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Vol 227

Geology
  • Date submitted
    2017-05-26
  • Date published
    2017-10-25

Geochemistry of spinels from xenoliths of mantle lherzolites (sverre Volcano, spitsbergen Archipelago)

The paper presents the results of a study (LA-ICP-MS method) of spinel from the collection of mantle xenoliths of lherzolites (seven xenoliths) selected in quaternary alkaline basalts of the Sverre volcano, the Spitsbergen archipelago. The study of two large (more than 15 cm in diameter) xenoliths made it possible to study changes in the composition of minerals in the central, intermediate, and marginal parts of the samples of chromium diopside spinel lherzolites. The sinusoidal character of the REE distribution in spinels, which indicates the manifestation of mantle metasomatism, is established. The results obtained for the first time on the trace-element composition for spinels from mantle xenoliths in alkaline basalts of the Spitsbergen archipelago are supplemented by data on the geochemistry of spinels of mantle origin published in the world literature.

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D. S. Ashikhmin, Yu.-S. Chen, S. G. Skublov, A. E. Mel'nik (2017) Geochemistry of spinels from xenoliths of mantle lherzolites (sverre Volcano, spitsbergen Archipelago). Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 227. p. 511. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2017.5.511
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2017-10-25
  • Date published
    2017-10-25

Prospects of hydrocarbon deposits exploration using the method of induced polarization during geomagnetic-variation profiling

Traditionally it is believed that the effect of induced polarization is an interfering factor for the measurement of electromagnetic fields and their interpretation during conducting works using magnetotelluric sounding and geomag-netic-variation profiling methods. A new method is proposed for isolating the effects of induced polarization during geomagnetic-variation profiling aimed at searching for hydrocarbon deposits on the basis of phase measurements during the conduct of geomagnetic-variation profiling. The phenomenon of induced polarization is proposed to be used as a special exploration mark for deep-lying hydrocarbon deposits. The traditional method of induced polarization uses artificial field sources, the powers of which are principally insufficient to reach depths of 3-5 km, which leads to the need to search for alternative - natural sources in the form of telluric and magnetotelluric fields. The proposed method makes it possible to detect and interpret the effects of induced polarization from deep-seated oil and gas reservoirs directly, without relying on indirect signs.

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K. M. Ermokhin (2017) Prospects of hydrocarbon deposits exploration using the method of induced polarization during geomagnetic-variation profiling. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 227. p. 518. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2017.5.518
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2017-05-11
  • Date published
    2017-10-25

On the connection of the hydrocarbons presence and epigenetic sulfides in the south of Yakutia

Currently the prospecting and exploration for hydrocarbons continues to be one of the most promising directions in geological exploration. The use of pulsed electrical exploration technique for prospecting of hydrocarbon reservoirs in combination with seismic prospecting makes it possible to significantly increase the probability of discovering the deposit, thereby lowering the likelihood of drilling an exploratory well that will not give an inflow. Also with the help of seismic exploration it is quite difficult to identify non-structural deposits. One of the reasons for the occurrence of anomalies caused by induced polarization (IP) is the epigenetic pyrite formed above the deposit as a result of the formation of a geochemical barrier at the boundary of the penetration of atmospheric oxygen. The presence of abnormally high values of induced polarization in the upper part of the section that differed from the background value within one of the deposits located at the southern part of Yakutia was manifested in the results of a one-dimensional inversion of the data from the electromagnetic sounding and induced polarization (EMS-IP) technology, performed within the polarizing horizontally layered model of the medium, in which the frequency dependence of the resistivity is described by the Cole-Cole formula. The idea of EMS-IP is to maximize the full use of information from transient processes induced by rectangular polarity pulses that are used in traditional DC methods. For the EMS-IP method, a high resolution and depth of study were obtained using the mean gradient setup. The investigated anomaly of the induced polarization is present at a depth of about 150 m and is confined to the pyritized interval of intensely fractured rocks of the Jurassic deposits, which is confirmed by a core sample data selected from the exploration hydrogeological wells. The one-dimensional mass inversion of the data showed sensitivity to the layer with an abnormally high value of the IP. The discrepancy in the model containing the pyrite layer is much higher than in the model not containing the pyrite layer.

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M. S. Shkirya, Yu. A. Davydenko (2017) On the connection of the hydrocarbons presence and epigenetic sulfides in the south of Yakutia. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 227. p. 523. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2017.5.523
Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2017-10-25
  • Date published
    2017-10-25

Implementation of new technology is a reliable method of extracting reserves remaining in hydro-carbon deposits

The prospects for further increase in oil production determined the introduction of new advanced technologies at all stages of the geological exploration process, drilling of wells, extraction and processing of hydrocarbons. On exploited deposits located at the late and final stages of development, in areas with developed infrastructure, the task of increasing oil recovery is particularly relevant. The increase in the total oil extraction in the fields by only a few percent allows us to obtain additionally millions of tons of oil and gas condensate. The oil reservoir is a multifactorial dynamic dissipative system and possesses all the properties of nonlinear self-organizing systems. To order the physicochemical processes in the formation in the parametric resonance mode, it is sufficient to periodically apply pressure to the formation by wide-band pulses from an independent nonlinear source. Such an independent well source is a plasma-pulse generator with an energy of about one kilojoule and a frequency spectrum from a few hertz to several kilohertz with a period of elastic vibrations 1-2 times per minute. The authors of the proposed technology suggest using an underwater electric explosion of conductors, in which the process of formation of a conducting channel is a successive chain of phase transformations of a metal under the influence of a pulsed current and then a breakdown of the hydromedia along the products of the explosion. A typical process of initiating a discharge is the breakdown of the interelectrode gap in a liquid under the influence of an electrical voltage that appears on the electrodes when a charged capacitor is connected to them through a conductor initiating an explosion. The application of the plasma-pulse effect equipment on the productive reservoir ensures an increase of oil and gas production rate and injectivity of injection wells by a factor of 2-6 and an improvement in the oil-water ratio of the produced fluid.

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A. A. Molchanov, P. G. Ageev (2017) Implementation of new technology is a reliable method of extracting reserves remaining in hydro-carbon deposits. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 227. p. 530. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2017.5.530
Oil and gas
  • Date submitted
    2017-10-25
  • Date published
    2017-10-25

Prospects for development of fuel cells

The article is devoted to the solution of a complex of problems that arise in small and medium-scale treatment complexes, gas production plants and small and medium-capacity power plants associated with the processing of crude methane and the possibility of reducing the greenhouse effect. The economic feasibility of the development of fuel cells (FC) on raw biomethane was demonstrated by the authors in previous publications. The specificity of the solution of problems is focused on small and medium-scale treatment complexes, gas production plants and small and medium power plants. The aim of the study is to show the possibility of solving a multicomponent task of developing fuel cells, including the experimental determination of the actual use of sodium formate as a reducing agent for the production of electricity in a fuel cell (FC). Results are the following: the possibility of solving the issues of reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere during processing of waste products of human vital activity is proved. A method for converting methane and carbon dioxide emissions into useful products is shown.

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V. M. Shaber, I. V. Ivanova (2017) Prospects for development of fuel cells. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 227. p. 540. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2017.5.540
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2017-10-25
  • Date published
    2017-10-25

Topicality and possibilities for complete processing of red mud of aluminous production

In the aluminum industry, the largest amount of waste is red mud (RM). that is a solid bauxite residue after hydrochemical processing and extraction of alumina. The topicality of its processing was shown by the ecological catastrophe in Hungary (2010), where the bund wall of the slurry storage was destroyed and the viscous mass of fine red mud fell on thousands of hectares of land. The risks of a recurrence of such a catastrophe increase due to the increased natural disasters: earthquakes, torrential rains and floods, as well as terrorist attacks. Therefore, it is proposed to exclude the storage of red mud in sludge storages and organize its shipment in transportable form to processing complexes. The article presents the results of scientific research and the experience of complex processing of red sludge on an industrial scale with the production of new types of marketable products.

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V. L. Trushko, V. A. Utkov, V. Yu. Bazhin (2017) Topicality and possibilities for complete processing of red mud of aluminous production. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 227. p. 547. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2017.5.547
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2017-04-12
  • Date published
    2017-10-25

On osmondite nature

The uniqueness of iron is not only that it is one of the most common elements, and the production of its derivative (steel) «exceeds the production of other metals by 14 times», not only in its polymorphism, but also in the following: «conversion of BCC α-Fe (К = 8) into a denser FCC γ-modification (K = 12) with heating is quite unusual and along with the thermodynamic interpretation requires a special physical explanation, especially in connection with the fact that it lies at the basis of the metal science and the thermal treatment of iron alloys» ( V.K.Grigorovich). «Unusual» iron is also confirmed by the fact that the hardness of Fe at 440 °С is 1.15 times higher than at 20 °С. Other metals of this unique quality do not – as the temperature rises, the hardness decreases. Only manganese with a tetragonal lattice exhibits a hardness maximum at 650-750 °C; a maximum hardness is observed near the α D β transformation of manganese. The absolute maximum of hardness at 440 °C for iron allows (by analogy) to assume a transformation in iron at this temperature. Especially note: at the temperature of unconditional a→g → </s> transformation (910 °C) there is an absolute minimum of hardness. A curious situation arose around the temperature interval 400-500 °С. M.V.Belous and his co-authors simply do not notice it in the classification of four transformations during drawing back process, although back in 1925 P.Oberghoffer, basing on a minimum at 400-500 °C of the thermoelectric power of the iron-platinum pair, wrote: «Whether we are here dealing with further transformations in pure iron, should be investigated in new detailed studies». Based on the maximum etchability value, acceleration of the graphitization of steels, the maximum corrosion rate of gray cast iron, anomalies in the temperature dependences of the physical and mechanical properties, changes in the solubility of cementite, the maximum lattice parameter, the extremum on the resistance curve of the pure iron deposit, the conversion in iron at ~ 450 °C is justified.

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K. Yu. Shakhnazarov, D. V. Chechurin (2017) On osmondite nature. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 227. p. 554. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2017.5.554
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2017-07-07
  • Date published
    2017-10-25

Multiphysical model of heterogenous flow moving along а channel of variable cross-section

The article deals with the problem aimed at solving the fundamental problems of developing effective methods and tools for designing, controlling and managing the stream of fluid flowing in variable-section pipelines intended for the production of pumping equipment, medical devices and used in such areas of industry as mining, chemical, food production, etc. Execution of simulation modelling of flow motion according to the scheme of twisted paddle static mixer allows to estimate the efficiency of mixing by calculating the trajectory and velocities of the suspended particles going through the mixer, and also to estimate the pressure drop on the hydraulic flow resistance. The model examines the mixing of solids dissolved in a liquid at room temperature. To visualize the process of distributing the mixture particles over the cross-section and analyzing the mixing efficiency, the Poincaréplot module of the COMSOL Multiphysics software environment was used. For the first time, a multi-physical stream of heterogeneous flow model has been developed that describes in detail the physical state of the fluid at all points of the considered section at the initial time, takes into account the design parameters of the channel (orientation, dimensions, material, etc.), specifies the laws of variation of the parameters at the boundaries of the calculated section in conditions of the wave change in the internal section of the working chamber-channel of the inductive peristaltic pumping unit under the influence of the energy of the magnetic field.

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M. A. Vasil'eva, S. Feit (2017) Multiphysical model of heterogenous flow moving along а channel of variable cross-section. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 227. p. 558. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2017.5.558
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2017-10-25
  • Date published
    2017-10-25

Increase of electric power quality in autonomous electric power systems

With the constant development of electronics for control and monitoring of the work for significant and important elements of electric power systems, the requirements to the quality of electric power also increase. The issues of increasing the quality of electricity are solved in the field of power supply systems, which are the backbone of any electric network, because of their wider distribution and usage, unlike the autonomous electric power systems. In turn, with the development of the marine and river fleet, as well as appearance of such a promising direction for mining operations, like the Arctic zone, the autonomous electric power plants become especially important. One of the main problems of such systems is an insufficient research of the problem of the quality of electric power. The article presents a model of an autonomous electric power system. To simulate such systems, the MathLab package with the Simulink application is being widely used. The developed model provides an assessment of the quality of electricity in it, a comparison of the assessment obtained in existing systems, and a modern solution is proposed to improve the quality of electricity.

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I. A. Pan'kov, V. Ya. Frolov (2017) Increase of electric power quality in autonomous electric power systems. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 227. p. 563. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2017.5.563
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2017-10-25
  • Date published
    2017-10-25

Production of flat parts from foam aluminum in alternating magnetic field

The electromagnetic technology for production of ultralight panels of materials based on foam aluminum is investigated. The theory of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with matter in the solid-liquid state and the formation of its corresponding distribution in space and time for the implementation of new technologies and equipment are considered. The suggested technology for the production of ultralight panels of materials based on foam aluminum include the following main stages: loading of powdered raw materials; preparation of the blank and the formation of the container; compacting (consolidation) by hot rolling; foaming of the preform precursor; production of a marketable product. The most difficult task is the process of heating the precursor to the temperature of foaming. In the course of the research, two possible modes of blank heating – static and periodic with reciprocating motion – were considered. The requirements for ensuring the temperature field of heated blanks for the production of foam aluminum are presented. The determining factor in the selection of the heating mode is the criterion for the quality of the blank heating. The main parameters that provide the required temperature field are the selection of the blank heating mode; speed of workpiece movement, and frequency selection. The displacement amplitude for reciprocating motion was chosen based on the available theoretical and practical experience of heating in this mode. The choice of frequency was influenced by several parameters, such as efficiency, voltage and current of the inductor, and its reactive power. The optimization of the process of electromagnetic processing of flat products on the basis of foam aluminum according to the results of numerical simulation makes it possible to develop an electromagnetic system for influencing metals in the solid-liquid state.

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I. I. Rastvorova (2017) Production of flat parts from foam aluminum in alternating magnetic field. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 227. p. 569. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2017.5.569
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2017-10-26
  • Date published
    2017-10-25

Improvement of performance indicators of hydraulic drive of props of powered support units of heading complexes

The method of reducing the dynamic loading of the support unit and the immediate roof rocks resulting from the successive operation of the safety valve during operation of the props in the regime of «equal resistance» is considered. In the developed working characteristic of hydraulic props of supporting units their overload protection is singled out into an independent function and is separated from the function of rock pressure control. The resistance of the hydraulic props of the support units to the roof rocks subsidence is regulated in a non-pulsed manner, and the movement of the support units can be carried out in a «non-unloading» mode. As a result, the static «trampling» of the intermediate roof is reduced, and in the regime of controlling the rock pressure, the dynamic impacts of the mechanized support on the intermediate roof are excluded. In this case, the protection of the support unit from overloads works only when the support is overloaded and does not directly participate in the formation of the process of rock pressure rock. The proposed non-pulse method provides controlled transmission of hydraulic energy with a small pressure drop from the head ends of the hydraulic props to the pressure line of the hydraulic system of the heading mechanized complex and its subsequent useful use.

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A. V. Stebnev, V. V. Buevich (2017) Improvement of performance indicators of hydraulic drive of props of powered support units of heading complexes. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 227. p. 576. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2017.5.576
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2017-05-23
  • Date published
    2017-10-25

Assessment of load of beam-balanced pumping units by electric motor power indicators

The results of experimental studies on the loading of beam-balanced pumping units (BP) of sucker rod- pumping equipment (SRPE) are presented. It is noted that the key factor that has the most significant effect causing the SRPE failure is the balance of the beam pumping unit, which determines the amount of specific energy consumption for the rise of reservoir fluid and the level of dynamic loads on the machine units. The urgency of using software-recording systems for estimating the loading of units of oil field pumping installations is substantiated. The principle of operation and design of the «AKD-SK» software recording system is described. The prospects of using this method for controlling the performance parameters and evaluating the technical state of the sicker rod-pumping units is proved on the basis of an analysis of the magnitude and nature of the changes in the loads of drive motors determined by the registration of the instantaneous values of the consumed power. The main provisions of the methodology for analyzing the watt-meters of drive motors of the sucker rod-pumping units are outlined. The nature of the manifestation of the main defects of submersible pumps and beam-balanced pumping units is described. The results of pilot-industrial tests of the beam-balanced pumping units equipped with advanced permanent magnet motors and intelligent control stations are presented. It is proved that the use of permanent magnet motors allows to reduce the specific energy consumption for the rise of reservoir fluid, which increases the efficiency of the SRPE. However, the presence of transient processes and generator operating modes of the permanent magnet motors results in the occurrence of significant dynamic loads, which, due to the rigid fixing of the rotor of magnet motor on the reducer shaft, negatively affect the life of the gearbox bearings. It has been shown that the lack of its own bearings in the tested motors causes a high probability of engine jamming when bearing operation is disrupted and the radial beats on the drive shaft of the beam pumping unit gearbox appear.

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D. I. Shishlyannikov, A. A. Rybin (2017) Assessment of load of beam-balanced pumping units by electric motor power indicators. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 227. p. 582. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2017.5.582
Geoecology and occupational health and safety
  • Date submitted
    2017-10-26
  • Date published
    2017-10-25

On development of system for environmental monitoring of atmospheric air quality

The article suggests the directions for development of the system of environmental monitoring of atmospheric air quality in the Russian Federation, namely: an increase in the number of stationary control posts for atmospheric pollution in each specific city; expansion of the list of cities where constant measurements of pollutant concentrations are conducted; expansion of the list of controlled impurities through the introduction of automated air quality monitoring systems, the development of computational methods for monitoring air quality, including not only information on pollution levels in terms of compliance with hygienic standards, but also assessment of pollution levels from the perspective of environmental risk to the health of the population. There is a great sensitivity of plants to the low quality of atmospheric air in comparison with the sensitivity of animals and humans. The air quality standards for vegetation are given. It is proposed to evaluate the quality of atmospheric air not only from the point of view of the impact on human health, but taking into account the impact on vegetation, to include in the program route observations carried out by mobile atmospheric air monitoring laboratories, territories with public green areas, which will increase the information content of atmospheric air monitoring and the state of green spaces. In connection with the increasing noise level in large cities and the lack of a permanent noise monitoring system, it is proposed to equip existing and new monitoring stations with noise level meters to provide reliable information for the development of relevant environmental measures.

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M. V. Volkodaeva, A. V. Kiselev (2017) On development of system for environmental monitoring of atmospheric air quality. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 227. p. 589. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2017.5.589
Geoeconomics and Management
  • Date submitted
    2017-06-17
  • Date published
    2017-10-25

Development of oil and gas service as organizational form of entrepreneurship in post-industrial economy

The article is devoted to the problem of development of oil and gas service. The transformation of the oil and gas sector with the separation of independent enterprises and organizations providing services in the oil and gas service sector is compared by the author with the trend of rapid development of the service sector in the postindustrial economy. The purpose of the study is to identify the general and specific characteristics of modern oil and gas services and to determine the directions for the transformation of organizational forms of entrepreneurship in the sphere under consideration. The growth of quantitative parameters of the oil and gas services market has been analyzed. The classification of this market is proposed depending on the place of services in a single technological cycle in relation to the main oil production process. The positive consequences of the development of oil and gas services for the development of oil and gas production have been systematized. Basic organizational models of entrepreneurship development in oil and gas service are generalized and substantiated. It is shown that the main influence in the market of services is taken by vertically integrated national oil and gas companies, as well as by international companies that provide service support for the work of Russian oil and gas companies. The results of a comparative analysis of advantages and disadvantages of organizational models of entrepreneurship in the field of oil and gas services are presented. It is proved that oil and gas service as an organizational form of entrepreneurship in its development reflects the general trends of the post-industrial economy. Specific features of oil and gas service in Russia are singled out. The revealed directions of transformation of organizational forms of entrepreneurship in the sphere of oil and gas service in current conditions can be used in the formation of state programs in the field of industrial development, the high-tech sector, and in working out strategies for the development of enterprises and organizations providing services in the oil and gas sector. 

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N. V. Vasilenko (2017) Development of oil and gas service as organizational form of entrepreneurship in post-industrial economy. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 227. p. 597. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2017.5.597
Mining education: traditions and perspectives in the XXI century
  • Date submitted
    2017-02-16
  • Date published
    2017-10-25

Mining provinces: memory discourse and local identity

The phenomenon of industrial provinces is of particular interest for cultural analysis, since the realities of post-industrial society devalue the images of progress generated by the industrial era. The devaluation leads to a systemic crisis of cultural meanings that have shaped the region’s image and its inhabitants’ cultural self-identification. The study aims at discovering cultural representation features of mining regions’ historical heritage. The paper analyzes the role of industrial images in the modern culture, investigates how the industrial heritage is being exploited, examines how regional cultural identity has been built throughout the Russian industrial provinces’ development, and singles out some stereotyped images and discursive models. The research is based on local history literature, mass media publications, museum collections, and private interviews. A comprehensive cultural approach based on the methodological principles of the semiotics of culture and discursive analysis is used to interpret the collected materials.

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S. A. Rassadina (2017) Mining provinces: memory discourse and local identity. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 227. p. 603. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2017.5.603
Young Scientists Speak
  • Date submitted
    2017-10-26
  • Date published
    2017-10-25

Development of sustainable water treatment technology using scientifically based calculated indexes of source water quality indicators

The article describes selection process of sustainable technological process flow chart for water treatment procedure developed on scientifically based calculated indexes of quality indicators for water supplied to water treatment facilities. In accordance with the previously calculated values of the indicators of the source water quality, the main purification facilities are selected. A more sustainable flow chart for the modern water quality of the Seversky Donets-Donbass channel is a two-stage filtering with contact prefilters and high-rate filters. The article proposes a set of measures to reduce such an indicator of water quality as permanganate oxidation. The most suitable for these purposes is sorption purification using granular activated carbon for water filtering. The increased water hardness is also quite topical. The method of ion exchange on sodium cation filters was chosen to reduce the water hardness. We also evaluated the reagents for decontamination of water. As a result, sodium hypochlorite is selected for treatment of water, which has several advantages over chlorine and retains the necessary aftereffect, unlike ozone. A technological flow chart with two-stage purification on contact prefilters and two-layer high-rate filters (granular activated carbon - quartz sand) with disinfection of sodium hypochlorite and softening of a part of water on sodium-cation exchangers filters is proposed. This technological flow chart of purification with any fluctuations in the quality of the source water is able to provide purified water that meets the requirements of the current sanitary-hygienic standards. In accordance with the developed flow chart, guidelines and activities for the reconstruction of the existing Makeevka Filtering Station were identified. The recommended flow chart uses more compact and less costly facilities, as well as additional measures to reduce those water quality indicators, the values of which previously were in compliance to the quality of the water supply standards.

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A. S. Tryakina (2017) Development of sustainable water treatment technology using scientifically based calculated indexes of source water quality indicators. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 227. p. 608. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2017.5.608