For several decades, Russian scientists cannot solve the problem of cadastral valuation of forest lands, which occupy two thirds of the country area. This evaluation is especially important in the terms of market relations for the calculation of charges for use of forest resources, a significant part of which is leased. Originally, cadastral valuation of forestland was planned to be conducted according to Faustmann’s formula, proposed by German economist in the mid-nineteenth century, but it has not found practical application due to the lack of certain data. In the modern period the issue of forestland valuation is escalated and scientists have proposed their own versions of the cadastral value of forestlands. We investigated a number of forestland cadastral evaluation reports from various regions of Russia. Different researchers propose to use a specific indicator of cadastral cost (UPCS), but the methods of calculation of this indicator are different for all the evaluators. Respectively, the UPCS values for each region are significantly different too. Years of research into this problem allowed us to propose a method of forestland cadastral evaluation. In the calculations, the shortcomings of previous research are taken into account and the value of income from harvested timber, its current growth in plantings under the age of ripeness as well as the income from the collection of food resources (mushrooms and berries) are included in the evaluation. In the calculations, lands should be differentiated between coniferous and deciduous forests, as the cost of timber and the yield of food resources are significantly different. The proposed method has allowed establishing the ratio of income of forestland from timber and food resources. Food resources can give more income to the society than the wood itself.
Currently there are no methods of cadastral valuation of forest land although the area covers 2/3 of the territory of the Russian Federation. In 2002, the Federal Land Inventory Service of Russia proposed a method but it failed to find practical use due to the complicated calculation of the cadastral value according to the Faustmann formula and lack of open access to some information about the forest fund and was totally abolished seven years later. There were several reasons for abolishing the method and the main reason was lack of methods to predict a supply of wood to the age of maturity when the cadastral assessment was carried out in the plantations under the age of main felling. The author proposes to take into account the current growth rate of the growing stock per year on one hectare of land in the cadastral evaluation of forest fund lands. Based on the increment of the growing stock it is possible to construct a mathematical model of changes in the forest reserve to the age of maturity. The author suggests using the existing forest inventory materials to build the model. By updating existing data you can obtain any inventory indices including the growing stock in different age plantations. The resulting inventory of plantations at the age of maturity is recommended for cadastral valuation of the forest fund lands. The calculation of the cadastral value of forest land for one taxation quarter with and without current increment of the growing stock is given and the difference is 37 %.
The ecological role of forest soils is disclosed and a cadastre assessment of forest land is given. For cadastral assessment of forest land should pay special attention to the soil fertility forest plantings.
The article raises issues of automation of architecture and urban-planning authority in municipalities and regions of the Russian Federation, the creation and maintenance of information system of urban-planning activities, indicates the problems and principles of their solutions from the standpoint of effective management of the information space of the territories on the basis of urban-planning documents of different levels.
See Chronology of land relations in the Vyborg district, Leningrad region administration. Inventory figures given land in urban and rural settlements, information on the areas of agricultural land and peasant farms. Found that land tenure in the Vyborg district administration improved.
A basic list of land measuring in primary and reafforestation work is given in the paper. The detailed description of the land measuring at all stages: preliminary work, the organization of the forest resources, inventory of forests, allotment of logging sites under timber are presented.
The model of efficiency of the earths of forest land allows to calculate a forest stand stock on a forest plot, characterized by certain natural factors (agroclimatic and geomorphological areas, an amount of precipitation, height above sea level, a kind of quaternary adjournment). Stock-taking of communications between natural factors and efficiency of the earths of wood fund is executed, the equation of regress is constructed and its statistical estimation is executed.
Forest lands are the main means of production in the forest sector. For the most territories in the Russian Federation there are established methods of cadastral appraisal, but not for the forest regions taking up 2/3 of the country’s area. In 2002 Russian Government made an attempt to solve this problem and recommended a method of cadastral appraisal for the lands of the forestry fund. However, the method did not find practical application and was dismissed in 2010, and no substitution followed. In each subject of the Russian Federation private appraisers offer their own options of forest land valuation, but their results differ significantly even for the lands with comparable species of wood, productivity, site quality and age composition of the stand. Moreover, valuation organizations do not take into account forest infrastructure. Authors propose a universal method suitable for the entire territory of the country, which will allow to calculate specific cadastral value of the forest lands taking into account taxation indices of the wood stands growing there. The method is suitable not only for the objective cadastral valuation of the forest lands – reasonable rental payments will provide an opportunity to develop transport infrastructure in the forestry fund, especially forest roads and bridges, and to make timely arrangements for plant maintenance, forest protection and reproduction, which will have a significant influence on social and economic development of forest regions in Russia.