Flat one-sided probe was used for the first time to measure the first seven coefficients in the Legendre polynomial expansion of ion energy and angle distribution functions for He + in He and Ar + in Ar under the conditions when the ion velocity gained along its free run distance is comparable to the average thermal energy of atoms. Analytic solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation is found for ions in their own gas for arbitrary tension of electric field in plasma when the dominating process is resonant charge exchange. The dependence of cross-section of resonant charge exchange on the relative velocity is accounted for. It is demonstrated that the ion velocity distribution function differs significantly from the Maxwell distribution and is defined by two parameters instead of just one. The results of computational and experimental data agree quite well, provided the spread function of measurement technique is taken into account.
The paper focuses on development of the analytical theory to assess spatial distribution of energy released during propagation of the fast electron beam in a gas, in particular in the air at electron energies of 1-100 keV. An approach adopted by authors [2, 3] to study inelastic deceleration of electrons in the air is further developed here. As the inelastic interaction in most cases leads to energy relaxation while elastic interaction causes distribution isotropization over directions, the first task solved in the paper is finding the electron distribution function including only elastic collisions. In the final part of this paper an analytical solution to this task is presented with account of both types of electron deceleration in the air. The calculations show that when elastic collisions are taken into account this leads to increased spatial density of energy release and to narrowing of the primary energy release region of the fast electrons, as compared to calculations accounting for only inelastic deceleration.
This work is dedicated to the formulation of an analytical theory for calculating the spacial distribution of energy release in a fast electron beam moving in gas and, particularly, in air, considering inelastic interaction. Electron energies of 1-100 keV are considered. Based on the analysis of data on the cross sections for inelastic and elastic interaction of electrons with gas molecules contained in air, it is concluded that inelastic collisions mainly cause energy relaxation, and elastic collisions cause mostly impulse relaxation. Solving Boltzmann’s kinetic equation for the electrons, it is used a model cross-section for the inelastic collisions of electrons with molecules, which guarantees a good description of the measured energy dependence of the mass stopping power of the electrons. Obtained results for de dependence of electrons´ mean energy on the number of inelastic collisions are in good compliance with the results obtained with the method of expanding distribution function in collision numbers and also with the results of Monte-Carlo simulation.
Experimental investigations of the ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) are of great importance to various kinds of application: plasma nanotechnology, surface treatment, nanoelectronics, etching processes et al. In this paper, we propose a new probe method for diagnostics of anisotropic IVDF. The possibilities of the method have been demonstrated in arbitrary electric field plasma under conditions when an ion acquires a velocity on its mean free path comparable with the average thermal velocity of atoms. The energy and angular dependency of seven IVDF Legendre components for He + in He and Ar + in Ar have been measured and polar diagrams of the ion motion have been plotted. In order to verify the reliability and accuracy of the method the analytic solution of the kinetic Boltzmann equation for ions in plasma of their own gas has been found. Conditions under which resonant charge exchange is the dominant process and the ambipolar field is arbitrary have been considered. For the ambipolar field the dependence of resonant charge cross-section on the relative velocity has been taken into account. It is shown that the form of the IVDF is significantly different from the Maxwellian distribution and defined by two parameters. The results of theoretical and experimental data taking into account the instrumental function of the probe method are in good agreement. Calculations of the drift velocity of Hg + ions in Hg, He + in He, Ar + in Ar, and mobility of N 2 + in N 2 are well matched with known experimental data in wide range of electric field values.