Forecasting of mining and geological processes based on the analysis of the underground space of the Kupol deposit as a multicomponent system (Chukotka Autonomous Region, Anadyr district)
The underground space of the Kupol deposit is analyzed as a multicomponent system – rocks, underground water, microbiota, gases (including the mine atmosphere) and supporting structures – metal support and shotcrete (as an additional type of barring) and also stowing materials. The complex of host rocks is highly disintegrated due to active tectonic and volcanic activity in the Cretaceous period. The thickness of sub-permafrost reaches 250-300 m. In 2014, they were found to contain cryopegs with abnormal mineralization and pH, which led to the destruction of metal supports and the caving formation. The underground waters of the sub-permafrost aquifer are chemically chloride-sulfate sodium-calcium with a mineralization of 3-5 g/dm 3 . According to microbiological analysis, they contain anaerobic and aerobic forms of microorganisms, including micromycetes, bacteria and actinomycetes. The activity of microorganisms is accompanied by the generation of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The main types of corrosion – chemical (sulfate and carbon dioxide), electrochemical and biocorrosion are considered. The most hazardous is the biocorrosion associated with the active functioning of the microbiota. Forecasting and systematization of mining and geological processes are carried out taking into account the presence of two zones in depth – sub-permafrost and below the bottom of the sub-permafrost, where mining operations are currently underdone. The importance of assessing the underground space as a multicomponent environment in predicting mining and geological processes is shown, which can serve as the basis for creating and developing specialized monitoring complex in difficult engineering and geological conditions of the deposit under consideration.