Submit an Article
Become a reviewer

Vol 225

Geology
  • Date submitted
    2017-06-28
  • Date published
    2017-06-25

Age of hydrothermal processes in the central iberian zone (Spain) according TO U-Pb dating of cassiterite and apatite

Results of isotope-geochemical studies by PbLS step-leaching method of cassiterite from greisens located in Logrosán granite massif (Central Iberian Zone, Spain) and apatite from hydrothermal quartz-apatite vein on its exocontact indicate that in both cases a hydrothermal event is recorded in the interval of 114-126 Ma, which has been accompanied by lead supply. Within the limits of estimation error, the same age around 120 Ma corresponds to crystallization of hydrothermal apatite, formation of sticks and micro-inclusions in cassiterite from greisens and is suggested for Au-As-Sb-Pb ore mineralization, which calls for further confirmation. Xenogenous zircon from quartz-apatite vein does not react to this relatively low-temperature hydrothermal event either with building up new generations (sticks, areas of recrystallization) or with rebalancing of U-Pb isotope system. The age of greisen formation has been confirmed to be around 305 Ma by PbLS method on final phases of cassiterite leaching. Earlier it was estimated with 40 Ar/ 39 Ar method on muscovite. 

Read more
N. G. Rizvanova, S. G. Skublov, E. V. Cheremazova (2017) Age of hydrothermal processes in the central iberian zone (Spain) according TO U-Pb dating of cassiterite and apatite. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 225. p. 275. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.3.275
Geology
  • Date submitted
    2017-06-28
  • Date published
    2017-06-25

Modeling of geochemical processes in the submarine discharge zone of hydrothermal solutions

The paper reviews the main methods and analyzes modeling results for geochemical processes in the submarine discharge zone of hydrothermal solutions of mid-ocean ridges. Initial data for modeling have been obtained during several marine expeditions, including Russian-French expedition SERPENTINE on the research vessel «Pourquoi Рas?» (2007). Results of field observations, laboratory experiments and theoretical developments are supported by the analysis of regression model of mixing between hydrothermal solutions and sea water. Verification of the model has been carried out and the quality of chemical analysis has been assessed; degree and character of participation of solution components in the hydrothermal process have been defined; the content of end members has been calculated basing on reverse forecasting of element concentration, depending on regression character; data for thermodynamic modeling have been prepared. Regression model of acid-base properties and chloridity of mineralizing thermal springs confirms adequacy of the model of double-diffusive convection for forming the composition of hydrothermal solutions.  Differentiation of solutions according to concentrations of chloride-ion, depending on temperature and pH indicator within this model, is associated with phase conversions and mixing of fluids from two convection cells, one of which is a zone of brine circulation. In order to carry out computer thermodynamic modeling, hydro-geochemical and physicochemical models of hydrothermal discharge zone have been created. Verification of the model has been carried out basing on changes of Mn concentration in the hydrothermal plume. Prevailing forms of Mn migration in the plume are Mn 2+ , MnCl + , MnCl 2 . Two zones have been identified in the geochemical structure of the plume: 1) high-temperature zone (350-100 °С) with prevalence of chloride complexes – ascending plume; 2) low-temperature zone (100-2 °С), where predominant form of transfer is a free divalent ion – lateral plume. Sulfate complex in insignificant quantities (1.5 %) is detected in the lateral plume, whereas hydroxide complex is stable at temperatures 325-125 °С and can only be found in the ascending plume. Results of modeling almost fully correspond to field observations. Verification of thermodynamic model proves its adequacy and allows to make a transition to the next stage of research – examination of geochemical dissipation for key ore components of hydrothermal solutions – Fe, Cu, Zn etc.

Read more
S. M. Sudarikov (2017) Modeling of geochemical processes in the submarine discharge zone of hydrothermal solutions. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 225. p. 284. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.3.284
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2017-06-28
  • Date published
    2017-06-25

Status and directions of improvement of development systems of coal seams on perspective Kuzbass coal mines

The article presents the results of the analysis of the Russian coal mines experience in using the variant of the long-pillar development system with the abandonment of coal pillars in the mined out areas of longwall faces. In the Kuzbass mines, this option accounts for 90-95 % of the total volume of coal mined by the underground method. It is pointed out that it is necessary to take into account the negative influence of the pillars left in the worked out space on the geomechanical conditions of conducting mining operations in the overworked (underworked) seams. A significant negative effect of the pillars is shown in combination with selective extraction of the adjacent layers on reduction of the balance reserves. The measures allowing to increase the efficiency of the use of long pillar mining systems for the development of adjacent series of seams are considered.

Read more
V. P. Zubov (2017) Status and directions of improvement of development systems of coal seams on perspective Kuzbass coal mines. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 225. p. 292. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.3.292
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2017-06-28
  • Date published
    2017-06-25

Angles of total shifts and angles of maxumum crop during development of faces diagonal to seam strike directions

When predicting deformations and determining measures to protect underworked objects, angular parameters are used: the boundary angles, the angles of total shift, the angle of maximum crop. The values of these angular parameters are given in the normative documents, but only for sections across and along the strike of the formation. However, at present, longwall face mining is mainly being carried out along a diagonal direction to the strike of the formation. In connection with this, the determination of the values of the angular parameters for such conditions is a topical task. The method of determination and the analytical dependences of the angles of total shifts and angles of maximum crop in sections of the longitudinal and transverse axes of coal-mining faces developed along diagonal directions to the strike of the formation are proposed. These angular parameters are used for prognosis of deformations of the earth's surface and for determining the characteristic zones of influence of mine workings on the local places.

Read more
N. A. Kolesnik, G. I. Kozlovskii, A. A. Kanavets (2017) Angles of total shifts and angles of maxumum crop during development of faces diagonal to seam strike directions. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 225. p. 298. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.3.298
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2017-06-28
  • Date published
    2017-06-25

Prevention and protection against propagation of explosionsin underground coal mines

Over the past century, the coal mining industry experienced a large number of explosions leading to a considerable loss of life. The objective of this study is preventing the propagation of methane and/or coal dust explosions through the use of passive water barriers and its implementation to the Spanish coal mining industry. Physical and chemical properties, flammability and explosibility parameters of typical Spanish coals are presented. In this paper,   a flexible approach to meet the requirements of the EN-14591-2:2007 standard is presented for the very specific local conditions, characterized by small cross-sections galleries, vertical seem, use of explosives, etc. Authors have proven the viability of standard requirements to the typical roadway from Spanish underground mines, considering realistic roadway lengths as well as available cross-sections taking into account ubiquitous obstacles such as: locomotives, conveyor belt, ventilation ducts, etc.

Read more
L. M. Peich, Kh. G. Torrent, N. F. An'ez, Kh.-M. M. Eskobar (2017) Prevention and protection against propagation of explosionsin underground coal mines. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 225. p. 307. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.3.307
Mining
  • Date submitted
    2016-12-27
  • Date published
    2017-06-25

Newest technology in cadastral activities

The article provides comparative analysis of multiple innovative technology in the field of cadaster activities. This analysis covers almost all currently available intellectual developments in this area. Paying tribute to contemporary trends in cadastral areas, the authors note the urgent need to upgrade the cadastral activities in the Russian Federation in relation to the transformation of the national economy. The authors suggest classifying the cadastral activities depending on type and kind of activity carried out with an object of cadaster registry. The article covers the most urgent issues in the area of functionality of existing special software packages in order to improve the labour efficiency of a cadaster engineer. It is concluded that the main purpose of existing software systems for cadastral engineers is creation of documents in electronic format for facilitating the process of interaction with public authorities in the sphere of land property relations. It examines in detail several software packages («TechnoKad-Express», «ARGO», «PKZO», «Poligon», «ProGeo»). The article provides comparative analysis of special software systems according to a number of authors’ criteria. Based on the characteristics of programs and their comparative analysis, it is concluded that all the described software systems to greater or lesser degree, meet the needs of the working cadastral engineer. The choice of a specific program depends on the financial possibilities, personal preferences and level of computer-literacy of cadastral engineer, including in the sphere of GIS-technologies.

Read more
V. A. Pavlova, E. L. Uvarova (2017) Newest technology in cadastral activities. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 225. p. 313. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.3.313
Metallurgy and concentration
  • Date submitted
    2017-06-28
  • Date published
    2017-06-25

Comparative assessment of structural-mechanical properties of heavy oils of timano-pechorskaya province

The physicochemical properties of heavy oils of Yaregskoe and Usinskoe deposits and the residues of atmospheric distillation of petroleum (fuel oil) recovered from them are presented. The group composition of oil and the residues of its atmospheric distillation (fuel oil) is determined. When using X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive spectrometer, the content of metals in the products is determined. A conclusion is drawn about the distribution of metals in the initial oil and fuel oil. On the basis of rheological characteristics, the type of liquids is determined in accordance with Newton's law, as well as the presence of an anomaly in the viscosity of the studied media at different temperatures. The energy values of the thixotropy of heavy oils of Usinskoe and Yaregskoe deposits, as well as the activation energy of the viscous flow of all media studied, are obtained. The phase transition of atmospheric residues at 60 °C is discovered. Dependences of the enthalpy and entropy of the viscous flow of the studied hydrocarbon media are obtained with an increase in temperature from 10 to 140 °C. The dependences of the oil molecules and atmospheric residues jumping frequency on viscosity are obtained for the first time.

Read more
N. K. Kondrasheva, F. D. Baitalov, A. A. Boitsova (2017) Comparative assessment of structural-mechanical properties of heavy oils of timano-pechorskaya province. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 225. p. 320. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.3.320
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2017-06-28
  • Date published
    2017-06-25

Energy efficiency of hydraulic transportation of iron ore processing tailings at Kachkanarsky MPP

The article presents analytical calculations of specific pressure losses during hydraulic transportation of slurry tailings from iron ore beneficiation processes at the Kachkanarsky MPP during the storage of processing tailings in the tailings pond. The calculations were performed based on the results of experimental studies of dependence of specific pressure losses on roughness of inner surface of pipelines lined with polyurethane coating. In the process of experimental determination of pipeline polyurethane coatings roughness, it was established that the physical roughness of the coatings is more than four times less than the roughness of steel pipelines, which leads to a decrease in the coefficients of hydraulic resistances included in the design formula for the specific pressure losses - the Darcy-Weisbach formula. The coefficients of relative and equivalent roughnesses for pipelines with and without coating have been calculated. Comparative calculations have shown that the use of polyurethane coatings of hydrotransport pipelines contributes to a decrease in the specific energy during hydraulic transportation of processing tailings of iron ore from Kachkanarsky MPP in 1.5 times. To assess the nature and intensity of changes in the physical roughness of test pipes with polyurethane coating, experiments were performed on the roughness on a laboratory hydraulic bench. The prepared slurry of the iron ore tailings of Kachkanarsky MPP was pumped through a looped pipeline, in the linear part of which three test coated pipes were sequentially installed. Experiments showed that the roughness after running 484 hours on all the samples of the pipelines varies insignificantly. Roughness values are in the range from 0.814 to 0.862 μm. As a result of the processing of experimental data by mathematical statistics, an empirical formula is obtained for calculating the surface roughness of the polyurethane coating surface, depending on the time of operation of pipeline transporting the slurry of the iron ore processing tailings.

Read more
V. I. Aleksandrov, S. A. Timukhin, P. N. Makharatkin (2017) Energy efficiency of hydraulic transportation of iron ore processing tailings at Kachkanarsky MPP. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 225. p. 330. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.3.330
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2017-06-28
  • Date published
    2017-06-25

Coarse particles-water mixtures flow in pipes

The present paper is focused on evaluation of the effect of average mixture velocity and overall concentration on the pressure drop versus the slurry average velocity relationship, on slurry flow behaviour and local concentration distribution. The experimental investigation was carried out on the pipe loop of inner diameter D =100 mm, which consists of smooth stainless steel pipes and horizontal, inclinable and vertical pipe sections. The frictional pressure drop in the horizontal pipe section were significantly higher than that in the vertical pipe due to the fact, that for stratified flow the contact load produced significant energy losses. The frictional pressure drop of coarse particles mixtures in vertical pipe increased with the increasing mixture concentration and velocity, what confirmed effect of inner friction, inter-particles collision, and the drag due to particle-liquid slip. It was found that for stratified coarse particles-water mixture the frictional pressure drop was not significantly influenced by the pipe inclination, especially for low concentration values. The effect of pipe inclination decreased with increasing mixture velocity in ascending pipe section; the maximum value was reached for inclination between 20 and 40 degrees. Inclination of pressure drop maximum increased with decreasing mixture velocity. In descending pipe section the frictional pressure drop gradually decreased with increasing pipe inclination. The effect of inclination on frictional pressure drops could be practically neglected, especially for low mixture concentration and higher flow velocities. The study revealed that the coarse particle-water mixtures in the horizontal and inclined pipe sections were significantly stratified. The particles moved principally in a layer close to the pipe invert. However, for higher and moderate flow velocities the particles moved also in the central part of the pipe cross-section, and particle saltation [1] was found to be dominant mode of particle conveying.

Read more
P. Vlasak (2017) Coarse particles-water mixtures flow in pipes. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 225. p. 338. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.3.338
Electromechanics and mechanical engineering
  • Date submitted
    2017-06-28
  • Date published
    2017-06-25

The influence of salinity of fly ash mixtures on energy looses during flow in pipelines

In Polish mining for backfilling the fly ash mixtures are used. Last time for fly ash mixtures preparation the saline water from mine have been used, to thanks to that the saline water missing the surface waters. Usage of saline water for fly ash mixture preparation causes the changes in energy looses during the flow in pipelines. The paper presents the results of energy looses measurement іn laboratory pipeline installation with diameter D =50 mm. The measurements have been performed for different fly ash – saline water proportions. Tested fly-ash from Siersza power plant has typical properties (grain size distribution curve, density) for ashes used for backfilling mixtures preparation. Increase of fluid (water) salinity modifies fluid viscosity. Brine in comparison with pure water retains as liquid with increased viscosity. Increased viscosity can influence on the mixture ash-brine properties for example causing flocculation effect. Also changeable salinity has an influence on proper determination of resistance (frictional) coefficient λ during mixtures flow in pipelines because it depends on Reynolds number which depends on liquid viscosity. Increase of fly-ash concentrations in fly-ash – brine mixtures cause increase of energy losses.

Read more
I. Sobota (2017) The influence of salinity of fly ash mixtures on energy looses during flow in pipelines. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 225. p. 342. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.3.342
Geoecology and occupational health and safety
  • Date submitted
    2017-06-28
  • Date published
    2017-06-25

Safety provision during heating of coal downcast shafts with gas heat generators using degassed methane

The article describes new technology of heating downcast shafts in coal mines in Ukraine using heat generators (air heaters) of mixed and indirect action type. It compares this method with traditional heating systems for downcast shafts and describes all their disadvantages. It is shown that application of new heating technology enables not building such elements as boilers and pipelines and not buying metal-consuming heaters. These peculiarities will help to significantly reduce capital and operation costs for construction and operation of heating system with significantly shortened commissioning periods for heating systems. The article describes an example of heater unit design layout for heating downcast shaft in mine «Scheglovskaya-Glubokaya» at colliery group «Donbass» using mixed type heat generators. It presents a layout of sensors for controlling parameters of ventilation air flow taking into account incoming hazardous combustion products form methane-air mixture combustion in channels of heating unit. The article mentions features of automated control system providing protection of heat generators in emergency situations. It also notes disadvantages of mixed type heat generators limiting their application in Russian Federation. Together with heat generators of mixed type the article also describes a working principle of heat generator of indirect action type, which to the fullest extent possible meets requirements of Russian Federation legislation and regulation for application of this heat generators in coal mines conditions. The article has a principal working scheme of heat unit layout using this type of generator. It is shown that after development of corresponding normative documents regulating processes of design, construction and operation of heating units using heaters of indirect action, their application in Russian coal mines will be possible without breaking Safety standards and rules.

Read more
V. R. Alab'ev, G. I. Korshunov (2017) Safety provision during heating of coal downcast shafts with gas heat generators using degassed methane. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 225. p. 346. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.3.346
Geoecology and occupational health and safety
  • Date submitted
    2017-06-28
  • Date published
    2017-06-25

Instructional maps of safe working methods and practices for separate types of opera-tions conducted in the oil mine

Instructing personnel in the issues of labor protection and industrial safety at hazardous facilities is one of the main tasks that face the employer; the quality with which this procedure is organized and carried out defines not only company’s indicators, but the mere possibility of its normal functioning. The paper contains a detailed overview of the typical content of standard documentation, which is currently used when conducting operations in the oil mines of Yarega high-viscosity oil deposit. Distinct features and unique nature of this oil field require special measures to guarantee safety of personnel and all facilities in general. The author proposes and reviews an additional type of operating guidelines – instructional map of safe working methods and practices. It is more illustrative than existing documentation (charts of inclined shaft development, labor protection regulations), which allows to upgrade the process of instructing personnel in the oil mines, to improve the quality of instructions and to reduce the risk of emergencies, accidents, industrial injuries. The author reviews the structure of suggested instructional map, offers a detailed arrangement diagram for the main thematic sections of the map, as well as their content. Instructional maps are regarded as a type of operating guidelines that include: description and characteristics of equipment, instruments and appliances; general safety requirements; content and execution sequence of operational elements with their graphical images; distribution of responsibilities with an indication of their priority in case the operations are conducted by several workers; specific safety requirements for equipment, materials, instruments, safety clothes and footwear, personal protective gear etc. (prohibitions, warnings). Advantages and disadvantages of proposed instructional maps of safe working methods and practices are highlighted.

Read more
I. V. Klimova (2017) Instructional maps of safe working methods and practices for separate types of opera-tions conducted in the oil mine. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 225. p. 354. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.3.354
Geoecology and occupational health and safety
  • Date submitted
    2017-06-28
  • Date published
    2017-06-25

Sources of heating microclimate in the process of thermal mining development of high-viscosity oil fields

The paper examines main sources of heating microclimate in order to develop technologies of microclimate parameter normalization in mine workings as a part of thermal mining technology of high-viscosity oil extraction. Operations under conditions of heating microclimate, whose parameters exceed threshold criteria, can provoke dehydration, fainting and heat stroke among workers. In order to guarantee safe working conditions, provisions are made to introduce norms on threshold values of temperature and humidity parameters, going above which is probable when applying existing thermal mining technologies of high-viscosity oil extraction. Basing on temperature-humidity survey, a comparative analysis of dependency between air temperature in the producing galleries and their configuration has been performed. A hypothesis has been suggested that, from the position of temperature limits, the period of efficient service of circular producing galleries is shorter compared to extended panel ones.

Read more
M. A. Nor, E. V. Nor, N. D. Tskhadaya (2017) Sources of heating microclimate in the process of thermal mining development of high-viscosity oil fields. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 225. p. 360. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.3.360
Geoecology and occupational health and safety
  • Date submitted
    2017-06-28
  • Date published
    2017-06-25

Assessment of professional risk caused by heating microclimate in the process of un-derground mining

The paper reviews the possibility to apply probit-function to assess professional risks of underground mining under conditions of heating microclimate. Operations under conditions of heating microclimate, whose parameters exceed threshold criteria, can lead to dehydration, fainting and heat stroke for mine workers. Basing on the results of medico-biological research on the effects of microclimate on human body, the authors have assessed probabilistic nature of excessive heat accumulation depending on heat stress index. Using Shapiro-Wilk statistics, an assessment has been carried out in order to test correspondence of experimental data on heat accumulation in the human body to the normal law of distribution for different values of heat stress index, measured in the process of underground mining operations under conditions of heating microclimate. The paper justifies construction of a probit-model to assess professional risks caused by overheating for various types of underground mining operations, depending on their intensity. Modeling results have been verified by way of comparison with a currently used deterministic model of body overheating. Taking into account satisfactory convergence of results, the authors suggest using probit-model to assess professional risks of overheating, as this model allows to obtain a continuous dependency between professional risk and heat stress index, which in its own turn facilitates a more justified approach to the selection of measures to upgrade working conditions of personnel. 

Read more
M. L. Rudakov, I. S. Stepanov (2017) Assessment of professional risk caused by heating microclimate in the process of un-derground mining. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 225. p. 364. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.3.364
Mining education: traditions and perspectives in the XXI century
  • Date submitted
    2017-06-28
  • Date published
    2017-06-25

Mining education in the XXI century: global challenges and prospects

An analysis of development prospects for the world mining industry is presented, requirements to mining technologies are formulated, as well as key trends of technologic development in the mineral resources complex. The paper demonstrates the role of mining industry and professional education as essential components of sustainable territorial development. Global challenges have been formulated, which must be taken into account when forming general approaches to the development of mining education. Distinctions of mining education in Russia, Germany, USA and other leading mining countries have been analyzed. Professional standards for mining engineers have been reviewed for different countries, along with their relation to educational standards. It has been shown, what role professional communities play in the development of professional education and stimulation of continuous professional development of mining engineers. Authors point out the need for international integration in the issues of training and continuous professional development of mining specialists, as well as international accreditation of educational programs for mining engineers and their certification. Information is presented on international organizations, performing the function of international accreditation of engineering educational programs, history of their establishment and role within the context of economic globalization. The paper contains examples of successful international cooperation and modern integration processes among universities, aimed at unification of requirements and improvement of existing systems of training and continuous professional development of mining engineers.

Read more
O. I. Kazanin, K. Drebenshtedt (2017) Mining education in the XXI century: global challenges and prospects. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 225. p. 369. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.3.369
Mining education: traditions and perspectives in the XXI century
  • Date submitted
    2017-06-28
  • Date published
    2017-06-25

«Rhetoric practice» by I.S.Rizhsky (1796) at the mining university: history and contem-poraneity

The paper focuses on the continuity of rhetorical studies at the technical university. An analysis of rhetorical principles, described in I.S.Rizhsky’s «Rhetoric Practice» (1796), is carried out. The author summarized methodical principles of teaching rhetoric at the first technical university of Russia – Saint-Petersburg Mining College. A comparison has been made between I.S.Rizhsky’s work, classical treatises and the first Russian scientific rhetoric – «Rhetoric» by M.V.Lomonosov. It has been found that, following Lomonosov’s scientific theory, I.S.Rizhsky created an original educational-scientific genre (rhetoric practice), addressed to a specific audience – students of Saint-Petersburg Mining College. The role of I.S.Rizhsky’s scientific and educational activities in teaching humanities at the technical university has been defined. The paper justifies the necessity to republish works of scientists from 18 th -19 th centuries, whose names have left their marks in the development history of rhetoric as a study of Russian oratory traditions. The paper also describes material of contemporary educational programs on the culture of speech, which focus on the historical tradition of Russian rhetoric. In particular, it has been noted that lecture and practical courses imply not only orthology studies (correctness, clearness, orderliness, expressiveness of speech), but also acquaintance with works on the history of European and Russian rhetoric.

Read more
D. A. Shchukina, N. A. Egorenkova (2017) «Rhetoric practice» by I.S.Rizhsky (1796) at the mining university: history and contem-poraneity. Journal of Mining Institute. Vol 225. p. 376. DOI: 10.18454/pmi.2017.3.376