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Vol 229

Geology
  • Date submitted
    2018-02-27
  • Date published
    2018-02-25

Collaborative interpretation of the data obtained by resistivity and ground penetrating radar methods for assessing the permeability of sandy clay soils

A method for estimating the filtration factor of sandy clay soils is considered on the basis of a joint interpretation of the data of a set of methods of engineering electrical exploration, including electrical resistivity tomography and ground penetrating radar studies. The solution of this problem is based on the use of known empirical connections between the imaginary and real parts of the complex dielectric permittivity, specific electrical resistance, and Q factor. An example of the effective joint use of the ground penetrating radar and non-contact electrical resistivity tomography shows how to obtain qualitative and quantitative estimates of a changing filtration factor in a draining road layer. It is necessary to use precise engineering geological information in order to provide the required estimates. The proposed approach makes it possible to describe continuous profiles of a pavement and underlying layers by ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography, as well as to assess soil properties when conducting an electrical survey from the surface of asphalt concrete pavement. Recommendations for the implementation of the developed methods of complex engineering and geophysical research are given for solving issues of repair work design, supervision, and quality control of road construction.

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D. A. Lalomov, V. V. Glazunov (2018) Collaborative interpretation of the data obtained by resistivity and ground penetrating radar methods for assessing the permeability of sandy clay soils. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 229. p. 3. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.1.3
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2017-05-24
  • Date published
    2018-02-25

Age and metamorphic conditions of the granulites from Capral-Jegessky synclinoria, Anabar shield

The paper presents the results of the isotope, geochemical and thermobarometric study of plagio-crystalline schist containing in the Upper Anabar series of the Anabar Shield. Granulite complexes of the paleoplatforms are the most important issue in addressing the fundamental problem of the Earth's crust origin and its composition. The early stages of crust formation which correspond to the deeply metamorphosed rocks of the platform basements, available for study within the shields, are of particular interest. The study of the age and metamorphic conditions of granulites by the case of the Upper Ananbar series allows specifying the stages the Anabar Shield's ancient crust formation. Isotope-geochemical (U-Pb geochronology for zircon and Sm-Nd for garnet-amphibole-WR) and thermoba-rometric (Theriak-Domino) studies of plagio-crystalline schist allowed to identify two Paleoproterozoic metamorphism stages within the territory of the Anabar Shield with an age of about 1997 and 1919 million years. The peak conditions of granulite metamorphism are determined as 775±35 С and 7.5±0.7 kbar, the parameters of the regressive stage are 700  C and 7 kbar. The sequence of the rocks metamorphic transformations can be assumed: high-thermal metamorphism of the granulite facies (T ≤ 810  C) and subsequent sub-isobaric (about 7 kbar) cooling to 700  C with a water activity increase and formation of Grt-Amp paragenesis corresponding to the transition from the granulite to amphibolite facies. Data on the REE and other trace elements distribution in zircon and rock-forming minerals obtained by the ion microprobe analysis contribute significantly to the isotope-geochemical data interpretation. 

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L. Yu. Sergeeva, A. V. Berezin, N. I. Gusev, S. G. Skublov, A. E. Mel'nik (2018) Age and metamorphic conditions of the granulites from Capral-Jegessky synclinoria, Anabar shield. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 229. p. 13. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.1.13
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2018-02-27
  • Date published
    2018-02-25

Substantiation of strength of the filling mass by taking a blast effect into account for the room-and-pillar methods

The development of the uranium ore bodies at the ore mines of PJSC «Priargunsky Industrial Mining and Chemical Union» (PJSC «PIMCU») by room-and-pillar method as high as a pillar between the levels (60 m) without fill, as a rule, leads to the fall of the adjoining rock, to the strong contamination of the ore and to the high yield of the oversize pieces of the barren rock. A longstanding industrial and theoretical research shows that the sizes of the self-sustaining rock escarpments at the ore mines of PJSC «PIMCU» in the solid mass of trachydacites, conglomerates, sandstones, felsites are equal to 20-40 m. Moreover, the sizes of the self-sustaining rock escarpments depend to a great extent on the intensity of fracturing of the adjoining rocks. The stable size of the escarpment does not exceed 5-10 m for the rocks with the size of a jointing up to 0.05 m. Consequently, timely performance of the filling operations of the worked-out space of the chamber is important. However, the question then arises: which characteristic strength should the filling mass have? The calculations of the characteristics of the filling mass in compliance with the reference guide «Shaft filling operations» show underestimated values of the characteristic compressive strength of the fill (1.4 MPa) for the room-and-pillar method, which leads to the increase of the ore contamination by the fill and provokes the additional costs for refilling of the volumes of the rock fall. On the basis of the Russian experience of using of the consolidated fill for the development of the ore bodies of 15 m thickness by chamber method the strength of the fill is taken as 3-5 MPa under the resultant value of the static stresses without taking into account the character of the dynamic loading stresses induced by the sequence blasthole ring initiating in a chamber. Overestimating the characteristic strength of the filling mass results in the high consumption of the cementing materials. On the basis of the theoretical research the authors suggested the theoretical dependence of calculation of the characteristic strength of the filling material with respect to compressive stresses of the fill induced by the blasting operations. The process of designing of the filling mass with the zones of diverse strength for the room-and-pillar extraction with the consolidated rock fill is proven to be economically reasonable. The bottom zone of the solid mass should have high strength (3-4 MPa), and the strength of the upper zone should be up to 2-2.5 MPa.

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E. T. Voronov, V. N. Tyupin (2018) Substantiation of strength of the filling mass by taking a blast effect into account for the room-and-pillar methods. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 229. p. 22. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.1.22
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2018-02-27
  • Date published
    2018-02-25

On enhancement of cooperation between universities for implementation of the program «Sustainable development–2030»

The article is focused on one of the pressing issues of our time – the international training of qualified personnel in higher education institutions with the aim of developing a stable economic system of the state, the main elements of which are interrelated stages of economic activity (exploration, prospecting, extraction, processing, and use of mineral resources). The question of the contribution and role of universities of different countries cooperating in the sphere of sustainable development of this sector is considered. The necessity of practical solution of this task for the implementation of UNESCO's program «Sustainable Development – 2030» is determined. In this relation, the concept of «sustainable development», its philosophical, scientific-theoretical and cultural aspects are considered, the special significance of the connection between the sustainable development of society and its individual fragments with modern education is emphasized. It is stated that education, in the context of sustainable development, should be anticipating, advancing and open. Given the current trends in higher education, it is possible to mention the work carried out by the Mining Institute of the Mongolian State University of Science and Technology in the direction of international cooperation.

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P. Ochirbat, B. Chinzorig (2018) On enhancement of cooperation between universities for implementation of the program «Sustainable development–2030». Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 229. p. 27. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.1.27
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2018-02-27
  • Date published
    2018-02-25

Uninterruptible power supply system for mining industry enterprises

Immediate problem of compensating falls and deviations of voltage in the power supply systems of mining enterprises in order to ensure the proper level of power supply reliability for the most important technological consumers is substantiated in the article. The main causes of the voltage falls and deviations occurrence in the power supply systems of mining enterprises have been identified. The degree of different nature voltage falls and deviations influence on the dynamic and static stability of power supply systems is established. The necessity of ensuring an uninterrupted and guaranteed power supply mode for continuous technological processes of mining production is shown. The analysis of the existing regulatory documentation in the field of guaranteed and uninterrupted power supply is carried out. Based on the results of experimental studies and mathematical modeling, a relationship has been revealed between formally independent sources of electricity supply from the viewpoint of existing regulatory documentation. The expression allowing determination of cohesion coefficient of two power supply sources is given. The necessity of taking into account the degree of sources interconnection in the synthesis of uninterruptible power supply systems for mining enterprises is justified. The analysis of existing technical means and solutions for reserving power supply for mining enterprises, including modern uninterruptible online power supply systems, own needs power plants, as well as dynamic voltage distortion compensators, is done. The classification of the consumers categories related to possibility of their complete or partial shutdown in emergency modes in case of voltage falls and interruptions is given. System of uninterruptible power supply for mining enterprises based on the combined use of alternative and renewable energy sources, uninterruptible power supply sources and a multi-step automatic reserve transition system, which allows ensuring uninterrupted mode of energy supply for the most responsible consumers of mining enterprises, was developed. 

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B. N. Abramovich (2018) Uninterruptible power supply system for mining industry enterprises. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 229. p. 31. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.1.31
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2017-12-27
  • Date published
    2018-02-25

Providing energy decoupling of electric drive and electric grids for industrial electrical installations

Subjects of the research are industrial electric drives, witch maintain the operation of main actuating units of production machines and installations during the development of mineral resource deposits. The goal is to research the possibility to ensure the energy decoupling of industrial electric drives and electric grid by means of structural implementation of active rectifiers into frequency converters. The main purpose of energy decoupling is to eliminate the negative impact of low quality electric energy and changes in energy parameters on electric drive operation. In order to accomplish energy decoupling of electric drive with active rectifier, methods of mathematical and simulation modeling with mathematical application software package were used. The integrated simulation model with two electric drives, including active rectifier (energy decoupled electric drive) and diode rectifier (standard type electric drive), were created. Simulation model is provided with tools for oscillographic testing and analysis of the impact of power quality parameters on frequency converters and drive motors operation. The analysis of effectiveness of energy decoupling by means of active rectifier of frequency converter shows that drive motor completely retains the stability and controllability of rotation frequency and torque during the changes of power quality parameters in electric grid. The use of active rectifier allows to ensure the operation of electric drive in required mode in case of voltage decrease by 30 % with normative value of 5-10 %, i.e. energy decoupling provides high stability margin for voltage. Electric drive with active rectifier ensures energy decoupling in case of asymmetry of supply voltage. The control of mechanical variables of induction motor during offsets in amplitude and frequency in all phases of electric grid is ensured to be on required level.

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B. Yu. Vasil'ev, V. A. Shpenst, O. V. Kalashnikov, G. N. Ul'yanov (2018) Providing energy decoupling of electric drive and electric grids for industrial electrical installations. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 229. p. 41. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.1.41
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2018-02-27
  • Date published
    2018-02-25

Research of heat generation indicators of gas engines

A comprehensive strategy for reviving the production of mining industry equipment and ensuring its competitiveness includes the wide use of gas engines for various purposes. Experimental studies of the working cycle of a gas engine are one of the main tasks in determining the heat generation characteristics. To this end, indicator charts were recorded in various modes, which were subjected to analysis in order to determine the key parameters characterizing intra-cylinder processes. According to the experimental program, the maximum cycle pressure, the rate of pressure build-up, the heat generation characteristic, the first heat generation phase, the duration of the second combustion phase, and the effect of the ignition advance angle for the ignition period were determined. The results of an experimental study of the influence of gas engine working process with allowance for the change in the ignition advance angle for the ignition period are described and the parameters of the maximum cycle pressure, the rate of pressure build-up, and the heat generation characteristics are determined. In the processing of data, integral charts are constructed, the working cycle parameters are calculated, and the dynamics of the engine heat generation is determined. 

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O. N. Didmanidze, A. S. Afanas'ev, R. T. Khakimov (2018) Research of heat generation indicators of gas engines. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 229. p. 50. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.1.50
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2017-07-07
  • Date published
    2018-02-25

Improved estimation of open pit excavator capacity

The paper addresses issues related to estimation of operational time for open pit excavators during truck loading operations. The author analyzes the method of annual capacity estimation and highlights disagreements in different ways of operational time logging. Recommendations are offered concerning estimation of excavator capacity taking into account its repair cycle. The paper contains an analysis of the cyclical nature of various types of maintenance in the interval between capital repairs as a function of operational time. Guidelines are proposed that allow to calculate annual production days of the excavator with regards to the repair cycle and adjusted utilization coefficient throughout the shift. It has been established that decreasing the coefficient of excavator utilization throughout the shift and more precise logging of annual work days lead to a slower decrease in estimated machine capacity than the one described in the reference literature. According to the suggested method, estimated excavator capacity is more than 23 % higher than the value stated in the reference literature.

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S. N. Zharikov (2018) Improved estimation of open pit excavator capacity. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 229. p. 56. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.1.56
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2017-10-25
  • Date published
    2018-02-25

Development of the system for air gap adjustment and skip protection of electromagnetic lifting unit

The efficiency of the electromagnetic lifting system is ensured by the well-coordinated work of all its parts and elements, namely those providing the strictly vertical movement of the skip. The deviation of the skip movement from the vertical axis can lead to a stop and damage of both the skip and the unit. Therefore, the air gap adjustment and skip protection system of the electromagnetic lifting system, which includes determining the size of the air gap between the electromagnet of the skip and the electromagnet of the aligning device, and the development of a stabilization system to ensure a constant air gap and regulate the current in the electromagnet winding, provide both a strictly vertical movement skip, and its protection.  The article is devoted to the theoretical determination of the air gap between the electromagnets of the aligning device and the skip using the Biot – Savar – Laplace law.

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B. A. Zhautikov, A. A. Aikeeva (2018) Development of the system for air gap adjustment and skip protection of electromagnetic lifting unit. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 229. p. 62. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.1.62
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2017-06-15
  • Date published
    2018-02-25

Simulation of operation of pneumatic compensator with quasi-zero stiffness in the electric centrifugal submersible pump unit

The ECSPU pneumatic compensators with quasi-zero stiffness are proposed. The pneumatic compensator with quasi-zero stiffness is suggested to be made in the form of pneumatic spring assemblies having a power characteristic with a positive stiffness working area and a set of successively connected Belleville springs and a power characteristic with a working area of negative stiffness. Structurally, a set of Belleville springs is located inside the air spring and supports pneumatic compensator piston. As a result of adding the negative stiffness of the disc spring washers set and the positive stiffness of the pneumatic spring, the resulting system (the proposed pneumatic compensator) acquires a quasi-zero or specified low stiffness. The efficiency of the suggested pneumatic compensator was determined by the possibility of moving its piston from the effects of various pressure drops. It was assumed that the greater the distance the piston can move under a given action, the more effective the pneumatic compensator is. The effect of various forces acting on the piston in the case of pressure drops on the discharge line of the electric centrifugal submersible pump units (ECSPU) is simulated: a rapidly decreasing load; a sudden increase in the force acting on the piston and vibration impact. In all the considered examples, the displacement of the piston was several meters, which corresponds to the length of the working area of the power characteristic of the considered pneumatic compensator with quasi-zero stiffness. It is shown that existing pneumatic compensators, which are like gas caps, are in principle unable to provide the same displacement of the piston under the same effects on it. For their effective operation, the size of the gas cap should be several tens of meters, which is impossible in the conditions of the well. In the calculations, it is shown that it is possible to manufacture the necessary disk spring washers from various materials: steel; fiberglass FGM; beryllium bronze. Of particular interest are disk spring washers made of beryllium bronze, which are capable of withstanding up to 20 billion load cycles.

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A. N. Zotov, K. R. Urazakov, E. B. Dumler (2018) Simulation of operation of pneumatic compensator with quasi-zero stiffness in the electric centrifugal submersible pump unit. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 229. p. 70. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.1.70
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2017-07-17
  • Date published
    2018-02-25

Provision of adhesion strength of gas-thermal coatings on piston rings of quarry transport engines

The main trend in the development of modern diesel engine manufacturign is the creation of high-powered, reliable and economical internal combustion engines (ICE), which are widely used in various industries, including mining machinery. The application of the methods of gas-thermal and gas-plasma coating for obtaining wear-resistant layers on piston rings for large internal combustion engines of quarry transport – diesel locomotives and dump trucks- is considered. It is shown that the abrasive-jet machining of base coat is widely used as a preparatory operation before coating process, and the roughness of the working surface of the rings after abrasive-jet machining has a significant impact on the adhesion strength of the coating with the base material. The selection of the surface roughness and the conditions of abrasive-jet machining for increasing the coating adhesion strength to the base coat significantly determines both the thickness of the coating and the reliability of the part itself. The aim of the paper is to investigate the dependence of the adhesion strength of a gas-thermal wear-resistant coating of piston rings of large engines of quarry transport, including dump trucks and diesel locomotives, from the roughness of the working surface after abrasive-jet machining, which in turn depends on its modes (distance to the nozzle exit section, the number of passes, the working air pressure, the shot change rate). The working surface adhesion strength of piston rings with diameter of 210 mm coated with molybdenum and steel wire composition was investigated by the twisting angle at which the coating peeled. It is shown that the roughness providing a twist angle greater than 35° should be more than 22 μm, which does not cause coating peeling off. Modes of abrasive-jet machining providing the specified values of roughness: working air pressure is 0.4 MPa, distance to the nozzle exit section is 110 mm, the number of passes is 2, and the shot changes after processing 40 mandrels.

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Yu. Ol't, V. V. Maksarov, V. A. Krasnyi (2018) Provision of adhesion strength of gas-thermal coatings on piston rings of quarry transport engines. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 229. p. 77. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.1.77
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2018-02-28
  • Date published
    2018-02-25

Basic provisions and problems of ELW technology for the manufacture of aluminum-magnesium alloys constructions

Existing problems of electron beam welding of aluminum alloy constructions are considered. For research purposes, the aluminum-magnesium alloy of grade 1561 up to 60 mm thick was used. The thermal field in the heat influence zone is studied experimentally and analytically on the basis of the finite element method (the «Ansys» program). The effect of electron beam movement (scanning) influence on the quality of welded connections and the surface of the welded parts was studied. On the basis of metallographic studies and mechanical tests of welded metal, it is proved that high quality of welded joints is ensured when the beam moves along a curve of the «compressed brackets» shape. A special generator is designed to control the electron beam, which allows to implement a new type of scanning (compressed brackets). The fundamentals of welding technology for alloy 1561 up to 60 mm thick are outlined. Specific recommendations are given, and two new methods are proposed that will allow the successful use of the developed technology in factories in the production of new products and in the repair processes. Examples and analysis of thermal cycles obtained by calculation and experimental method are given. The patterns of heat distribution along the trajectory of the beam movement for different types of scanning are established. The main types of defects in the formation of the welded joints and those formed in the metal during crystallization are considered. Their interrelation with the parameters of the welding mode is shown.

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E. I. Pryakhin, N. I. Sharonov (2018) Basic provisions and problems of ELW technology for the manufacture of aluminum-magnesium alloys constructions. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 229. p. 84. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.1.84
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2018-02-28
  • Date published
    2018-02-25

Development of sensorless vector control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor in Matlab Simulink

In last 20 years segment of electric drives with permanent magnet synchronous motors has increased. This type of motors has better technical characteristics compared to induction motors, but has problems in actual implementation, one of which is the requirement of rotor position data. It is possible to implement with use of sensors or without them by means of motor state observer. The paper describes problems of sensorless vector control system for permanent magnet synchronous motors. The vector control system with state observer for permanent magnet synchronous motors is described. Synthesis of sliding mode observer for rotor speed and position is presented. The algorithm is implemented by development of model in Matlab Simulink environment with support by Texas Instruments processors support blocks. Experimental comparison of results of rotor angle state calculation and the data obtained by rotor position sensors was conducted. Research objective is a development of control algorithm, which has required precision for calculation of rotor start angle, high range of speed regulation and resistance to drift of motor parameters.

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V. Ya. Frolov, R. I. Zhiliglotov (2018) Development of sensorless vector control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor in Matlab Simulink. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 229. p. 92. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.1.92
Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2018-02-28
  • Date published
    2018-02-25

The problem of cadastral appraisal of forest lands taking into account the infrastructure of the forestry fund

Forest lands are the main means of production in the forest sector. For the most territories in the Russian Federation there are established methods of cadastral appraisal, but not for the forest regions taking up 2/3 of the country’s area. In 2002 Russian Government made an attempt to solve this problem and recommended a method of cadastral appraisal for the lands of the forestry fund. However, the method did not find practical application and was dismissed in 2010, and no substitution followed. In each subject of the Russian Federation private appraisers offer their own options of forest land valuation, but their results differ significantly even for the lands with comparable species of wood, productivity, site quality and age composition of the stand. Moreover, valuation organizations do not take into account forest infrastructure. Authors propose a universal method suitable for the entire territory of the country, which will allow to calculate specific cadastral value of the forest lands taking into account taxation indices of the wood stands growing there. The method is suitable not only for the objective cadastral valuation of the forest lands – reasonable rental payments will provide an opportunity to develop transport infrastructure in the forestry fund, especially forest roads and bridges, and to make timely arrangements for plant maintenance, forest protection and reproduction, which will have a significant influence on social and economic development of forest regions in Russia.

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V. F. Kovyazin, A. Yu. Romanchikov (2018) The problem of cadastral appraisal of forest lands taking into account the infrastructure of the forestry fund. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 229. p. 98. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2018.1.98