Long-term studies of the North Caucasian geochemical province allowed to establish regional abundances and calculate accumulation (dispersion) factors for chemical elements in rocks, soils, and plants. Certain natural regional patterns characterize the province. Associations of elements in high and low concentrations are often determined by the predominant composition of rocks: carbonate-terrigenous, terrigenous, and igneous. The study of the average contents of several chemical elements in the soils of the province showed that the association of accumulated elements includes metals with different migration characteristics. Thus, despite the rather close values of the ionic radii, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Li (judging by the ionic potential) are characterized by the formation of cations, while Mn, Mo, and Zr form complex ions. Such elements as Zn, Cu, and Pb are mainly accumulated on hydrosulfuric barriers, while Mo, Co, and Mn are stopped by oxygenous barriers. For Cu, Zn, Mo, and Co, biogenic accumulation plays a significant role, while for Pb and Ni it is practically absent. The absolute dispersion of the elements did not reach environmentally hazardous values, although it indicates a fairly intensive migration. In woody plants, Ba, Nb, Sc, Sr, and Zn are accumulated most intensively.
The data on the geochemical features of the bedrocks and soils of the province are given. Considerable attention is paid to regional abundances, as well as enrichment and dispersion factors of the chemical elements in landscapes. Using the example of the North Caucasus, it is shown that for such indicators as phytomass, geological, geomorphological, and geobotanical features, it is possible to make a preliminary outlining of regional structures corresponding to geochemical provinces. At the same time, a subsequent geochemical study of these structures remains mandatory. Upon determining certain geochemical associations, geochemical provinces can be basically distinguished; to a large extent, geochemical properties of these accumulated and scattered associations of elements contribute to the regional soil geochemistry. The results of long-term monitoring studies of the North Caucasus geochemical province have shown that the key features of the regional landscapes are due to the composition of bedrock and the presence of a large number of ore deposits and occurrences. The data obtained are the basis for assessing the state of the environment in conditions of increasing anthropogenic impact, and the established regional abundances can be used to assess the degree of pollution in agricultural, residential, and mining landscapes.