model was developed for Visean pool of Gondyrev oil field, where collector permeability had been calculated as a function of rock porosity and density. The modified model has been compared to the conventional one; significant differences have been detected. In the modified version maximum permeability is associated with the southern part of the pool, whereas the conventional method points out the central part and predicts lowering permeability closer to the periphery. Geological model in the modified version is more homogenous than the conventional one and has no sharp peaks and valleys.  The calculations have been made that reproduce the history of field development for both permeability volumes. Authors demonstrate that total oil production obtained using the modified model has a much better correlation with the actual data. The best results from using suggested method apply to the initial stage of development due to better convergence of high-rate wells. On the whole, comparison of two methods shows that for the purposes of production history adaptation the modified model is significantly better than the conventional one. Hence, the method of density correction allows for better justification of differences in the lithology of Visean collectors, which ultimately results in higher accuracy of data on residual oil reserves in the deposit.

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V. A. Repina, V. I. Galkin, S. V. Galkin (2018) Complex petrophysical correction in the adaptation of geological hydrodynamic models (on the example of Visean pool of Gondyrev oil field). Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 231. p. 268. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.3.268
Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2018-06-27
  • Date accepted
  • Date published
    2018-06-25

Control and regulation of the hydrochloric acid treatment of the bottomhole zone based on field-geological data

The analysis results of the hydrochloric acid treatment of the bottomhole zone efficiency along the deposits of high-viscosity oil in the carbonate reservoirs of the Tournaisian stage are presented in the paper. Based on the use of the non-parametric Kulbak criterion, the most informative geological and technological parameters, which affect most the success of hydrochloric acid treatments, assessed by the criteria of increased oil production and reduced water cut, are revealed. The generalization of the hydrochloric acid treatments experience in the conditions of the high-viscosity oil reservoirs of the Tournaisian Stage allows for efficient forecasting, selection of wells, control and regulation of the treatment process to reduce the number of inefficient operations and improve the technical and economic parameters of fuel and energy enterprises at the investigated sites and the ones with similar field-geological characteristics.

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M. K. Rogachev, V. V. Mukhametshin (2018) Control and regulation of the hydrochloric acid treatment of the bottomhole zone based on field-geological data. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 231. p. 275. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.3.275
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2018-06-27
  • Date accepted
  • Date published
    2018-06-25

Extraction of platinum metals during procssing of chromium ores from dunnite deposits

Currently, the main raw materials sources of platinum group metals in Russia are complex sulfide copper-nickel ores of the Taimyr region and placer deposits. However, in view of the inevitable loss of platinum metals during the metallurgical processing of initial ores and the deterioration of the quality of ore raw materials, along with a decrease in the share of platinum mining from placers, there is a need to look for new non-traditional sources of platinum group metals. Dunnites of the Middle Urals are promising platinum-bearing raw materials. The use of the gravitational-magnetic processing of chromium ores of dunnite deposits makes it possible to identify a magnetic platinum-bearing concentrate with a high content of magnetite and platinum-iron alloys, they can be refined using chemical-metallurgical methods. This article presents the results of research of identifying peculiarities of technological behavior of chromium, iron and noble metals during mechanical processing of ledge chromium ore. The kinetic regularities of the sulfuric acid decomposition of magnetite are determined. Optimum technological parameters of sulfuric acid leaching of iron from magnetic products of chromium ore dressing are established. Based on the conducted studies, the PDF and PID for the complex processing of chromium ores of dunnite deposits is proposed, which ensures the production of a rich platinum-bearing concentrate and a high-quality chromite concentrate that meets the requirements of chemical production.

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G. V. Petrov, Ya. M. Shneerson, Yu. V. Andreev (2018) Extraction of platinum metals during procssing of chromium ores from dunnite deposits. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 231. p. 281. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.3.281
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2018-02-16
  • Date accepted
  • Date published
    2018-06-25

Development of research of low-dimension metal-containing systems from P.P. Weymarn to our days

The article analyzes main laws discovered by P.P.Weymarn (1879-1935) during his work at the Saint-Petersburg Mining University, they are connected with obtaining metal-containing disperse substances with nanometer particle size. It enlists priority papers in this field (1906-1915) and describes peculiarities of P.P.Weymarn scientific school which has several connections to modern research being conducted at the Saint-Petersburg Mining University in the field of «nanotechnology» as well as by foreign scientists. The paper reveals continuity in the field of several objects (disperse metals) and the methodology of studying the properties and stoichiometry of substances depending on dispersity. It provides information on achievements in synthesis of surface nanostructured metals and low-dimension forms of substances in various porous matrixes. Among the studies of the XXI century developing Weymarn’s ideas there can be noted solid-state hydride synthesis of metals, layering of different-sized molecules of ammonium compounds on metals (Al, Cu, Ni, Fe), as well as synthesis of metal nanostructures (Ag, Cu, Bi) using porous glass as a particle size stabilizing matrix. In the latter case, the dispersity of the metal increases while its melting point decreases.

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I. V. Pleskunov, A. G. Syrkov (2018) Development of research of low-dimension metal-containing systems from P.P. Weymarn to our days. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 231. p. 287. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.3.287
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2018-06-27
  • Date accepted
  • Date published
    2018-06-25

About the role of hydrafed calcium carboaluminates in improving the technology of complex processing of nephelines

The scientific justification and development of the method for industrial synthesis of complex aluminates of alkaline earth metals is an innovative solution that determined several directions in the development of technology for complex processing of nepheline raw materials. It ensures the production of high-quality metallurgical alumina, the effective utilization of nepheline sludge and production of new types of multipurpose by-products. The modern development of these technical solutions is associated with ensuring the energy efficiency of the synthesis of hydrafed calcium carboaluminates (HCCA) and increasing the level of purification of aluminate solutions. The conditions for synthesizing HCCA with the use of calcareous materials of natural and technogenic origin have been experimentally determined, which makes it possible to isolate the average particle diameter as one of the determining factors of this process. The effect of the turnover of the hydrogarnet sludge on the removal of kinetic limitations in the process of deep desalination of aluminous solutions is theoretically justified. The conditions of a two-stage dosage of HCCA are experimentally determined. It is shown that the optimum ratio of the amount of the reagent supplied in the first and second stages is about 3: 2. At the same time, the maximum degree of precipitation of silica provides the production of aluminate solutions with a silicon module at the level of 95,000, which is achieved by using a HCCA synthesized based on chemically precipitated calcium carbonate in the processing of wastes from the production of mineral fertilizers.

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V. M. Sizyakov, V. N. Brichkin (2018) About the role of hydrafed calcium carboaluminates in improving the technology of complex processing of nephelines. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 231. p. 292. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.3.292
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2018-06-27
  • Date accepted
  • Date published
    2018-06-25

Noncontact laser control of electric-physical parameters of semiconductor layers

Non-contact non-destructive laser-interferometric methods for measuring several electrophysical parameters of semiconductor and dielectric layers are proposed. They are the lifetime of charge carriers for electrons and holes separately; parameters of recombination centers, namely their concentration and capture cross-sections; bulk volume lifetime and rate of surface recombination, as well as the diffusion length of charge carriers. The methods are based on the interference-absorption interaction in a semiconductor of two laser radiations with different wavelengths. Short-wave injection radiation generates additional charge carriers in the material, which leads to a change in its optical constants at the wavelength of the other – long-wavelength probing laser radiation – and to modulation of this radiation as it passes through the sample of the studied material. The means for implementing the proposed methods and methods for processing the modulation signal for determining the parameters of the investigated samples are developed. The methods have been successfully tested on samples of such materials as germanium, silicon, indium antimonide and cadmium-mercury-tellurium alloy. It is shown that the methods can be used both in scientific research and electronic industry.

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A. B. Fedortsov, A. S. Ivanov (2018) Noncontact laser control of electric-physical parameters of semiconductor layers. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 231. p. 299. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.3.299
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2018-02-04
  • Date accepted
  • Date published
    2018-06-25

Influence of post-welding processing on continuous corrosion rate and microstructure of welded joints of steel 20 and 30KHGSA

Welded joints of structure steels have lower corrosion resistance in comparison to base metal. To increase corrosion resistance of welded joints and heat-affected zone they use longtime and energy-consuming methods of thermal and mechanic processing. The article covers the possibility of using the superplasticity deformation (SD) effect for processing of welded joints. The effect of SD is that metals and alloys with a small grain size (of the order of 10 μm) under conditions of isothermal deformation at a certain temperature acquire the ability for unusually large plastic deformations while reducing the deformation resistance. Grain-boundary sliding during superplasticity provides a high degree of structural homogeneity. If the metal does not have the small grain size, then during isothermal deformation at appropriate temperature the SD effect will not be fully manifested but will cause relaxation of residual micro and macro strains, recrystallization, which can be used during processing of welded joints to ensure their full strength. There have been carried out the investigation of processing methods impact - SD, thermal cycling and influence of post-welding treatment on corrosion rate and microstructure of steels 20 and 30KhGSA. It is shown that after deformation in superplasticity mode there is low corrosion rate and more favorable microstructure in the studied samples of steel. Post-welding processing of welded joints in SD mode provides low tool loads and low energy costs. 

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A. M. Shchipachev, S. V. Gorbachev (2018) Influence of post-welding processing on continuous corrosion rate and microstructure of welded joints of steel 20 and 30KHGSA. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 231. p. 307. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.3.307
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2018-02-06
  • Date accepted
  • Date published
    2018-06-25

Topochemical kinetics of external friction during mechanical and thermal activation of the friction contact

The article deals with the process of contact interaction (relative displacement) of surfaces as a chemical reaction, the regularity of which is described by the Arrhenius equation. The kinetic characteristics of Gersi-Striebeck are obtained taking into account the mechanical and temperature conditions of the frictional contact. The process of interaction of materials in friction in the form of regularities of topochemical kinetics, realized due to the processes of formation and growth of adhesion adhesion nuclei, makes it possible to present the experimental characteristics in the form of theoretical dependences. These dependences reflect the entire range of variation of the coefficient of friction from the speed of mutual movement of materials, including at ultra-low sliding speeds. In the framework of this approach, the lubricating action of the medium prevents and blocks the reactions of the transition of nuclei to actively growing nuclei.

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A. Yu. Albagachiev, M. I. Sidorov, M. E. Stavrovskii (2018) Topochemical kinetics of external friction during mechanical and thermal activation of the friction contact. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 231. p. 312. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.3.312
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2018-01-06
  • Date accepted
  • Date published
    2018-06-25

A method for controlling siltation of water catchments of district drainage systems of kimberlite mines

High contamination of mine water leads to intensive siltation of water catchments of district water drainage installations of kimberlite mines in Russia, because of which their pumping equipment periodically works in non-stationary regimes. At present, a number of known methods are used to limit the operation of pumping equipment in non-stationary modes: equipping the pump with a hand hoist to regulate the depth of lowering its suction pipeline into the sinkhole; preliminary dismantling of one of the two screen filters, mounted in the suction pipeline of the pump, which has smaller cells. Experience in the operation of water-drainage farms of kimberlite mines shows that these two methods allow to prevent the operation of pumping equipment in non-stationary modes only for a short period of time. A mine drainage installation is proposed, the technical result of which is the effective struggle against the silting of the water catchments of the district drainage systems of the kimberlite mines of the country.

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N. P. Ovchinnikov (2018) A method for controlling siltation of water catchments of district drainage systems of kimberlite mines. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 231. p. 317. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.3.317
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2018-06-27
  • Date accepted
  • Date published
    2018-06-25

Analysis of the options of modernization of roller-bit drilling machines with a submersible steamer

The designs of submersible hammers and dampers protected by patents for reducing the vibration of the drilling rig of roller drill machines are proposed. The variants of modernizing drilling rigs for drilling hard rocks and faces of complex structures are considered. Particular attention is paid to the joint work of submersible shockers and pneumatic shock absorbers, the preferred schemes for the arrangement of these devices by drilling rigs are indicated. The results of experimental tests of machines with pneumatic hammers are presented to determine the vibration performance and drilling speeds. The pneumatic hammer allows increasing the speed of drilling process to the intensification of the destruction of the plain face by the shock load and the cleavage of the protrusions of the unevenness of the face, the better fitting of the bit to the face and the release of the blades or the bit pins from the drill bit. The choice of a particular type of damper or shock absorber depends on its design scheme and the possibility of changing the design of the drill string. With the complexity of installing a damping device in the mast (with significant dimensions of shock absorbers and drilling of strong heterogeneous rocks), it is advisable to use a set of tools to reduce hydraulic pulsations in the mains and cylinders of the hydraulic system by installing chokes in the oil plants and pneumatic shock absorbers. It is proposed to use the device for the development of pneumatic hammers by a patent-pending drilling method with a hollow piston filled with magnetically active heavy liquid, which will allow controlling the frequency and size of the shock pulses and partially compensating for the drill string fluctuations arising from the uneven immersion of the bit in the array . It is noted that the proposed solutions increase the drilling speed by an average of 15%.

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D. A. Yungmeister, I. Krupenskii, S. A. Lavrenko (2018) Analysis of the options of modernization of roller-bit drilling machines with a submersible steamer. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 231. p. 321. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.3.321
Geoecology and occupational health and safety
  • Date submitted
    2017-10-23
  • Date accepted
  • Date published
    2018-06-25

Mathematical model of heat exchange processes for heat ptotective cooling suit of a rescuer

Fires are followed by the range of factors hazardous for human health; a radiant thermal stream accompanied by the high temperature of the environment is one of these factors. For protection of firemen special protective clothing from heat impact and the insulation type clothing are used. The paper demonstrates that the concept of action of such clothing is based on the passive heat protection owing to the use of materials with low conducting capacity or high specific heat. The time of effective protection of a suit is not considerable which reduces the duration of work under the unfavorable climatic conditions drastically, increases the work labor input, leads to the hyperthermia. One of the ways focused on the improvement of the heat protective clothing is a design of suits with cooling, which is stated in the paper. The paper shows that the developed heat protective suits on the basis of water-ice cooling elements are not widely used due to considerable costs. A more reasonable idea refers to the design of heat protective suits with cooling by using running water as the most available coolant circulating along polyvinylchloride pipes arranged between the layers of a suit. The objective stated in the paper is to derive the patterns of non-stationary heat exchange processes in the system «heat flow of the fire source – heat protective suit – rescuer’s body» with cooling the rescuer’s organism by running water circulating along polyvinylchloride pipes in the inner lining space as well as a development of a method to determine time of effective protection of the heat protective suit which was realized by solving the equation of non-stationary heat conductivity by the finite elements method. A mathematical model differs in the way of taking into consideration the external radiant thermal stream from a fire, internal thermal stream of a rescuer’s body, heat insulation properties of the suit materials, their geometrical parameters, temperature of coolant. The paper stated that the time of effective protection of a protective suit with water cooling is well above in comparison with the suits of a similar purposes for firemen and rescuers of the Ministry of emergency situations.

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V. R. Alab'ev, G. V. Zav'yalov (2018) Mathematical model of heat exchange processes for heat ptotective cooling suit of a rescuer. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 231. p. 326. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.3.326