The usage of cyanide solutions in technology heap leaching causes, both direct and indirect effect on the environmental components. Existing methods of heap leaching fields isolation do not provide the necessary degree of decreasing of infiltration processes. One of the main reasons is the usage of sutural technology with using geosynthetics are characterized by a number of disadvantages.
The article analyses waste generation of pulp and paper industry in North-Western Russia. The environmental impact of waste storage facilities of the pulp and paper mill was assessed, the need for utilization of lignin sludge was justified. In North-Western Russia, 1.21 million hectares of disturbed areas are in need for reclamation; they are abandoned quarries and lands alienated for pipeline and road construction. The suitability of lignin sludge for preparation of artificial fertile soils for reclamation purposes is estimated. For this purpose, experiments were carried out to create an artificial mixture with different ratios of lignin sludge and soil, to detect the maldevelopment of several plant species grown on various compositions of lignin sludge and soils. It was revealed that lignin sludge as an organic additive to soils is not toxic to vegetation and living organisms, allowing improving fertility of artificial soils.
Approaches for assessing atmospheric conditions in megacities are proposed using an example of St. Petersburg. An article provides results of field observations on atmospheric air quality conducted with a mobile laboratory of Saint-Petersburg Mining University. Temporal distribution was analysed for concentrations of key pollutants: oxides of nitrogen, ammonia, and carbon; sulphur dioxide; hydrogen sulphide; methane; total hydrocarbons. The given framework for interpreting the data on atmospheric monitoring exploits spatial distribution of pollutant concentrations. The proposed ways for solving the problem of atmospheric pollution in certain megacity districts are based on geographic information systems allowing modelling widespread air contamination.
The paper provides an assessment of environmental impact made by the companies producing and transporting hydrocarbons in Western Siberia. Dynamics of perennial observations over the environment components in the area where hydrocarbon producing and transporting companies operate have been analyzed and justifications provided for a need in the optimal system for environmental air monitoring at the facilities under examination. Dispersion of air pollutants has been simulated using a licensed software ECOLOG (version 3.00), developed by “INTEGRAL” scientific production association. Based on simulation results the list of priority pollutants has been compiled. A method has been developed to determine the quantity of and optimal locations for fixed environmental moni- toring stations with account of emission parameters, and approaches have been proposed to creation of a system for operational environmental monitoring based on geoinformation software.
Refineries are among the most dangerous man-made sources of pollution. As a result of their productive activities are changing all the components of the environment, particularly air quality of surface waters. This paper assesses the impact of refineries at commissioning processes of deeper conversion of oil.
This paper discusses a method for assessing the ecological risk of production of the fuel and energy complex, to identify key assumptions and sources of failures that can lead to accidents or emergencies.
The paper deal with the problem of developing a rational technology of slime and silt recycling for company «Kinef», which nowadays is one of the leading companies in Russia in it area. There-fore the question of soil-waste utilization is one of the major issues to adress for this organisation. During the reaserch samples of soil waste were taken and analyised, which helped to work out a complite technology of recycling. The technology of processing based on methods «wet chemistry» and hydrometallurgical processes. Special attention is paid to the necessity of extraction of the useful components.
Nowadays Kemerovo Region is known to be under active mining, which is one of the main sources of negative impact to the environment. In this paper environmental issue caused by coal mining and coal processing which are priority industries in the region are considered. Results of analytical studies of waste obtained from leading Russian coal producer and possible ways of their utilization are presented in the paper as well.
Existing methods of water treatment do not provide the required quality of water injected into formation. Everywhere in the fields is observed gradual effect ions reduce oil output. The reasons can be a lot of both technological and geological. One of the main- is injected is not enough pure water, which causes mudding pores, channels and cracks.
Joint Stock Company «Apatit» is the world’s largest producer of phosphate raw materials for the production of mineral fertilizers. The processing of ore and obtaining of apatite and nepheline concentrates are carried out at the ore treatment factory ANOF-2. Nowadays there is an acute problem of additional wastewater treatment in concert with the presence of nitrites, fluorides, phosphates, aluminum and molybdenum in flows the concentrations of which exceed the established standards. Using the fine cleaning filters, the filter material of which is made of synthetic fibers, the quantity of waste substances dropped into the water can be reduced. The using of such filter system will allow decreasing the damage to the environment and reducing the enterprise payouts for the discharge of pollutants.
The assessment of existing technologies for storage and utilization of domestic solid waste in Russia and other countries is conducted. The regions of landfill sites for household waste disposal are investigated. The results of field observations of the quality of air, surface water and ground-water are given. The method of effective isolation of a landfill surface using polymer materials is proposed. The technological process of landfill surface covering with the help of a selfpropelled screening machine is described. This method allows organizing centralized biogas utilization from landfills, improves the environmental situation in the regions of their location, reduces air pollution and practically eliminates spontaneous combustion of waste.
As a result of theoretical researches and experimental researches in Mining University development and introduction of monitoring complex are conducted on the base of pilotless aircrafts with a maximally possible actual load for productive ecological control and automatic stream information transfer more than from 10 channels simultaneously to the surface station of management, equipped by the special software. Drawing on this monitoring complex will allow to conduct zoning of mining industrial aglomeration taking into account the worked out classification of degree technogenic loading.
As a result of undertaken studies the innovative system of monitoring of atmospheric air, based on the use of the modern systems of measuring, set on pilotless flying vehicles, is worked out, allow to decide actual tasks on the quickly deployed systems of the ecological monitoring after the state of environment. The choice of effective methods of realization of monitoring researches is produced on territories of mining agglomerations. The use of pilotless aircrafts gives an unique opportunity of combination of the controlled from distance and pin methods of monitoring researches, that allows to work with materials various on scales, permission, geometrical and spectral properties and here to get quantitative and quality descriptions of the state of components of natural environment with the complete list of the controlled parameters for the detailed analysis of ecological situation in the districts of mining agglomerations.
Discharge of inadequately treated waste water of mining and processing enterprises leads to the formation of technogenic sediments, which are a large source of secondary pollution of water bodies. In the present paper we propose a possible way of disposal of sediments to prevent additional technogenic load.
In paper results of environmental monitoring of components of the environment, the placement carried out in the territory of the tailing dump of apatite-nepheline concentrating factory are presented, results of the carried-out natural measurements are given and the assessment of the technogenic loading rendered by experimental object on an ecosystem of this region is given.
Researches of a condition of reservoirs of the Kovdor area showed that one of actual problems is pollution of a surface water by compounds of manganese. In this regard in work questions of a manganese origin in water objects and features of behavior of this element depending on changing conditions of the environment are considered.
In this paper deals with the problem of pollution of oil-contaminated wastewater. A method of treatment which increases the quality of recyclable waste water, by improving existing production systems using Reagent-free method.
The least utilized recyclable wastes from mining and processing enterprises are dispersed wastes, which are in the form of dust captured by systems of gas purification. This dust is a technogenic raw material for the production of zinc and other metals. Various ways of utilizing the steelmaking dust are presented. For utilization of the steel-making dust, a hydrometallurgical method with the use of autoclave technologies is proposed. The results of experiments in sulfate autoclave leaching are described.
The results of monitoring and evaluating the negative impact caused by waste storage (technogenic deposits) of the mineral resource sector are presented. The research findings on the development of environmentally sound and costeffective ways of technogenic deposits conservation are given. The method is based on the formation of screens made of polymeric materials sintered with soil. As a result of laboratory studies and experiments on test sites the optimal technology of the screen formation was selected.